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SIKSHA-SAMUCCAYA 






INDIAN TEXTS SERIES 



SIKSHA-SAMUCCAYA 

A COMPENDIUM OF BUDDHIST DOCTRINE 



COMPILED BY 

SANTIDEVA 

CHIEFLY FROM EARLIER MAHAYANA SUTRAS 



TRANSLATED FROM THE SANSKRIT BY 

CECIL BENDALL, M.A. 

I-ATR PROFESSOR OF SANSKRIT IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 
AND 



UNIVERSITY TEACHER OF SANSKRIT, AND HEADMASTER OF THE PERSE SCHOOL 



W. H. D. ROUSE, M.A., Litt.D. 

; scHo 



V^ 



\0.9. ^ 



LONDON 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W, 

PUBLISHED FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 
1922 



All rights reserved 



PREFACE 

The manuscript of this book was brought from Nepal by Mr. 
Cecil Bendall, and edited by him for the Russian Bibliotheca 
Buddhica (St. Petersburg, 1897). When Mr. Bendall returned 
to Cambridge as Teacher of Sanskrit, he began a translation of 
it, in which Mr. E. B. Cowell, then Professor of Sanskrit, seems 
to have helped, since a part of the MS. was in his handwriting. 
This portion, which was delivered to me as complete, proved to 
be in need of revision ; indeed, a good deal of it has been 
re-written. On the death of Mr. Cowell, when Mr. Bendall 
succeeded him as Professor, I began to work with him upon 
the translation, and continued the work until his death. The 
part we did together was chapters III, IV, V, and part of VI, pp. 
44-125 of the Sanskrit text. 

On his deathbed, Mr. Bendall asked me to finish the work, 
and I undertook the task as a sacred duty, although I was well 
aware of my own insufficiency for the task unaided. Indeed, 
for me unaided it would have been impossible ; but I have had 
the most generous and ungrudging aid of the chief living autho- 
rity on Buddhism, Buddhist Sanskrit, and Tibetan Mr. L. de la 
Vallee Poussin, Professor of Sanskrit at Brussels. During his 
residence in Cambridge, from 1914 to 1918, M. de la Vallee has 
revised every passage in which I felt a difficulty. The acknow- 
ledgment which I make here to him is quite inadequate to 
express my gratitude for his kindness. If the work meet with 
the approval of scholars, the credit is his : any errors that remain 
will be mine. We have to thank Mr. F. W. Thomas, Librarian 
of the India Office, for the loan of the Tibetan translation of 
this work. 

W. H. D. ROUSE. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER PAGB 

I. Salutation to all Buddhas and Bodhisatvas ! . . . i 

II. The Duty of Self-Preservation 37 

III. Avoidance of Evil 46 

IV. Avoidance of Evil 61 

V. Avoidance of Evil 100 

VI. Preservation of the Person 117 

VII. Care of Enjoyments . . 142 

VIII. Purification from Sin 157 

IX. The Perfection of Patience 175 

X. The Perfection of Strength 184 

XI. Praise of the Forest Seclusion 188 

XII. Preparation of the Thought 196 

XIII. Subjects of Intent Contemplation 216 

XIV. Self-Purification . . 225 

XV. Purity in Enjoyment and Religious Action . . . 245 

XVI. The Increase of Good Conduct 251 

XVII. The Praise of Worship 270 

XVIII. Recollection of the Three Jewels 283 

XIX. Increase of Holiness 307 



vu 



SiKSHA-SAMUCCAYA 





CHAPTER I 






ERRATA 




Page 36, : 


line 9, read " Akshayamati. " 


|> 


102, 


5 (from bottom), read " 


' CandrapradTpa.' 


173, 


1, read "Msitrey a.-" 




176, 


4. "Ugra- " 




185, 


10, ,, "Akshayamati." 


'' 


221, 


,, 10 (from bottom), read ' 


' Akshayamati." 


258, 


12 


" 


,, 261, 


15, read " Ava- " 




265, 


8, ,, "Akshayamati.' 


" 


265, 


II, ,. "Bhadra-" 




., 283. 


8 (from bottom), read ' 


'Akshayamati." 


SIKSHA 


SAMUCCAYA. 





xcLxvoiiao, vjaxuuao ciiiu ouicib cinu jYiimaras, yea, let tne Manes 
come with joy when once the thirst ior hearing is aroused. 
After humble reverences to the blessed Buddhas with their 
sons 4 and the Law,5 and all the Worshipful ones, I will now set 
1 Read Q h^IUHIM Q- 

* Word lost in MS. Perhaps ^n^fiy jj^^frf O. 
3 Read 0^0 for O^qO with Tib. 

* After the spirit, cf. Jinasunu in Pali. 

^ The Buddha, the Order, and the Law (dharmakaya). 



SiKSHA-SAMUCCAYA 

CHAPTER I 

SALUTATION TO ALL BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

[i] To hear that jewel of the Good Law through not hearing 
which you, mine honoured readers, have suffered the pain 
of consuming fire in the terrible flames ^ of hell, agony awful, 
renewed, unending, this I say to hear bestow your most respect- 
ful care. When that one has given ear to it with mind not 
puffed up, one puts away all one's offence 2 for the future and 
completely destroys the sin formerly accumulated, yea all, 
great though it be. Such men as hear gain delight that they 
never had before, and never come to lack true joy ; they gain 
the highest deathless sweets of the Sambodhisatvas and the 
stage of Buddha, incomparable combination of blessings : 
this jewel of the Law, hard though it be to get, to-day 3 gotten, 
yet now to this give respectful ear, now ye have gotten accept- 
able time and it is told to you. 

And let there approach for to hear the word of him who 
alone is the Saviour of the Three Worlds, the beings of the 
Suras and Nagas all full of faith, the lords of the Gandharvas, 
Yakshas, Garudas and Suras and Kinnaras, yea, let the Manes 
come with joy when once the thirst for hearing is aroused. 
After humble reverences to the blessed Buddhas with their 
sons * and the Law,5 and all the Worshipful ones, I will now set 

' Read O H^mrilM Q- 

* Word lost in MS. Perhaps ^n^fxf iT^qiffTT^* 
3 Read 0^0 for OiqO with Tib. 

* After the spirit, cf. Jinasunu in Pali. 

* The Buddha, the Order, and the Law (dharmakaya). 



2 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVASl 

forth the entrance into the discipline of the Bodhisatvas, in 
collected sayings of deep purport. And in this book I have 
naught that is new to tell ; nor have I skill in composing ; 
for this very cause I am not making an effort for the welfare 
of others ; this book of mine is intended to cultivate my own 
mind, yet through this my work the impulse of faith to cultivate 
the good gains increase ; and if but one fellow-creature 
fashioned of hke elements to myself may behold that truth, and 
another should see him, then this book will have been not in vain. 

[2] The happy conjuncture 1 is exceedingly hard to win ; 
once gotten it can achieve all the aims of a man. If one use 
it not for thinking of salvation, how can it be found again ? 2 

For so we hear in the holy Gandavyuha Sutra, in the 
passage called Holy J ayoshmdydtanavimoksha : " Hard to 
attain is the prevention of the eight untoward moments ; ^ 
hard is the attainment of birth as a man ; hard to get is the 
perfection of the favourable conjuncture ; hard is the pro- 
duction of a Buddha ; hard to secure is full perfection in one's 
bodily senses ; * hard to gain is the hearing of the Buddha's 
Law ; hard to gain is the society of good men ; hard to gain is 
the true Good Friend ; hard to attract to oneself the means 
of instruction in the true rule of Ufe ; hard to attain is the 
true 5 Hfe ; hard to attain is the good law, yea, and the effort 
that leads to it in this world of men." 

Accordingly when a man has attained this assemblage of 
favourable conjunctures, knowing well both practically and 
metaphysically 6 the suffering of transmigration, desiring the 

^ This and the whole passage following should be compared with the. 
passage from the Pali Jindlankdra cited by Burnouf, Lotus^ p. 305. 

2 See Bodhicaryavatara, 1-4, and Barnett, The Path of Light. 

3 These are detailed in the Mahdvyutpatti, f. 120 (ed. Minaev, p. 36), and 
Dh.-s. 134, and really give the states of existence unfavourable for living the 
ideal life. The Pali has nine (C. s.v. akkhat^a). 

* Avikalendriyatd. This amounts to a repetition, as the contrary is one 
of the eight akshatias above which have to be prevented (indriyavaikalya, 
Mahdvy. ; indriyavikalata, Dh.-s.). 

^ Bhuta and samyak are not widely different in meaning. The same 
Tibetan phrase (yan-dag-pa) represents both. 

* On Satnvriti and paramdrtha as used by Buddhist schools, see Taran. 
ap. Wassiljew, " Buddhism," p. 321 sqq. 



FAITH 3 

happiness of extinction, inasmuch as such a mighty being has 
his lot in the spiritual family of the Buddha, so thus he com- 
munes with himself : " Since I and my fellow-men abhor pain 
and fear alike, what distinction can I rightly make for self, 
that I should preserve it and not another ? " i Hence both 
for oneself and the world of the Hving it is true that " when 
one desires to make an end of pain and to go to the end of joy, 
one must make firm the root of faith, and fix the spirit firmly 
on enhghtenment." ^ 

For it is said in the Ratnolka-dharani : 

" Believing in the Buddhas and their qualities, he beheves 
in the practice of the sons of the Buddhas. BeUeving in the 
supreme Bodhi the thought of the Great Beings is bom in him. 
Faith is the guide, the mother, the producer, the protector and 
increaser of all virtues. 

[3] " Desire-expelhng, bringing across the stream, faith 
shews the city of bliss. Faith is the calm of the undefiled 
thought firmly rooted in honour, void of pride. Faith is 
the best foot to go and find the wealth of the treasury, it is a 
hand to grasp happiness. Faith gives joy even in renunciation, 
faith gives delight in the law of the Jina. Faith causes pre- 
eminence in knowing virtues, guides and brings to attainment 
the destiny of the Buddha ; for the keenness and clearness of 
the five moral qualities it is a force, also that they be not 
extinguished ; not to be vanquished by the passions, faith seeks 
the quahties of the Buddhas. Faith is not attached to the 
joys that attach, delivered from all unfavourable states, it 
is the best and unique happy state. Faith goes beyond the 
path of Mara, reveals the path of supreme deliverance. As a 
cause, faith has the undecaying seed of virtues, faith causes 
the tree of wisdom to grow, increases the feUcities of perfect 
knowledge ; Faith shews all the Jinas. They who have always 
faith and respect for the Buddha never abandon moral conduct 
or discipUne. And they who abandon not moral conduct and 
discipHne give themselves without jealousy to praise of those 

Karika i. * Karika 2. 



4 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

who possess the virtues. They who have always faith and 
respect for the Law are unsatiated in hearing i of the qualities 
of the Jinas. They who are unsatiated aspire to their 
quaUties inconceivable. They who have always faith and 
respect to the Sangha are resolutely devoted to the Sangha. 
They who are resolutely devoted to the Sangha will never fall 
from the strength of the faith. 

[4] " Whoso lose not the strength of the faith, their senses 
are keen and clear. They who have senses keen and clear shun 
sinful friends. Whoso shun sinful friends theirs is it to hold 
fast righteous friends. They who hold fast righteous friends 
amass great merit. They who amass great merit are possessed of 
the knowledge of causes mighty of soul. In them are the subUme 
aspirations. They in whom are subhme aspirations are ever 
guarded by the Jinas all. They who are ever guarded by all 
the Jinas, the thought of enhghtenment is produced in them. 
They in whom the thought of enlightenment is produced are 
devoted to the virtues of the great Rishis. They who are 
devoted to the virtues of the great rishis for a birth are 
subsequently born in the Buddha's family.^ They who are 
born subsequently in the family of Buddha are released from 
wrong thoughts and filled with right ones. They who are 
released from wrong thoughts and filled with right ones, in 
them there is a calm and pure wiU. In whom there is a calm 
and pure wiU, in them there is the very best desire. They in 
whom there is the very best desire always walk in the per- 
fections. They who ever walk in the perfections embrace 
here the Great Vehicle. They who embrace here the Great 
Vehicle worship the Buddhas by a holy Hfe. They who worship 
the Buddhas by a holy life, their memory of the Buddha can 
never be destroyed. They whose memory of the Buddhas 
cannot be destroyed ever behold the incomprehensible Buddhas. 
They who ever behold the incomprehensible Buddhas, the 
Buddha never ceases to abide in them. They in whom the 
Buddha never ceases to abide, from them the Law is never 

1 Read ^?rftf?fr. ' Page 4" read inTT ff. 4" iTTW ^. 



FAITH 5 

absent. They from whom the Law is never absent are ever 
guarded by all the Jinas." 

[5] Thus the development of the gunas is based on Faith. 
He again sums this up : " It is difficult to find worldly men 
who believe such doctrines. But they who have done good 
deeds and gained merit, they believe in the Buddhas by the 
force of merit. He who ministers with all kinds of pleasure 
for an aeon to beings as numerous as the dust of ten fields, 
there is still not for him such a pre-eminent merit as there is 
in him who believes these dharmas." 

Thus, too, we are taught in the holy Dasadharma Sutra : 
" For faith is the subHmest vehicle, whereby the leaders 
escape from the world. For this cause the prudent man should 
embrace the following of the Buddha. In a faithless man no 
pure conduct thrives, even as there is no green shoot from 
seeds that have been scorched." 

Hence, too, we are taught in the Lalita-vistara : " Ananda, 
one must apply oneself to faith, this the Tathagata enjoins." 
So, too, in the Simha-pariprcchd : " By faith one immediately 
avoids the unfavourable condition." 

Thus having made firm the root of faith one must make 
firm the thought of enlightenment, for it comprehends all merit. 
vSo, too, in the Simha-pariprcchd : " The Blessed One was asked 
by Prince Simha,i * By what act does a man take upon himself 
all that is good and becomes endeared to one's fellow-creatures 
wheresoever he is born ? ' The Blessed One repUed : ' One 
should incline one's mind to enlightenment for the emancipation 
of all creatures. That is to take upon oneself all good and to 
become endeared to all.' " 

Likewise we find it set forth in the Ganda-vyUha Sutra : 
" The thought of enlightenment, fair youth, is the seed of all 
qualities of a Buddha ; [6] it is the soil for growing all the white 
qualities of all the world ; it is the earth, in that it is the refuge 
of all the world ; ... it is a father, in that it protects all 
bodhisatvas," . . . and so forth. " It is the Wealth-god, in 
that it dissipates all poverty ; it is the philosopher's stone, in 
* Son of Ajata^atru. 

B 



6 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

that it accomplishes all purposes ; it is the miraculous pot, in 
that it fulfils all aims ; it is a force for the vanquishing of our 
foes the passions ; it is a chariot of righteousness, in that it 
dissipates incorrect judgments ; it is a sword, in that it cuts off 
the heads of the passions ; it is an axe, in that it hews the tree 
of pain ; it is a weapon in preserving from all mischances ; it 
is a hook, for that it catches and destroys transmigration like a 
fish ; it is a whirlwind, in that it scatters all lets and hindrances i 
like grass ; it is a catalogue as summing up all longings after 
the godliness of the saints ; it is the shrine of the world of 
gods, men and asuras. Thus, fair youth, is the thought of 
enlightenment attended with these and other unmeasured 
excellencies." 

Now how is it known that the thought of enlightenment arises 
for the worldling ? It is no mere phrase, as we see from several 
scriptures. As, for instance, is shown in the Vimalakirti- 
nirdesa : *' When one has caused the heresy of individuality 
to arise as high as Sumeru, even then the thought of enlighten- 
ment can arise ; thus can the qualities of a Buddha grow." 
And from the Ratnakaranda Sutra we know that even a worldling 
may be a Bodhisatva. 

Even as it has been said : " Truly, O MafijusrI, a tiny 
sparrow cast forth from the egg-membrane, without the shell 
fully broken and without as yet having stepped forth from the 
egg, utters just a sparrow's cry ; even so, Mahjusri, a Bodhi- 
satva wrapt in the membrane of ignorance, without breaking 
the heresy of a self, or stepping forth from the triple world, 
utters the cry of a Buddha, the cry of void, unconditional and 
untrammelled." 

In the Sarvadharmapravrttinirdesa, too, it is narrated 
how the earth opened her jaws for the Bodisatva Jayamati, 
and that he being dead fell into a great Hell : for that he had 
not set his faith on the doctrine of the Void, and showed hatred 
against him whosoever confessed it. 

[7] Likewise we are told in the Niyatdniyatdvatdra-mudrd 
Sutra: "'Who is the Bodhisatva that rides on the cattle- 

* Rh. Davids {Tevijjo-sutta, p. 182 (q.v.)) translates avaraija " veils." 



THE THOUGHT OF ENLIGHTENMENT 7 

cart ? Just as a certain man might be desirous to approach 
the world spheres in number Hke to the dust of the ultimate 
atoms of the five Buddha-fields. He mounts his cattle- 
cart and gains the road. By a long tedious way he may go for 
a hundred leagues. There and then he may be torn away and 
turned back again for a space of eighty thousand leagues by 
a whirlwind. 1 At that rate how could this man be able to 
traverse the spheres with his car, yea, even 2 with countless, 
countless myriads of cars to traverse one ? ' 
" The disciple said : ' He could not. Master.* 
" The Master replied : * Even so, Mafijusri, whosoever after 
producing the thought of enlightenment holdeth not fast, neither 
studieth the Great Vehicle, but hath intercourse with such as 
follow the Disciples' Vehicle, 3 and is intimate with them ; 
and readeth their doctrine, and maketh his study therein, 
and proveth it, and informeth him thereof, and reciteth its 
topics . . / and so forth down to ' . . . teacheth them, he 
thereby becometh dull of wit, and is torn away and cast back 
from the Road of the Highest Wisdom. And whatsoever 
organ of wisdom, eye of wisdom this Bodhisatva may have 
gained through meditating upon enlightenment, this eye 
becomes dull and obstructed. Such is the Bodhisatva in the 
parable of the cattle-cart/ " 

Thus the absence of conviction that the world is but void 
and of acquiescence in the Great Vehicle is generally not 
observable even in a Bodhisatva who has not completed the 
stage of aspiration,* much less in a Bodhisatva of intense 
aspiration. For in the Ratnamegha he [the imperfect 
Bodhisatva] is described as " having passed by all the errors of 
folly and making child's-play of infinite mystical exercises, 6 

* For the image compare the Jain work Somadeva's YasastUaka, ap. 
Peterson, Rep, II. (1884) p. 43, note J. 

' For yavad-api with a number, cf. Mhv. I, 317, and Senart's note. 

Dhamasangr, t- II.; cf. Saddh. xviii. 25 (p. 269, Kern). 

On the Adhiymukticavya see Article Bodhisatva in Hastings* EncyclO' 
pcBdia, and Mahayanasutralamkara, Bibh de I'ecole des hautes etudes, 
preface). It is adhimatra, " intense ; " madhya, " middle ; " or mrdu, " weak." 

* The five categories named are: samadhi, dharaiji, vimoksha, abhijna, 
vidya. 



8 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

having received the perception of the impulse of affection, 
feeling love and delight in the everlasting law, without doubt 
and without special effort for infinite ages free from sensual 
taint, having in the infinite years of olden time accomplished 
the various kinds of meditation in the system of supreme 
' Mahayana by dying for others' good." 

But that needs explanation ; why not admit at this stage 
others who produce the thought of enlightenment ? You have 
no right to consider as explicit according to your wish a text of 
eulogy. The mention of intense aspiration implies also the cate- 
gories middle and weak. But what of the passage in the Tathd- 
gataguhya Siltra^ [8] where we read : " ' In whom is there the 
thought of enlightenment. Master ? ' 'In him, O King, who 
has the intact resolve to gain it.' 'And who has such a 
resolve ? ' * He in whom is the spring of great mercy.' * In whom 
is this ? ' ' He who never neglects all sentient beings.' ' And how 
are they kept safe from neglect ? ' Quoth he : ' When one's 
own comfort is renounced.' " The preceding is said in order to 
produce the desire for compassion in such as are content with 
mere thought of enlightenment : 2 as it is said, " None are 
truly devoted to the religion of Buddha who have not self- 
renunciation." So in all this a depreciation of the thought of 
enlightenment is observable, but it does not amount to saying 
that the thought of enlightenment is produced in no other way. 
As is shown in the Dasadharmaka Sutra : "In this world, my 
son, one who is destined to become ^ a Bodhisatva, without 
having gotten spiritual enlightenment, being by some Tathagata 
or a pupil of such an one aroused, instructed, encouraged, 
produces thought towards the highest illumination, this is the 
first cause of producing that thought ; or he has heard recounted 
the glory of full illumination or enlightenment, this is the 
second cause ; again, he had beheld living beings without 

1 This is explained by Yoga Sutra I. 22, JT^lzrrfwnn^WTft sfx^ f^^t 

speaking of devotion in Yogis. The glossator less aptly seems to refer to a 
twelve-fold division. 

* i.e. non-merciful, gloss. 

Read ^>f\Rn^- 



RESOLUTION TOWARDS ENLIGHTENMENT 9 

protection,! without refuge, without haven, and has called up 
feelings of compassion till that he produces thought of perfect 
enlightenment, this a third cause ; or when he has beheld 
how complete in every form is the state of a Tathagata, this 
is a fourth cause. ' * Moreover, the thought of enlightenment has 
two stages : (i) the resolution thereunto ; and (2) the advance- 
ment toward the same. As the holy Gandavyuha says : 
" Rare, my son, in all the world are such beings as make 
resolution toward the highest illumination, yet rarer than 
these and rarest are they that have started toward the same." 

The first of these, the thought of the resolution towards 
enlightenment, is produced by the decision of the mind : "I 
must become a Buddha," for the Surangama Sutra says that 
the thought of enlightenment produced by actual deception is 
a cause of Buddhahood, how much more shall we say this if 
one has done ever so little good ? " So says the Bhadrakalpika 
Sutra : 2 [9] " There was the Bodhisatva called Ghoshadatta, 
in whose case the thought of enlightenment was kindled by 
the Tathagata Nakshatraraja under the guise of a herdsman 
by giving him a betel leaf ; so, too, Ya^as in the case of 
Vidyutpadipa, by giving him a hem-fringe under guise of a 
weaver ; and Anantaprabha, to whom Arcishmant gave a 
rush-light under guise of an inhabitant of the outskirts of the 
town ; and Drdhavikrama, to whom Duspradarsa as a wood- 
carrier gave a piece of tooth- wood. * Furthermore, even when 
the thought of enlightenment is deficient in corresponding 
conduct, we need think no scorn of it ; for [though it cannot 
then emancipate] it may yet engender happiness through an 
endless chain of births. To this effect is the description in 
the holy Maitreyavimoksha : " Verily, my son, even when 
broken ^ the diamond-gem is distinguished above all others and 
outweigheth a golden ornament, and does not lose the name of 

* Examples of such causation by means of (small) acts of kindness. 
Read ^Wj<^f|j ^ f^. 

* Read ^0. 

^ Read f^^ forf^, text quoted in Bodhicaryavatarapailjika, i. 17. 



10 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! ' 

diamond-gem ; it turneth back all poverty. So also the diamond 
of the production of the thought of perfect enlightenment, 
even though divorced from good intention and conduct, out- 
weigheth the gold ornament of the virtues of mere Sravakas 
and Pratyekabuddhas, and does not lose the name of thought of 
enlightenment, 1 but turneth the affliction of all re-births/' 
From what follows we see that even without practice the thought 
of enlightenment is to be recognized as a helpful thing, since 
we are told in the second 2 Rdjdvavddaka Sutra : " Forasmuch 
also as thou, O King, hast much to do, many duties to perform, 
thou art not capable of being instructed in every time, manner 
and place in the perfection of liberality ..." (and so on down to) 
** in the perfection of wisdom ; therefore, O King, for ever and 
aye mark, learn and practise desire for full enlightenment, cul- 
tivate faith [striving for thine object] and earnest aspiration ; 
when thou walkest, standest, sittest, sleepest, wakest, eatest, or 
drinkest, for ever and aye mark, learn and inwardly digest. 
Add, weigh and count up thine own merits past, future and 
present, and those of all Buddhas, Bodhisatvas, Pratyeka- 
buddhas, disciples and laics, rejoice in them with exceeding 
great joy, yea, as if they were equal to pure ether or nirvana 
itself rejoice therein, and when thou hast rejoiced devote those 
merits to doing worship to Buddhas, Bodhisatvas, and disciples, 
[10] and this done, make them common to all creatures ; then 
apply them day by day, morning, noon and night, to perfect 
enlightenment, for the sake of all creatures fulfilling all the 
qualities of the Buddha and acquiring omniscience. Thus, 
O King, so equipped thou shalt truly rule, and shalt never be 
lacking in all the duties of royalty and shalt fully attain the 
requisites of Buddhahood." In the same passage, the fruit 
of all this is described : *' Moreover thou, O King, by the fruit 
of the meritorious action, consisting in the thought of enlighten- 
ment, wast re-born many an hundred times amongst the devas ; 
and as oft among men ; and in all thy re-births thou barest 

1 Read ^Vfvf'^^^'R* Bodhic. i. 17. 

2 This probably refers to the book forming No. 988 in Namjio's Cat., 
apparently distinct from the work of the same name described at 248-50. 



RESOLUTION TOWARDS ENLIGHTENMENT ii 

sovereignty. And for thee, O King, no failing or incomplete- 
ness of this merit is foreknown. Yea, even a single thought of 
enlightenment, in that it forms the basis of the deliverance, 
loosening, consolation and final salvation of all creatures, 
bears in itself the accumulation of boundless, countless good ; 
how much more shall we say this of producing such thought in 
many cases ? " 

And this thought of enlightenment is produced by the sight 
of the Visible Body of Buddha, as we read in the Purvdvaddna : 
"So much concerning the thought of resolution towards 
enlightenment. But the following is to be said : ' For a man 
who has not entered on the " stages '' is there any qualification 
for taking the Bodhisatva's vow of restraint or not ? ' ' Yes, 
there is,' it must be known, because we hear in the Akdsagarbha 
Sutra of ' a radical sin ' [which consists in hurting one's neigh- 
bour for one's personal gratification] for the sake of honour 
and gain." 

Now, in the Dasahhumika Sutra at the first stage the 
matter is set forth thus : " And he doth not at all long for 
honour from any one, thinking to himself, ' It is I who must 
minister unto all creatures yonder a plenitude of succour.' " 
So too the author says : " The same hodhisatva in the stage 
named Pramuditd becometh fully stablished in unswerving 
devotion. ..." And again : [ii] *' Fixed in the family of 
the Tathagata he becomes predestined to full enlightenment." 
In the Akdsagarbha Sutra he says : " He has now no ' Disciples ' 
vehicle, much less the Great Vehicle," i So too in the holy 
Ugrapariprcchd. The duties are enjoined even on one " tied 
and bound " ^ by uncharitableness. But in the Pramuditd we 
read: "And after losing the notion of a self, he has no self- 
love, how much less love for any service ; " and it is said 

^ Taken in connexion with the gloss (partly lost), I understand this to 
mean that when he has reached the first {muditd) stage any real Buddhist 
is void of all spiritual pride so as to desire homage as a saint ; and if this 
be true of the inferior sect, much more must it apply to the follower of the true 
Mahay ana. 

^ Or " overgrown with " ; cf . Divyav. 125, where it is used of spiritual blind- 
ness : but cf. the Anglican Lenten Collect, 



12 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

here that he gives his head for a fellow-man. In these and 
other sutras we find the rules of conduct declared for the 
Bodhisatva who has entered the Stages. Then where ^ the 
teaching concerns the Bodhisatvas in general, the beginner 
should not have to observe the rules (i) when he is unfit to 
observe them, (2) when he is prohibited. When, however, 
neither of these two obstacles are present, he should in all 
cases observe the rule. But when one is observing one rule 
there is no fault in not observing another, in case one is not able. 2 

In the holy Akshayamati Sutra, too, the Master speaks 
thus : "At the time for giving one can overlook the practice 
of morality and so forth. ^ But for all that he must not be 
lax, and he does not practise other rules ' according to his 
strength, as he is fit,' as says the Dasahhumaka. And this 
discipline is attained even in the case of women, when their 
sinful inclinations are not violent, and their minds have a 
longing for enlightenment. For it is said in the Bodhisattva- 
prdtimoksha : '* When attended by four qualities of righteous- 
ness, O Sariputra, the Bodhisatvas become truthful," so he 
says at first, and continues : " In this world, Sariputra, either 
noble youth or maid, when either has applied his thoughts 
to the highest full enlightenment, lives strenuous in the pursuit 
of good." With this exordium all the due instruction follows. 

And the taking of a vow of discipline should be made in 
the presence of one who is himself under this discipline, who is 
intent on the practice of the precepts of the Bodhisatva. [12] 
For by this means, in case of his contravening a precept keen 
shame and fear of breaking faith with his guru arise in his mind. 
And as to this, it may be noted that the general principle of 
a vow of restraint is that without special effort, there comes the 
attainment of reverence and love. Hence it is that Bodhisatvas 
take the vow upon themselves in presence of Tathagatas, out 

' Read if^ tt -aiO. 

* See Bodhic. ad v. 42. On p. 11' read opeksha: 

^ " Here is enforced a contempt for mere meditation when a person in 
need has come from afar and one has to make him a pious gift " ^gloss. Read 
tf ^nrt as in Bodhic. 



KEEPING PROMISES 13 

of desire for the completion of one or other of the precepts. 
Otherwise in the absence of a spiritual guide he should take 
the vow of restraint before the Bodhisatvas and Buddhas of 
the ten regions, imagining their presence, well weighing the 
vow and his own strength ; otherwise he might break faith 
with the Buddhas and Bodhisatvas and the world and the 
devas. 

For in the Saddharma-smrtyupasthdna Sutra we hear of 
banishment to the Preta-world as the punishment for refusing 
to give some trifle spontaneously, and to hell for refusing what 
one has promised. How much more, then, when one has 
promised the highest weal of all the world and then does not 
carry it out ? 1 

Hence, too, the Dharmasangiti Sutra says : *' A Bodhisatva, 
fair sir, must reverence truth. To be in concert with truth is 
to be in concert with the Law. In this expression, what is 
meant by ' truth ' ? When a Bodhisatva, after applying 
his thought to supreme enlightenment, will not give up that 
thought even to save his life nor deceive the world, that is the 
Bodhisatva's truth : but when after such application he does 
give up or waver, it is his vile falsehood." 

In the holy Sdgaramati Sutra, too, it is shown : "It may 
be that a king or titular king, 2 after having summoned all the 
townsfolk with an invitation for a feast on the morrow, may 
then become negligent and not produce the food and drink, 
and break faith with the whole body of the people. Therefrom 
they would depart, sneering at not receiving the nourishment 
of food and drink. In like manner, O Sagaramati, acts the 
Bodhisatva, who, after giving confidence to all men for helping 
those to cross who have not crossed, for liberating the un- 
liberated, for giving confidence to those that lack confidence 
. . . does not devote himself to religious erudition, nor yet 
to the other duties besides this that form sources of merit 
connected with enlightenment ; such a Bodhisatva breaks 
faith with the world of men and devas. [13] Accordingly, 
the deities, who have witnessed all the former Buddhas, 

^ See Bodhic. iv. 6; * Rajamatra, v. index to Divyav. 



14 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

sneer at him and abjure him. Hard to find are the patrons of 
the sacrifice, who, when they have promised a mighty sacrifice, 
fully carry it out. Hence, I say, Sagaramati, that the Bodhi- 
satva should not speak any such word as may make him 
deceive the world of gods, men and asuras. Moreover, Sagara- 
mati, a Bodhisatva is often asked to render services. Then 
the Bodhisatva so speaks to such an effect that the Bodhisatva 
sacrifice his own life : but then no being is to be deceived." 
Hence, we learn that man must have due regard to his own 
powers in undertaking even one meritorious act and then keep 
to it. As the holy Kshitigarbha Sutra says : *' Buddhaship is to 
be got by those ten salutary courses of conduct ; but not by 
such an one as does not even keep during his life to even one 
good path of action, and then, on the other hand, makes such 
speeches as : 'I am one of the Great Vehicle,' or ' I am 
pursuing the Highest enlightenment.' That man is a thorough 
impostor, an utter liar and deceiver of the world before all the 
venerable Buddhas, in asserting that death ends all, that fool 
dies with the doom of suffering before him." Accordingly, 
as long a time as one can, one should undertake good and hold 
unto it. 

That also one may observe in the Bhaishajyaguru-Vaidurya- 
prabha Sutra : " But the great man who has not only heard 
of but fathomed for himself by wisdom the difficulty of the 
walk of the Bodhisatva, and yet dares to bear the yoke of 
the salvation of afilicted mankind, such an one, when he has 
achieved homage, worship, confession of crime, delight in virtue, 
solicitation and entreaty of Buddhas, application of the merit 
to the attainment of enlightenment, should then say, either 
after asking i his teacher and repeating his word or else of 
himself : ' Consider well, O Teacher, I am named so and so. . . .' 2 
Beginning with these words he must produce the thought 
of spiritual enlightenment ; just as in the Manjusri-Buddha- 
kshetragunavyuhdlamkdra Sutra, in the chapter dealing with his 

* Read mitram adhyeshya tad. ... in 13^^. 

2 Here apparently a lacuna, or else to be supplied from next extract 
though none is marked. The actual vow is not stated. 



THE VOW 15 

previous birth, the venerable Manju^ri has produced the 
thought of enHghtenment. For thus spoke he : "As the 
chain of births is endless from beginning to end,* so long shall 
I live that holy life for the well-being of all creatures. 
[14] Let us produce the thought of enlightenment in the 
presence of our Leader. I invite all the world ; for I shall 
deliver it from poverty. No mind of malice and stubbornness, 
neither envy and grudging, will I cherish from this day as 
long as I have enlightenment. I will practise continence and 
avoid criminal lusts and imitate the self-restraint and morality 
of the Buddhas. Not as one that is hurried do I under- 
take to gain enlightenment. I will remain until the end of 
the chain of being for one living being's sake. I will purify 2 
a measureless, an unimaginable Buddha's field. I will gain 
me a name renowned in the ten quarters. I will alway make 
pure the works of both act and word. I will purify my mind 
and work ; yea, I will not work a work that shall be bad." 

And in this connection we must not raise a doubt that, 
after taking a vow relating to all time, there may be a violation 
of it in some future birth, from the fact that in this sutra 
Akshobhya's vow is allowed. For it is said as follows : 
Akshobhya the Tathagata, when he was a Bodhisatva, spoke 
this word : " May all the venerable Buddhas be forsworn by 
me, if I do not in every single birth renounce the world." As it 
is said, " One birth must be diligently made pure by the 
enlightened sage ; the other births that same birth will purify 
down to the time of enlightenment." " Thus, O Sariputra, 
a Bodhisatva must imitate the Tathagata Akshobhya ; thus 
living the Bodhisatva in each successive birth renounces the 
world ; yea, whether there uprise Tathagatas or not, he must 
needs sally forth from the householder's state in all his 
existences. What causes this ? For this is the highest gain, I 
mean the abandonment of householding," and so forth down to 
" he has no yearning for wife, sons and daughters.'* And as 

1 The meaning is "infinite as Samsara," but the exact meaning of the 
line is uncertain. 

See Pali, visodheti=" convert," Ch. s.v. 



i6 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

we shall be further told in the same passage that this fault 
is not to occur in another birth, we may now dismiss the topic. 

[15] Accordingly, a universal characteristic 1 of sin is 
declared for the man who has taken the vow, so that when he has 
seen any object possessing that mark he may shun it, and he is 
not to bewilder himself in matters which may resemble sin 
or sinlessness. 

2 The Bodhisatva makes an effort guilelessly with all the 
forces of body, word and mind for assuaging all bodily and 
mental pain, both present and future, for all beings, and for 
producing bodily and mental happiness present and to come. 
But if he does not search for the complicated causes leading 
to all this, nor strive for the remedy of obstacles in its way ; 
if he does not engender a little pain and grief in himself which 
becomes the remedy of much grief in others ; nor relinquishes 
a little wealth for the sake of great prosperity, yea, if he over- 
look these duties for even a moment, then is he guilty of sin. 

To state it ^briefly : There is no sin as concerns matters 
that are beyond one's power, because there the effort would be 
fruitless, and because there is no injunction of rule. But owing 
to the fault iness of human nature one might take a wrong path. 
Thus, in a case where there would be sin, because, although the 
matter is beyond one's power, nevertheless there is efficacity of 
effort, one must not pay attention to his sin ; one is made free 
from it, because it is included in the general confession of sin.^ 

The above is the body * of the rules for the Bodhisatva put 
concisely. But should one desire it at full length, the exposition 
of it would not end in a thousand ages. Putting the matter 
otherwise, in brief, there are two cases of sin on the part of 

* Viz. the appearance of it is to be avoided. 

' In Bodhicarydvatdra, iv. 48 (Bibl. Ind. p. 93) with better readings ; in 
line 8 of the present text read K^ \ ti\^ for r4 ^ ^ r ^, and i^gf TT ^ . . lf) j|^| 

^^^RTtT'&RT^ . . . 

* This means that one need not waste one's energies on a thing quite 
fruitless and h-eyond our powers, e.g. draining the sea ; but in cases where, 
though the main object cannot be fully realized, good may result from self- 
sacrifice, we must not excuse ourself on the score of inability. This may be 
illustrated by the Spartan army at Thermopylae. 

* I have found no authority for this use (like Lat. corpus) of ^ama. 



WHAT IS SIN? 17 

the Bodhisatva : first, where he commences his action with- 
out having first considered its adaptability or the reverse 
to his powers, does not come back, or takes no account of it ; 1 
the second is where he has fully weighed the act on its merits, 
yet transgresses and incurs the reproach of even the pariah 
slave. How can this be ? This point may be cleared up from 
the pronouncement in the Adhydsayasamcodana Sutra : 2 '* More- 
over, O Maitreya, by four causes the word of the Buddhas may 
be recognised. What four ? (i) O Maitreya, it refers to truth, 
not to untruth ; (2) to the Law, not the not-Law ; (3) it lessens 
sin, not increases it ; (4) it shows the advantages of nirvana, 
not indicates those of continued re-birth ; by these four," and 
so forth down to " When some one, O Maitreya, utters or shall 
utter a word endowed with these four qualities, the believing 
young men and women will produce the idea of Buddha, of 
IMaster ; they will hear this Law as he preaches. Why ? 
Anything, Maitreya, that is well said, is a word of Buddha. 
And any one who shall reject such utterances, and say, ' They 
are not spoken by Buddha,' and produce disrespect towards 
them ; such a hateful person does really reject all the utter- 
ances pronounced by all Buddhas ; and having rejected the Law, 
he will go to hell, on account of a deed which is by nature 
an injury to the Law." 

[16] Should, however, any student desire proficiency in order 
to train himself, he must just give attention to the present work, 
the Sikshasamuccaya, in order to get training in the pre- 
liminary practice, because there is so much profit if we only 
begin to be trained. As the Prasdntaviniicayapratihdrya Sutra 
says : ** There is one Bodhisatva, O Manjusri, who might give 
to Buddhas innumerable as the sands of the Ganges Buddha- 
worlds 3 likewise numberless to each and all of them, worlds 
filled full of mighty jewels and gems of magic potency, and 
will give in this way for ages likewise numberless ; and another 

1 Read ^^TTTHW I ^ f^^SJf I <fqSfH ^. 

' Extant in Tib. ; v. Fcer, Analyse du K. p. 216. Quoted ad Bodhicar. 

IV. 48 (p. 94) where we read 0>nfi^ $f^H^ I ^TT^TSjfn: I- 
See Childers. s.v. Khelta. 



i8 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

Bodhisatva who hears such doctrine, and goes aside, and ponders 
thereon in mind, saying, * I will train myself in those doctrines.' 
The latter, although untrained, engenders in the process of 
training a far larger ^ merit than is the merit that consists in 
mere giving of gifts." Hence, a Bodhisatva seeing the 
advantages must not go back. As the scripture says in the 
same passage : ** O Manjusri, there are beings like in number to 
the dust of the least atoms of thousands of worlds. Suppose 
each of them became a king and ruler in Jambudvipa, and all 
them proclaimed thus : ' Whosoever shall take knowledge 2 of 
the Great Vehicle, shall bear in mind, recite, study or sound 
it abroad, him we will torture by the quick 3 of his nails for 
a month, and the torture of five palas by day,* and by this 
manner of departure will we banish him from Hfe.'* 

If the Bodhisatva, O Manjusri, at such a proclamation 
feels no fear or alarm, yea, by so much as a single thought 
within him is not afraid nor dejected nor wavering, and, 
furthermore, is devoted to the mastering of the True Law and 
lives in devotion to reading and study, such a Bodhisatva, 
O Maiijucri, is worthy to be called a hero in mind, in hberaUty, 
in conduct, forbearance, prowess, meditation, wisdom, and 
contemplation. 

" If, O Maiijusri, when yonder men are murderously incHned 
toward him, he is not angry nor wroth, nor cherisheth an heart 
to harm them, such an one is like Brahma or Indra, inflexible." 

So at this day devotion to the true teaching ripens unto 
mighty fruit. For so we hear in the Candrapradipa Sutra : 
[17] " I will minister unto myriads of Buddhas, proffering 
water with mind serene, sunshades, flags, and festoons of 
lamps, yea, for myriads of ages as many as the Ganges sand, 
and whoso, when the good Law is abused and precepts of the 
Buddha let and hindered by night and day, even though alone 

1 Read ^^Tft- 

* Divy. index. 

3 Cf . the various chedanas in the list of tortures in Milinda-panha. 

* Divasena is perhaps corrupt. I have not found out the torture implied 
in the adj. pancapalika. 



THE VOWS OF RESTRAINT 19 

practiseth the teaching, becometh everywhere ^ renowned for 
holiness." 

For this cause we must give all devotion. Moreover, the 
rules for the Bodhisatva's instructions are given in the 
scriptures. Thus the Ratnamegha teaches : '' And how, fair 
sir, do Bodhisatvas become restrained with the restraints of 
the true Bodhisatva? In this case the Bodhisatva reflects 
thus : ' It is not by the restraint of the monk's code alone 
that I can gain the highest enlightenment. How then ? I 
must learn in all the Siitrantas the various rules and precepts 
of conduct enjoined in each by the Tathagata for the 
Bodhisatva.' This point is further enlarged on, and he adds : 
' We must conclude that the precise system of disci pHne of 
the Bodhisatva is hard to grasp, for Hmited intelligence like 
ours, owing to the detailed manner of its injunctions." What, 
then, is right ? One should know their vital points ; and 
thus become free from guilt. 2 

"And what are those ' vital points ' that are laid down in 
the scriptures for the good of such as take pleasure in the Great 
Vehicle ? This stanza tells us : 

** Give freely for all creature's sake 
Thy person, thy enjoyments too. 
Thy merit's store throughout all time : 
Guard each and grow in holiness." ^ 

There we find the summary of the vows of restraint for the 
Bodhisatva, and in it is laid down sin in case of slackness 
of conduct on the part of Bodhisatvas. 

As it is said in the Bodhisatva-Prdtimoksa : '* Whatsoever 
road is taken by the Bodhisatva for the sake of all beings, a 
road destroying pain, if after the Bodhisatva has taken that road 
and has stood firmly upon it for a myriad ages, one thought of 
happiness and one thought of despondency should arise, then the 
Bodhisatva must thus think within himself, ' Having taken 
upon myself the troubles of all beings, putting away this 
thought from myself, I am despondent.' And comprehending 
this, Mafijusri said : These are the five ' continuities ' in 

^ Cf. Ved. idam . . . idam. ' Karika3&. Karika4. 



20 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

virtue of which Bodhisatvas quickly gain perfect enlighten- 
ment. What five do I mean ? 

(i) When a Bodhisatva devotes himself to the highest 
enlightenment and has given his mind to it, [i8] and 
does not intermediately give his mind to the spiritual 
stage of the mere Disciple or Pratyeka-buddha. 

(2) WTien he has made up his mind to the sacrifice of all 

he has, and does not meantime put it down with a 
grudging heart ; this, my son, is the second ' con- 
tinuity/ 

(3) When he has made up his mind that he will be the 

protector of beings, and does not meanwhile become 
slack. 

(4) When he has made up his mind that he will gain full 

knowledge of all the laws not [suddenly] evolved and 
unhindered [in their development], and does not mean- 
while follow in the ways of false doctrines.^ 

(5) When he has resolved that he will gain knowledge of 

these laws with wisdom well equipped for each single 
moment, and does not stay nor take rest till all 
knowledge is attained." 
Therefore the growth of purity should be fostered in due 
manner by constantly preserving thus the renunciation of self, 
goods, and merit. In this connection surely to promote 
renunciation of goods one should produce a passionless state by 
means of meditating on the sin of grasping greed, and should 
meditate on the praises of self-sacrifice. On this point we are 
told in the Candy apradipa Sutra : " The fools that cling to this 
foul body, to hf e that must needs be unsteady and like to illu- 
sions, dreams and phantasm, these pass into the power of 
delusion and commit hideous crime, and thus go to fearsome 
hells. Fools are they and in the way of death." 

So too it is said in the Anantamukha-nirhdradhdrant : 
" Wherever conflicts arise amongst Uving creatures, the sense 
of possession is the cause. For this cause let a man leave any 
place where desire may arise. For the world is at the feet of 
him who is rid of desire." 



RENUNCIATION OF SELF, GOODS, AND MERIT 21 

In the Bodhisattva-prdtimoksha we are told : " Again, 
Sariputra, in all business of life the Bodhisatva has the thought. 
This belongs to others, without attaching any personal feeling. 
How so ? Because attachment is a danger." 1 

In the holy Ugradatta-pariprcchd, too, we hear : [19] " The 
thing that is given one has not to guard any longer, whereas 
what is in one's house has to be guarded. What is given 
is for the destroying of desire, what is at home increases 
desire. The one never excites greed nor fear, not so the other. 
The one helps the path of enlightenment, the other the 
path of the Evil One. The one is lasting, the other is im- 
permanent. The one is a source of happiness, the other of 
pain. The one makes for deliverance from sin, the other 
increases sin. What we give, not what we keep by us, tends 
to our true enjoyment. The giver is the true hero, the miser 
the coward ; thus to give makes us gain a hero's heart, to 
keep, a coward's. By giving we gain the praise of all the 
Buddhas, by keeping that of foohsh folk. . . . 

" Again, if he comes to feel an excessive affection for his 
son and not for others, he must admonish his mind with three 
admonitions. What are these ? Wisdom belongs to the 
Bodhisatva who is properly employed and even-minded, not 
to him who is disturbed and improperly employed; wisdom 
belongs to him who is consistent, not to the inconsistent. 
Admonishing his mind with these three admonitions, he must 
attach to his son the notion of no-friend, * for that is no friend 
to me, not friendly, when I for its sake shake off the yoke 
of the doctrine instituted by Buddha, and feel excessive 
affection for this my son and not for others.' 

" Thus he must educate his mind that he may feel in each 
case the same affection for all creatures that naturally centres in 
his son, or in himself. He must thoroughly consider the matter 
in this way : ' He comes from one place and I from another. 
All creatures are also my sons, and I their child. In this Ufe 
no one is really a son or a stranger to any one. . . .' Thus, O 
goodman of the house, the Bodhisatva when a householder 

* Upddana comes between trishV'a and bhava in the pratityasamutpada. 

C 



22 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

must not feel for any given object that it is his and he means 
to keep it, neither attachment to it ; nor feel that it is fated to 
be his or that his lust inclines to it. Again, goodman of the 
house, suppose that a beggar come up to the householding 
Bodhisatva and beg for any object whatsoever, and that 
object be not already given up to another, in this case he 
must not allow himself to reason in such wise as this : ' Whether 
I give this thing up or no, I shall come to be without substance ; 
whether I will or no I must some day submit to death, 
[20] and then that object will leave me, and I shall leave it.' 
* If I give up that object I shall have to end my days 
poverty-stricken ' ; ' Well, if I once do give it up it will 
not haunt 1 my mind when I come to die ; on the con- 
trary, it will give rise to satisfaction, joy without a tinge of 
grudging.* If it be only such considerations as these that 
enable him to give up the object, he must make to the suitor 
the fourfold frank avowal that here follows, saying : ' I am 
but a weak vessel, and goodness is but stunted in me. I am 
but a beginner 2 in the Great Vehicle. I have no command 
over my heart to make it give up. I am full of the heresy of 
attachment to this world ; for I am sunk in pride and selfish- 
ness. Be patient with me, good sir, and be not wroth. I 
will act, perform, and exert all vigour to fulfil thy desire and 
that of all mankind.' So must he avow to the suitor. And 
over and above he may say to himself thus, so as to remove 
all sin : * Let not the Bodhisatva feel displeasure in this act, 
nor let the suitor feel it towards the Bodhisatva.' " But at 
that rate we must not suppose that a niggard spirit is free 
from blame ; and, in fact, our Master does reprehend it in 
Bodhisatvas, as, for example, in this passage of the BodJiisaUva- 
prdtimoksha : "In the true Bodhisatva four qualities are never 
found. What are they ? Guile, niggardhness, envious slander, 3 



1 Exact counterpart of a Pali phrase ; see Ch. s.v. pariyadati. 

2 For the phr. cf. Divy.-index where however the connotation of meaning 
is somewhat different, 

' Cf, Dharm.-s. 69, where trshyd, mdtsarya and sdthya are successively 
mentioned as vices. 



1 



HOW TO MEET A REQUEST 23* 

and the heart that cleaveth to earth and says, ' I cannot gain 
the highest ilhimination.' In whomsoever, Sariputra, these 
four are found, of him the wise must take knowledge, saying : 
* Yonder man, my son, is a deceitful babbler, his good 
quahties are ruined, yea, they are but sin, his belly is heavy 
with the ' fieshpots of Egypt,' his mind is all for food and 
raiment/ 

" Thus, Sariputra, Bodhisatvas become spiritual heroes (and 
so on ... ), thus such an one sacrifices his own hand, his foot, 
nose, head, limbs greater and lesser, son, daughter, wife, love, 
servant, mind, ease, house, wealth, country, treasure and all 
that is his." 

[21] And in the Ndrdyana-pariprcchd likewise it is said : 
" One must not take to oneself anything of which one will 
have no thought of sacrifice, no understanding of sacrifice ; 
no such acquisition is to be acquired as to which he would have 
not the heart to let go. He must not take articles of which 
there arises in him, when asked by beggars, the thought of 
possession. Nor must he grasp kingdom, enjoyments, treasure 
... or anything whatever which would make the Bodhisatva 
unready to give it up. Moreover, noble sir, the Bodhisatva 
must think thus : ' I have devoted and abandoned my frame to 
all creatures. Much more my outward possessions : any being 
who shall require it for any purpose, it being recognised for 
a good, I will give hand, foot, eye, flesh, blood, marrow, Hmbs 
great and small ^my head itself to such as ask iot them ; not 
to mention outward things, wealth, corn, gold, silver, gems, 
ornaments, horses, elephants, chariots, cars, villages, towns, 
markets, peoples, kingdoms, capital cities, menservants, maid- 
servants, messengers, sons, daughters and retinue. Whoever 
shall want it to him I will give so it be for his good. With- 
out regret, and without grudging, without waiting for merit to 
mature, I will abandon them, without respect of persons, to 
show them kindness, out of compassion and pity, to be 
theirs to possess, so that these beings, well entreated by me 
as by one who has attained wisdom, may learn to know the 
law. . . . Even so, my son, when the tree of heahng is cut 



24 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS 1 

by root, trunk, branch, bark, or leaf, flower, fruit or pith, it 
never flinches nor complains that aught from root to pith is 
cut away ; but rather unflinchingly devotes them to taking 
away the diseases of beings of every degree. Even so the 
Bodhisatva must regard as medicine this his frame composed 
of the four great elements, and say, * Let all creatures take it 
of me as they require it, a hand, for such as need it, or a foot, 
for such as need it/ " 

And so, too, it is shown in the Akshayamati Sutra : "I must 
wear out even this my body for the behests of all creatures. 
And as these Four Outward Elements, ix. earth, air, fire and 
water, [22] go to the varied enjoyment of creatures through 
many directions and turnings, supports, appliances and uses : 
so I purpose to make this my body, itself an aggregation of 
the four great elements, fit for the enjoyment of all creatures 
through the many directions and other means. He, seeing 
that it is to be used for a purpose, looks fixedly at the 
misfortunes of the body and is not distressed thereby through 
care for all creatures." 

And in the holy Vajradhvaja Sutra he says : 
" So indeed the Bodhisatva, giving himself amongst all 
creatures, by aiding all roots of good, regarding all creatures 
in their roots of good, offering himself as a lamp amongst 
all creatures, estabUshing himself amongst all creatures as 
their happiness, keeping himself in all the world Hke the womb 
of the Law, behaving himself amongst all creatures like a Hght, 
looking upon himself as the asylum of the world, behaving 
himself in the world as a cause of the root of good, appointing 
himself as a friend amongst all beings, showing himself amongst 
all creatures as the road to supreme happiness, purif3dng himself 
amongst all creatures as a communication of supreme happiness, 
making himself Uke unto the sun in all the world offering him- 
self amongst all creatures in those capacities, regarding himself 
in all the world as ready for service as they wish, regarding 
himself as the abode of the world, 1 producing equanimity for 
all beings in all the world, regarding himself as a means for all 

1 Text uncertain. 



HOW THE BODHISATVA MUST OFFER HIMSELF 25 

service, looking on himself as the giver of happiness to the 
whole world, resolving to be the generous benefactor of 
all the world, making himself as wisdom for the whole 
world, showing himself to be devoted to the practices of the 
Bodhisatva, showing himself as one whose deeds are as his 
words, regarding himself as girt about with the armour of 
omniscience, keeping the thought which he entertained, 
and estabHshing himself in his duties, [23] keeping in mind 
the Bodhisatva's thought of renunciation, regarding himself 
as being a pleasure-garden for all creatures, showing himself 
amongst all creatures as deUghting in the Law, estabUshing 
himself as the giver of contentment to all creatures, yielding 
himself to all the world as producing supreme dehght, keeping 
himself as the storehouse for all pure righteousness in the 
whole world, placing himself as the giver of Buddha's wisdom 
to all creatures, giving himself as a father to all creation, 
establishing himself in all the region of creatures as a store of 
all help and sufficiency. 

" Thus, indeed, is the Bodhisatva, giving himself for service, 
having a mind humble and attentive for those who ask, having a 
mind to rest on as upon a carpet, with attention fixed on 
supporting all unhappiness like the earth, with mind devoted to 
unwearied service for all creatures, firm amidst the evil acts of 
the foolish, of firmly abiding nature, not resting, endowed 
with the root of good, unattached, the support of all 
the worlds, sacrificing ears and nose to suitors who ask it, 
having a mind because of his attaining the Bodhisatva's 
discipline, noble as the Tathagata's race, intent upon the 
exercise of remembering all the Bodhisatvas, considering what 
is essential 1 apart from the three unessential worlds, his chain 
of thought not being fixed upon his own body, homeless, 2 
spending his time in remembering all the attributes of the 
Buddha, with the intention of taking what is essential from 
this unessential body. 

"Thus, indeed, if the Bodhisatva is asked for his tongue, 

1 Tib. implies o^TTTITTTO. 

' But the Tib. gives this as an epithet of " qualities." 



26 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

[he sits down, and speaks i] with lovable and friendly voice, 
prompted by friendly thoughts, 2 and seating him in a goodly 
couch fit for a king, he addresses that suitor with pleasure. 
He becomes unangered in mind, unoffended, not vexed, with 
mind absorbed in magnanimity, with mind partaking of the 
Buddha's race, with the chain of his thought unwavering in 
nature, full of strength and power, with mind not fixed upon his 
body, not devoted to talking, his body resting on the knees ; 
putting all his body at the service of the suitor he speaks from 
his own mouth, uttering words that are affectionate, gentle, and 
lovely, a friendly service. * Take thou my tongue, do with it as 
seemeth thee good. Do so as pleaseth thee, [24] that thou be 
pleased at heart and satisfied with thyself, contented and de- 
lighted with pleasure : ' with these words, he sacrifices his head, 
bringing about the highest knowledge which is the topmost head 
of all things, attaining the wisdom which is the head of the 
salvation of all creatures, craving incomparable knowledge 
which is the chiefest head of all the world, resolved to obtain- 
ing the king of knowledge, the head of all regions, desirous of 
accompHshing the culmination of lordship over transcendent 
things, with a mind bursting with affection for an endless 
number of apph cants. 

" Thus, indeed, the Bodhisatva, sacrificing hands and feet to 
those that ask, by doing kindness with the hand of faith, with 
the outstretched hand of sacrifice, the heroism of a noble 
Bodhisatva, finding pleasure in renunciation, by sacrificing hand 
and foot, placing his foot on the great basis 3 by the resolution 
of following the practice of a Bodhisatva, by the fact of not 
being troubled by suffering, by abihty to take pleasure in the 
giving, with the restraint that consists in pure thought; he 
cherishes the idea of a body uncut, unbroken, undiminished, 
which consists in the body of the Law formed of knowledge 
without obstacle*; he has a mind not low, preserved from all the 

1 From Tib. 
So Tib. for Of^THT^n. 
' Tib. rten chen.po.la rkan.par hdor.ba. 

* Tib. ye.ses yons.su dkrigspa med.pa dan chos.kyi.Ius rgyad. mi, hchad.. 
pa mi.sigs.pa mi.chad.pahii lus dan Idan.pa ^as obscure as the Sanskrit. 



SACRIFICE OF THE BODY 27 

machinations of Mara, cherished and saved by the good friend, 
delivered by the whole-hearted renunciation which is praised 
by all Bodhisatvas. 

" Thus, indeed, the Bodhisatva, sacrificing his own body, 
offering his blood to those that ask, has a mind delighting in 
wisdom, desiring to behave as a Bodhisatva, not casting away 
a thought that was made clear to him, ready and eager for all 
that ask, not hated by any one who receives, walking in the 
path of the renunciation of all the Bodhisatvas, not regarding 
his own body because of unconquerable joy and contentment, 
offering the blood from his own body, devoted to the Great 
Vehicle as the abode of knowledge, with mind unspoilt in the 
Great Vehicle, agreeable, pleased, dehghted, joyful, friendly, 
happy, contented, and becoming joyful, pleased, and content, 
sacrificing the very marrow from his body for those who ask, 
with good renunciation, addressing those suitors with welcome 
voice : ' Let your honours take the marrow and the flesh, to 
use as you will,' with equal increase of pleasure and sacrifice, 
with a great root of merit practised by a company that has 
the knowledge of a Bodhisatva, [25] with excellent resolve that 
removes the filth of the world ; with efforts towards great 
generosity undertaken in the spirit of equanimity of all 
the Bodhisatvas, with suitors longed for, gifts given without 
repentance, without expecting the reward of merit, with 
worship of the mass of gloriously adorned Buddha-fields, not dis- 
regarding any of the worlds, with mercy and salvation directed 
towards all the world, towards the enlightenment of all the 
Buddhas ; with the [strength] of the Dasabala, with attention 
only to the root of merit, directed towards all the Bodhi- 
satvas past, present and future, with the sound of a bull's 
or hon's roar directed towards all skill, in the three times, 1 
with equanimity and knowledge in all ways, with deter- 
mination through infinite number of ages directed towards 
the world, with the Bodhisatva's resolve, by producing 
a mind free from distress directed towards fearlessness, the 
Bodhisatva sacrificing his own heart to those that ask, his mind 

1 Past, present, future. 



28 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

instructed as to the kinds of gifts, developing the Perfections, 
his mind humble and well established in the gifts of all 
Bodhisatvas, resolved to be attentive to all that ask, purifying 
his resolve, undertaking the great resolve which is the cause 
of the ripening of all the world, abiding in the conduct of 
the Bodhisatva, gathering the elements of omniscience, not 
relaxing his resolve, he then sacrifices to those that ask Uver, 
heart, and lungs, with intelligence pleased with those that ask, 
with eyes looking happy and glad, with affection sent forth to 
the Bodhisatva, with unflagging attention, renunciation, with 
a well-thought-of idea of taking the essence from the non- 
essential bod37, attentively remembering that the body has 
its end in the cemetery, regarding his body as food for wolves, 
jackals and dogs, remembering that it is the share of others; 
because of the body's impermanency, with the thought that 
the body is the share of others when it is cast forth, even so, 
applying his reflection to the Law, the Bodhisatva steadily 
observing those suitors, thus begins to think : ' If I should 
give to the suitor from the body intestines, hver, heart, or 
lungs, or if I should not give them, at the end of my life 
this body is not eternal, it is owed to the cemetery/ [26] Thus 
he with nature content and satisfied, with knowledge of the 
law, with resolve, established in the idea of the good friend, 
at the instance of a suitor desirous of extracting the essence 
from this non-essentjal body, through love of the law, even 
when he sacrifices only a nail from his own flesh with the 
thought, ' This is apphed to the root of good,' thus renounces 
his own body." 

And the renouncing of one's enjoyments and merits is 
described in the same place, thus : "So, indeed, the Bodhisatva 
amongst various recipients worthy of gifts, who come from 
all sorts of places, amongst the innumerable poor beggars, who 
have heard of the renown of the Bodhisatva, who have come 
after hearing the rumour of the Bodhisatva, who have an 
opportunity of confidence in a Bodhisatva, who have heard 
the resolve of the Bodhisatva after giving, who have been 
invited by the resolve of the Bodhisatva's mind, men desired 



SACRIFICE OF ENJOYMENTS OR MERIT 29 

by him with his mind set upon renunciation, with the thought 
welcomed by doing honour to the dehghted suitors, with the 
thought of propitiating the suitors who come. 'It is I who 
should have shown respect to you, now that I have come 
into this region, to save you the trouble of coming : ' thus 
he propitiates all the suitors by doing a complete prostration, 
and after propitiating them invites them to bathe and gives 
repose to their bodies and offers them any service they 
wish : namely, jewel- waggons full of choice and beautiful 
girls of Jambudvipa, namely, gold-waggons full of choice and 
virtuous girls of the country, namely, jewel- waggons full of 
a quantity of singing and music all sounding together: so he 
gives crystal waggons full of choice maidens of charming 
and agreeable looks, all adorned with fair faces and fair 
dress." Then in the same place it is explained : *' giving 
jewel- waggons provided with noble elephants covered with 
jewelled nets, and carriages ; giving sandal- wood waggons with 
jewelled wheels and trappings, provided with jewelled seats " 
. . . as far as " quantities of all sorts of jewelled sunshades 
with coloured canopies outspread, adorned with banners and 
flags in all four directions, [27] scented with all sorts of per- 
fumes, anointed with precious fragrant ointments, bespread with 
multitudes of all manner of flowers, prolonged with hundreds 
of thousands of maidens like strings of jewels, steady in move- 
ment, provided with steady animals all alike, . % . " and so on 
to " agreeable charming scents in the air, with pleasant civili- 
ties and greetings by daughters and sons, with civiHties and 
gifts of quantities of perfumed powders of all sorts." 

Again, in the same place he says : " And presenting himself 
to all creatures, or giving service to all Buddhas, or rehnquishing 
a kingdom, or citadel, 1 or the habitation of the king of a city all 
gloriously adorned, or performing all service properly for those 
that ask, or giving sons, daughters and wife to those that ask, 
or leaving his house utterly "... and so on to " giving all 
indulgence and enjoyments : so the Bodhisatva gives his drink or 
his dainty dishes of all sorts, fine, noble, pure, perfect, pungent, 

* Tib. mk'ay. See B.R. puidbhedana. 



30 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS! 

tasty, bitter,! astringent, full of all sorts of excellent savours, 
soft, full of the various kinds of flavours, establishing the 
equilibrium of the troubled humours, 2 supporting the strength 
of body and mind, causing ability to please, gratify, and delight " 
. . . and so on to " preventing all the attacks of others, causing 
health and the appeasing of all diseases. 3 So with gifts of 
clothing, flowers, scents, ointments, garlands ; gifts of beds, 
dweUings, pillows, and Hghts ; the Bodhisatva offering requisites 
for the sick, medicines and utensils," . . . and so on to 
" vessels of all sorts, various necessaries, copper vessels filled 
up with infinite provisions, filled with powdered silver and gold, 
^giving these things to the Blessed Buddhas, his heart con- 
fident in those worthy of infinite offerings ; or giving to the 
precious Bodhisatvas, by cherishing the mind of the good friend 
so hard to attain ; or giving to the noble Order ; or giving to a 
man who is the support of the Buddha's teaching ; or giving to 
disciples and Pratyekabuddhas with heart pleased with their 
noble virtues, or to mother and father ; or with the idea of 
obeying or waiting upon a teacher, giving to teachers and 
preceptors worthy of gifts, devoted to the practice of the 
admonitions and instructions which are the preceptor's task, 
or giving food and clothing to poor mendicants and beggars, 
not turning his eyes from any creature, cherishing friendship in 
his heart. ..." 

** And so the Bodhisatva giving thorobred elephants strongly 
grown in their seven parts, of sixty years, [28] provided with 
six carts * of lotus colour, with clean faces, adorned with gold, 
their bodies covered with golden nets, multitudes of nets of 
all sorts of jewels thrown over the trunks, various ornaments 
and filagree work, glorious with gold, beautiful and lovely to 
behold, doing their duty unwearied for a thousand leagues, 
or giving thorobred horses, provided with goodly vehicles and 
goodly bodies, gifted with speed, with speed to go and fetch 
from the four quarters of the earth, with riders on their backs, 
covered with all adornments like those of beautiful, lovely, 

* Read kafuka. Restoring health. 

* Read samana. * The Tib. has mie, tusk, shaidantopetdn. 



EFFECT OF THE ACCEPTABLE GIFT 31 

divine beings. As he gives these, offering them with respect to 
teachers, good friends, father and mother, poor mendicants and 
beggars, to recipients from all the world, giving with heart 
emancipated, relinquishing them with no niggardly mind, with 
a nature that manifests great mercy, walking in the Bodhisatva's 
virtues which extend even unto the great renunciation, 
purifying the resolves of a wise Bodhisatva," . . . and so on to 
'" And so the Bodhisatva^ giving a seat, renouncing it, gives 
auspicious royal seats with feet of beryl, thrones with canopies 
of golden chains and jewelled nets, supplied with plenty of 
robes soft to the touch, with provision of all good food and 
perfume, with banners all over diamonds, and heaps of jewels 
by the million, bespread with golden nets, utensils scented 
with sandalwood, circlets of golden bells in masses giving 
forth a lovely sound of music, mighty seats, a sight for 
the eye upHfted and wide-ranging, consecrated as thrones of 
commandment for the whole earth united under one dominion ; 
and he flourishes in universal sovereignty for the rule and ad- 
monition of his empire, having taken his seat with all dominion 
and power: "... and so on to " so indeed the Bodhisatva 
giving sunshades and renouncing them, gives sunshades adorned 
with heaps of grand jewels, jewelled stems, covered with festoons 
of bells, hung with strings of jewels and beryl drooping over 
ear and neck, [29] providing a merry noise of cries of joy, 
clean coverings within the golden nets, spread over hundreds 
of thousands of ribs jewelled and ornamented, fitted in jewelled 
sockets, of fragrant aloes and sandalwood, provided with 
millions and millions of choice perfumes all of the same fine 
quaUty scattered abroad, of clear bright gold : of such glorious 
sunshades in millions and millions giving those that are left 
over in countless milHons on millions with indifference and 
renouncing them, relinquishing them, offering them, to great 
personages who are present or to adorn the shrines of the 
Tathagatas who come no more to earth, or to the Bodhisatvas, 
good friends, for searching after righteousness, or to the 
noble Bodhisatvas who preach the Law, or to mother and 
father, or to the precious Order, or to the gospel of all 



32 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

Buddhas ... or to all recipients : thus he applies the merit of 
these acts." 

Just as in the first appHcation of merit it was explained 
whenever we dealt with the root of good, so he makes his 
resolution. " How could these roots of good provide life 
and help for the whole world, ending in the pure Law, in 
such a way that through those roots of good there might be 
for all beings removal of hell and unhappy states ; so that 
by these they could keep away from them the mass of pain 
which consists in birth as an animal or Yama's wOrld? 
He applying these roots of good thus applies the root of good 
in this case, ' By this root of good may I become a rest of all 
beings to keep them away from all the mass of pain : may I 
become the protector of all beings by setting them free from all 
sin : may I become a shelter for all beings to save them from 
all fear : may 1 become a path for all beings that they may go 
in ever}^ place : may I become a refuge for all beings that they 
may attain peace in the infinite meditation : ma}/ I become a 
light to all beings by showing knowledge without darkness : may 
I become a fire for all beings by driving away the darkness and 
gloom of ignorance : may I become a radiance for all beings by 
estabhshing infinite purity : may I become a guide for all beings 
by bringing them into the interpretation of the Law surpassing 
thought : may I be a leader for all beings by bringing them to 
the elements of knowledge revealed ; ' " ... and this he applies 
with intention not in word only, this he appHes with uplifted 
heart, with heart delighted, with heart pleased, [30] with heart 
rejoicing and glad, with mercy and love in his heart, with 
favour and kindness at heart, with happy heart. And this he 
apphes as follows : *' May this very root of good turn out for 
purifying the ways of all beings, for purifying their achieve- 
ments, for purifying their merit and magnanimity ; may it so 
turn out that they be unconquered, that they be never grasping, 
that their thoughts be unapproachable, that their memory 
be not distracted, for decision of conduct and thought, for 
unlimited wisdom, for perfecting all the ornaments of good 
quaUties in deeds of body and of mind : By this my root of 



TO APPLY MERIT FOR THE GOOD OF OTHERS 33 

good may all beings please all the Buddhas, and having pleased 
may they not displease ; and in those blessed Buddhas may 
they acquire unbreakable satisfaction ; and in the presence of 
those holy Tathagatas the supreme Buddhas may they hear 
the preaching of the Law, and hearing may they put away all 
errors, and may they observe it as heard ; and observing it may 
they accompHsh their undertakings, and find favour with the 
Tathagatas ; may they obtain activity of thought, and accom- 
plish blameless deeds; may they estabUsh themselves in the great 
roots of good, and keep away endless poverty, and may they 
accompHsh the seven receivings of wealth ; may they be taught 
by all the Buddhas, and may they attain the good moral 
qualities, and develop lofty equanimity of resolution, and 
receive opportunity in omniscient knowledge ; may they 
develop unhindered vision in all the world, and receive the 
endowment of all the distinguishing marks, which is the perfec- 
tion of body ; may they lay hold of purified speech adorned 
with all virtues, may they receive self-restraint and the sound- 
ness of thought coupled with the ten powers ; ^ [31] may they 
carry out an independent mode of life ; and may all beings 
receive that supply of happiness which all Buddhas are endowed 
with." 

As the sixth appHcation, he applies in the way described. 
" May all beings by the food of knowledge be endowed with 
detachment of mind, dihgent in making proper distinction in 
food, not clinging to food, feeding on affection, Uving without 
meat . . . extinguishing desire and thirst. May all beings be 
sprinkled as from a cloud with the essence of righteousness, their 
natures dehghted with love for the supreme Law. ' May all beings 
have all choice flavours on their tongues, enamoured 2 of its 
flavour, their thoughts dwelling on all the attributes of the 
Buddhas, going not astray, being in the chief path, the supreme 
path, the quick path, the Great Path. May all beings be never 
satisfied with looking, possessing the love of the Buddha. 
May all beings be unhindered in seeing the good friend. May all 
beings be like sovereign medicines and drugs. May all beings 

1 See Pali Diet., s.v. Balam. ^ See Pali Diet., nimittam gay^hati. 



34 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

keep far away the poison of sin. May all beings be like the 
sun's orb arising, by scattering the veil of darkness and gloom 
for all beings." 

Thus having offered himself he must recite in conformity 
with his meditation. " I make the application that all beings 
may see most clearly, that they may see cheerfulness and good, 
that they may see what is desired and agreeable, and not see 
what is disagreeable, that they may see the Buddhas. 

" May all beings be endowed with the fragrance of virtue, 
with virtue unbroken, endowed with the Bodhisatva's per- 
fections. May all beings be perfumed with liberaUty, full of 
sacrifice and renunciation. May all beings be fragrant with 
compassion, possessed of unshakable thoughts. May all beings 
be fragrant with courage, armed with patience for the Path. 
May all beings be fragrant with meditation, standing face to 
face with the existing Buddha, possessed of concentration. 
May all beings be fragrant with the application of a Bodhisatva's 
merit ; may all beings be fragrant with all things that are 
pure, free from all things that are evil. May all beings have a 
divine couch for the attainment of high knowledge. May all 
beings have the couch of holiness. [32] May all beings have a 
happy couch by dweUing in the thought of wisdom apart from 
the common herd. May all beings have a peaceful couch, by 
avoiding the pain which belongs to the realm of transmigration, 
and be endowed with a feeling for the love of the Law. May 
all beings be brilUant in the pure field of the Buddha, 
provided with a dwelling of virtue, from dwelling in a noble 
palace, not separated from the dwelling of all the incompar- 
able Buddhas. May all beings enjoy the potentiality of 
becoming a Buddha. May all beings have infinite vision in 
all the things of the Buddha, may all beings have Hght un- 
hindered, entirely penetrating all elements of existence. May 
all beings have bodies free from disease, having received the 
body of the Tathagata. May all beings be hke Bhaishajyaraja 1 
having unshakable quahties. May all beings be Hke a pillar of 
heahng, infallible, acting for the world's cure. May all beings 

A Buddha. 



THE PRAYER USED IN APPLICATION OF MERIT 35 

thwart the pangs of disease, possessing the health of the 
omniscient. May all beings be skilled in the healing of all the 
world, practising the use of medicine according to their wish. 
I make my appHcation for all beings to repel all disease. 1 
make my application for all beings in the infinite strength and 
vigour of the body. I make my appHcation for all beings to 
have bodily strength not to be crushed, like the mountains that 
surround the universe. I make my application for all beings 
in their hunger for all supports of strength. May all beings 
be vessels of infinite capacity, wide as space, endowed with the 
sense of memory, not bewildered in memory for words through 
comprehending all worldly and transcendental language. May 
all beings be of good and purified meditation, taking pleasure 
in the perpetuity of wisdom in all Buddhas past, present and to 
come. May all beings go as they Hst, attaining the Buddha's 
field which leads everywhere. May all beings be unhampered 
in thought about all beings. May all beings without effort 
enter manifestly upon all the fields of the Buddha, with power to 
understand all things by instantaneous insight. May all beings 
enter every sphere unwearied and unexhausted, having a 
spiritual body never resting. May all beings be free through an 
easy course, following in the ways of all Bodhisatvas. By this 
root of good may all beings always be possessed of the thought 
which does not renounce the good friend, grateful by cherishing 
benefits. May all beings have one common purpose with good 
friends by seizing upon the common root of good. May all 
beings have good resolutions, by approaching the abodes and 
the common dwellings of good friends. May all beings be 
purified by the ripening of their deeds through the root of 
good friends, with one sole aspiration. May all beings attain 
good delight in the Great Vehicle, with no obstruction to 
their course which ends in omniscience. May all beings have 
their root of good hidden, 1 guarding the condition of all 
Buddhas. May all beings have the knowledge of their virtues 
hidden, avoiding the wrath and sin of all the world. May all 
beings be without break or hindrance in goodness, rivers of 

1 I.e. not proclaimed abroad. 



36 SALUTATION TO BUDDHAS AND BODHISATVAS ! 

Buddha's qualities undestroyed. May all beings be like sun- 
shades, forming a canopy for the Dasabala. May all beings 
attain the seat of infinite wisdom. May all beings attain the 
throne of Buddha's courage, conspicuous to behold." 

And in the holy Gaganaganja Sutra he says : " May there 
be in me no root of good or knowledge of righteousness or 
skilfulness i that is not useful to all beings." 

The resignation 2 of past or future good is described in 
the holy Kshayamati Sutra. " The remembrance of good 
thoughts or feeling ; and after remembering, the application 
of wisdom : this is skill concerning the past ; namely, bringing 
into vision the conscious consideration of past goods. ' Those 
good thoughts that shall arise in me, these I shall apply in the 
infinite and supreme wisdom : ' such is skill as regards the future. 
Thus by mental practice [34] one fulfils the intention of 
renouncing all ; with a bodily practice that is directed by the 
impulse of renunciation, one reUnquishes all acquisitiveness. 
One who is set free from the pains of existence which are 
rooted in acquisitiveness, is said to be liberated ; and he 
attains through infinite, immeasurable, countless ages manifold 
ends, worldly and transcendental, showers of happiness and 
bhss. By his own person, becoming as it were a baited hook 
which does not of itself enjoy, he draws others and serves 
them. Therefore it is said in the Ratnamegha : giving is the 
Bodhisatva's enlightenment." 

Read 0^. 

2 That is, to others. Quoted in Bodhic, iii. 10. Delete Tfj at beginning 
of line 14 of text. 



CHAPTER II 

THE DUTY OF SELF-PRESERVATION 

Thus we must duly preserve the self and its belongings, though 
they are sacrificed to others. How so ? Because it is " for the 
enjo3niient of hving beings that one's frame and all besides is 
given." 

If unpreserved, how then enjoyed ? what gift is given, 
if unenjoyed ? Therefore that creatures may enjoy, guard 
thine own frame and all beside. ^ For the BodhisaUva- 
prdtimoksha tells us : " O Sariputra, one must preserve 
one's self when one intends to preserve others. It is 
armed with that benevolence which takes just this form 
[of preserving his body for others' good], that a Bodhisatva 
refuses to do an evil deed, yea, even for dear Hfe." In the 
VTradaUa'panpricchd, too, the speaker says : " He who hath 
a mind for the Law must carry about his body like a 
cart for the supporting of burdens." 2 So too says the 
Akshayamati Sutra : " [The righteous man] too is not afflicted 
by the ills of the flesh, because he hath regard for his fellows." 

Accordingly the question arises : how is one to preserve 
one's self ? "By never giving up one's Good Friend." ^ 

As in Holy Ganda-vyuha ^risambhava ^ says : *' Restrained 
by trusty friends, O noble youth, Bodhisatvas fall not into evil 
destinies ; [35] taken into guidance ^ by them they transgress 

^ Karikas 5 a, b, 6 a. 

' I.e. of others 'AWiiXwv tA fiaprj fiaffrdCfr^, The body is a kind of 
truck to carry loads. 

Karika 6 b. 

* A boy who instructed Sudhana, the hero of the work Raj. Mitra, Nep, 
B.L., p. 92. 

' See Mhv. I. 564. 

37 D 



38 THE DUTY OF SELF-PRESERVATION 

not the doctrine of the true Bodhisatvas ; shielded by them 
they become recluses from the world ; with their respect 
Bodhisatvas become men whose acts are free from violent 
transport in all the actions of the Bodhisatva ; through their 
favour Bodhisatvas become unassailable by the depravities 
of action. It is our trusty friends that inform us of what 
should not be done ; i they it is who keep us from each 
temptation to indifference ; 2 and drive us forth from the City 
of Re-birth. 3 Accordingly, fair sir, ceasing from such * thoughts 
we must have recourse to our trusty friends. 

" With mind like the earth that bends not though it support 
the burden of all things ; ^ like the diamond unswerving in 
intent ; Hke the Cakravada sphere unruffled by any ills ; like 
the servant of all the world uncomplaining in undertaking 
all duties ; like a mere sweeper ^ in avoidance of over- 
weening pride ; hke a vehicle in bearing forth heavy loads ; 
like the dog not easily provoked ; Hke the ship, unwearied in 
coming and going ; [36] like a good son, in ever watching the 
face of the true friend, thou, my son, must give thine own self 
the name of the sick man : thy Friend, the name of the 
physician : his precepts the name of the medicine : thy deeds 
of merit the name of the smiting of the disease. Again, 
thou must call thyself the coward, thy Friend the hero, his 
instructions the weapon, and thy deeds the smiting of the 
foes." 

In the same book, in the passage called Vdcanopdsikd- 
vimoksha, it is said : " The Bodhisatva who is possessed of the 
precepts of the Good Friend propitiates the venerable Buddhas. 
The Bodhisatva who remains in harmony with the words of 
the Friend, comes near to the omniscience of a Buddha, and 
when he never doubts one true Friend's words, all true friends 

1 The reading of our MS, sancodakdh, " inciting to attempt the seemingly 
impossible," is less probable than that of the ganda-vyuha MS. adopted. 

* Cf. Childers, s.v. pamada. 

8 A Buddhist Bunyan's " City of Destruction." 

* A good deal has been omitted here in the sutra quoted. 
^ Mil. P. vii. 3, 4. 

I follow the Tib. {v. note to text) here. 



THE GOOD FRIEND 39 

draw near him. And he who never lacks the Friend's regard, 
has every object realised. 

*' Then Sudhana, saluting the feet of the Brother Saradhvaja 
with countless sunwise turns, gazing at him and making obei- 
sance, and again gazing at him as he was making his due salute, 
doing him honour and inclining himself ; bearing him in mind, 
reflecting, meditating, deeply meditating, making an aspiration, 
and 1 exclaiming in wonder at him, reahsing and taking in his 
virtues, and while he stood there, remembering them all, 
resolute, unremitting in his mind, recounting, taking note of 
them, composing himself into an aspiration, yearning for the 
sight of him, receiving the happy omen of the sound of his 
voice 2 . . . departed from his presence : then beholding the 
omniscience comprised in the Good Friend, his eyes full of 
tears, ... he left the presence of Megha." 

In the Bodhisatva-prdtimoksha, too, it is said : " A Bodhisatva 
in this world has no jewel that he does not give up out of love 
of the Law. [37] There is no service of his body he does not 
make : there is no bodily activity ^ on which he does not 
venture. There is no word or deed on which he does not 
venture out of respect for his pastors and masters. . . . Where- 
fore ? This duty tends to the cutting of earthly bonds ; it 
tends also to the cutting away of despondency, pain, lamenta- 
tion, sorrow, death, disease, old age, and birth. With such 
precious thoughts, with such healing thoughts, assuaging the 
maladies of all beings, and devotion that takes this form we 
ought to seek, in that it makes for the assuaging of the maladies 
of all beings." 

In the Ugradatta-pariprcchd, too, it is written : *' Moreover, 
householder, if a Bodhisatva, who sets before him reading 
and study, in the presence of any one hears or points out or 
takes to himself a single Versicle of four feet, a verse connected 
with the Perfections of giving, virtue, patience, energy and 
meditation, or hears that which is the summary of the equipment 

1 Tib. no mtsar du bya ba dan. 

* Tib. smon lam gyi rjes su A jug par bya ba dan. 

' Tib. rim ^gro. 



40 THE DUTY OF SELF-PRESERVATION 

of a Bodhisatva, he must do reverence to the Law in the person 
of that teacher for so many ages as there are in the stanza 
syllables, words, and names ; if for so many ages he does 
reverence to that teacher, with sincerity and all manner of 
offerings, honour, and devotion, even to-day, householder, the 
teacher's reverence due to the teacher is not fulfilled ; how much 
less the reverence due to the Law ! ** 

And then in the Ashtasahasrikd Prajndpdramitdii is likewise 
said : *' Fair sir, thou must render fervent homage towards 
thy Good Friends, and must love them too. ... It came to 
pass that the great Bodhisatva Sadaprarudita, with feehngs 
such as these, with homage and with deep thought, proceeding 
on his pilgrimage, came in the course of his journey to 
another town. There he repaired to the midst of the market- 
place, and thus he thought, * What if I sell this my body, and 
with the price thereof do honour to the Bodhisatva Dharmo- 
dgata ; for through the long night of the past thousands of 
bodies of mine have been shattered and wasted and sold in an 
endless cycle of births, endless have been the pains of hell 
that I have suffered for the sake and cause of earthly love 
and not for the honouring of such principles or such persons.' 
Then Sadaprarudita [38] went to the market-place and hfted 
up his voice, and made his speech to be heard. ' Who wants a 
man ? ' quoth he," and so the tale proceeds. 

*' Then Mara, the evil one, so disposed the Brahmans and 
householders that they heard not his voice. When he could 
not get a buyer for himself he turned aside, waiUng and 
shedding tears. ' Alas ! ' he cried, ' I have a hard thing to 
get, in that I cannot get a buyer even for my own body.' 
Then ^akra, lord of the Gods, in the guise of a disciple . . . 
addressed Sadaprarudita thus : ' Good sir, why art thou 
dejected in mind, and wistful, and why standest thou shedding 
tears ? ' Sadaprarudita replied, * Through passionate love 
of the Law, and with desire to do homage to the Law, I have 
offered my body for sale, and yet do not find a purchaser.' . . . 
The disciple rephed, * I do not want a man, but my father 
has to offer sacrifice. There I require the heart of a man, his 



SACRIFICE OF THE BODY 41 

blood, his bones, and his marrow. So thou shalt give thy body 
at a price.' Then Sadaprarudita thought, ' I have easily 
got what I desired, and I now know that my body is fit for 
the attainment of all skill in the means 1 of the Perfection of 
Wisdom, in that I have got a purchaser for my body, for its 
heart, its blood, its bones and marrow.' Then he spake 
aloud with calm joy and delight, * Disciple, I will give my 
frame to thee, since thou hast need of it.' . . . Then Sada- 
prarudita drew a sharp sword and pierced his right arm and 
drew blood, and pierced his right thigh and cut the flesh from 
it, and strode up to the foot of the wall to break the bone. 

[39] "Then another merchant's daughter came to the upper 
window, and saw Sadaprarudita . . . and came where he 
was, saying, ' Fair sir, why dost thou give such pain to thy 
body ? ' . . . When she heard that it was for purposes of 
worship, again she said, ' What accumulation of merit will 
accrue to thee from that ? ' ' That good man will show 
forth my Perfection of Wisdom and my skill in the means. 
Herein I shall be a teacher, herein as I give my teaching I 
shall become the refuge of all.' . . . 'Marvellous, good sir,' 
she exclaimed. . . . ' Noble and goodly 2 are these principles 
that have been proclaimed by thee. Man's bodily frame should 
be sacrificed for ages innumerable as the sands of the river 
Ganges for the sake of one principle such as this. Truly, 
noble and goodly are the principles thou hast proclaimed. 
Yea, I will give thee gold, jewels, pearls, beryls, as many as 
thou mayest require, wherewithal thou mayest do honour to 
the venerable Dharmodgata.' " . . . And so forth, until he tells 
of the meeting of Dharmodgata with that girl accompanied 
by five hundred others. 

" Then the Bodhisatva Dharmodgata arose from his seat 
and entered into his own house. . . . For seven years he 
remained immersed in a single trance of meditation, and 
Sadaprarudita for seven years conceived no thought of desire 

* Upaya has perhaps here the semi-technical meaning that afterwards 
became so common in the Mahay ana : .Kern. 

* Pra^ita is not in the Tibetan : 9. Childers. 



42 THE DUTY OF SELF-PRESERVATION 

nor of taking life, nor of injury, neither [40] elsewhere did he 
engender the greed that comes of gratification. * When,' 
thought he, * will Dharmodgata arise, that we may duly 
appoint the pulpit where that worthy man may sit and teach 
the law, and that we may make that spot of earth, duly 
sprinkled, anointed, and adorned with varied flowers ? ' And 
those five hundred maidens, with the merchant's daughter at 
their head, passed their time in two postures only, learning 
from the Bodhisatva Sadaprarudita. Then Sadaprarudita 
heard a divine voice which said, ' On the seventh day 
hence Dharmodgata will arise from that his trance, and 
take his seat in the midst of the town to preach the law.' 
This when Sadaprarudita heard, transported with joy, 
gladdened with pleasure and satisfaction aroused within him, 
went to cleanse that spot of earth with the five hundred 
maidens ; and appointed that pulpit, decking it with sevenfold 
gems. Then Sadaprarudita desired to sprinkle the ground 
but could get no water, though he sought it from around, 
wherewith to sprinkle it. For all the water had been hidden 
by Mara, the Evil One, and it was done, too, in order that 
when he failed to find the water his heart might be grieved 
and dispirited, or that he might change his purpose, and so his 
roots of merit might disappear and not shine forth. 

" Then thought Sadaprarudita, * What if I pierce my own 
body, and so water this place with blood ? and why ? This 
place is full of rising dust : let not a cloud of dust fall on 
the body of the Bodhisatva. What can I do with this frame 
of mine, which is doomed to dissolution ? Better surely that 
my body should perish in an action such as this, and not in 
an ineffective act. For the reason and sake of mere passion, 
[41] thousands of frames of mine have again and again gone 
to dissolution as I wandered without end from birth to birth. 
If once more they are dissolved, at least let them be dissolved 
on such a holy place as this.* 

" Thus reflecting he drew a sharp sword, and with it pierced 
his body on every side, and thus watered the spot with his 
own blood. So, too, did the maidens ; and thus neither he 



CONSTANCY OF PURPOSE 43 

nor any of them swerved in their purpose, so that Mara, the 
Evil One, might gain an occasion thereby." 

So, too, in the Caturdharmaka Sutra it is said : " The 
Bodhisatva, Brethren, must never give up the Good Friend, 
for his Ufe long. Nay, not even at cost of hfe." 

So, then, we must secure the preservation and all else of 
our body " by never leaving the Good Friend." ^ 

But also he must do it by diUgent study of the 
Scriptures ; for it is only in the Scriptures that the 
teachings of the Bodhisatvas are generally seen. For we 
are told that in the respective Sutras the practices and the 
precepts of Bodhisatvas are laid down. Hence dihgence 
should always be shown on searching the Scriptures, lest 
if we do not regard them, we should fall into sin and commit 
some act of intemperance through ignorance. Hence, by this 
phrase, " Not leaving the Good Friend," and " study of the 
Scriptures," is implied the whole acceptance of the law. 

As the holy Sdgaramati Sutra tells us, " When a man 
receives, and is taught, the explanation of the syllables whereby 
the ineffable law is declared, then he is said to receive the good 
law. Again, my son, the preachers of the law who teach the 
Sutras of this kind, to honour, respect, sit near, rise and bow 
before them, do them homage, show them admiring obedience, 
guard, receive them, give them robes, bowls, beds, seats, 
help and medicine for sickness, appurtenances and the Uke, 
honorific gifts, to guard them as masters, and have carried it 
out, to proclaim their praises, and to shield them from dispraise, 
all this, too, is called receiving the law. . . . [42] Again to be 
intent on peace from dispute, and rebuke according to the law 
individuals such as speak of the law unlawfully. Again, giving 
a pious gift to a neighbour of a heart that is unworldly, a 
mind that is set on the salvation of the world, whose good 
tendencies are unchecked, or, when a man so much as changes 
a step or breathes out and breathes in, so the motives of these 
acts be only the hearing or teaching of the law. Here, too, 
he accepts the good law. 

Karika6b. 



44 THE DUTY OF SELF-PRESERVATION 

" Suppose, my son, a mind perverted towards worldly 
objects. The repelling of this, concentration, restraint, entire 
quietude and discipline, all this is called receiving the good 
law. . . . Again the refusal to take and accept the principle 
by which unprincipled conduct goes on, is called the accept- 
ing of the Good Law." 

In all this the maxim of " never leaving the Good Friend " 
is illustrated by such acts as reverence to the preacher : and so, 
too, we learn the means of recognising him ; for without this 
acceptance of the Law we cannot have the threefold principle 
of preservation, purification, and increase. And thus without 
this requisite your Friend is no real Bodhisatva. Hence this 
acceptance is a matter of necessity. 

For in the Srlmdtdsimhandda Sutra we read, "All the 
aspirations of the Bodhisatvas, countless as the Ganges sands, 
are included and comprehended in one great aspiration 
namely, the accepting of the Law. This, then, is our great 
object." In the same work it is said, " Just as we find. Lady, 
that a small blow inflicted on a mighty man, if it be in a vital 
part, is painful and harmful, so the acceptance of the Law, even 
though it be but feeble, causes pain, sorrow, and lamentation 
to Mara, the Evil One. I cannot regard any other good act 
so effective against Mara as accepting the Law, be it ever so 
little." [43] Further, we read, " Just as Sumeru, the King of 
Mountains, shines forth supreme in loftiness and extent, 
surpassing all mountains, so when a follower of the Great 
Vehicle, caring nought for hfe and limb, with no niggard mind 
accepts the Law, this action outweighs all the good principles 
of Mahayanists who are careful of Ufe and limb, and have 
newly set forth on the new Vehicle. 

So also it is said in the holy Sdgaramati Sutra : '' He is 
received by Jinas, Devas, Nagas, and Kinnaras, endowed with 
merit and wisdom, 1 in his holding fast the Law of the 
Tathagatas.2 ... He verily is not born again in empty worlds, 

* Tib. theg pa la gsar du (freshly) yan dag par zugs. 

* In later stanzas, e.g. I. 18, infra, the unexpressed subject is supplied in 
Tib. mkhas. pa. 



ACCEPTING THE GOOD LAW 45 

for in every birth he beholds a Jina, and seeing him gains 
faith in him. He has the nature of the high minded ; he 
remembers previous births, and in birth after birth he joins 
the Order. Pure in his ways, and full of achievement. . . . 

" He becomes a taker of the spells of the wise. Even by a 
hundred ages what is good in him is not effaced. [44] He 
becomes endowed with understanding and is free from passion, 
in holding fast the Law of the Tathagatas. He is a Sakra, 
a Brahma, a guardian of the world, a king of men, yea, a 
world conqueror on the earth with ease, with joyous joy he is 
enhghtened with enlightenment, in holding fast, etc. The two 
and thirty marks are in his frame, blameless are his limbs, alert 
his mind ; all they that see him are never displeased, in hold- 
ing fast, etc. His thought of enlightenment is never beclouded, 1 
and he walks in the paths of righteousness with self-restraint. 2 

^ Join bodhicittam paramita carisu. * MS. kusalail^ ? 



CHAPTER III 

AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

We have told in general the means of preservation, etc., with 
regard to our three topics. Now we have to say what are the 
preservatives. Our memorial verse says : " Herein how do 
I guard my frame ? It means to shun the way of ill." i By 
" herein " is meant that we are concerned with personal 
preservation of one who is engaged in the acquisition of the 
Good Law, in such a way that he should not cause ruin to 
others. And this avoidance of evil is spoken of in the holy 
Gaganaganja Sutra by certain Bodhisatvas who are energetic 
in laying hold of the Good Law. 

[45] " We are patient, O Lord, now that the noblest of 
men has passed away. We will hold fast the Good Law, and 
be ready to lay down our body with its very life. 2 Leaving all 
greed and aggrandisement, leaving also all attachment, but 
never leaving that great Law which sets forth the Buddha's 
knowledge. With patience we will endure abuse and censure 
and words of revihng, because we would hold fast to the Good 
Law. Scoffing, threats, decrying, and defaming, all these we 
will endure, laying hold the while on the rule of life. In such 
a time of great terror and dismption for hving beings, shaking 
brethren and kings alike, we hold fast the Good Law. The 
profound scriptures which are composed for the fruit of salva- 
tion shall then not be acceptable to men : they will ponder on 
all manner of tales instead. . . . Such as abide not in the 
Law, to them we will show loving-kindness and compassion, 
the while holding the rule of hfe. And when we see creatures 

1 Karika 7 a. ' Read ^nfl'f^- 

46 



LAYING HOLD OF THE GOOD LAW 47 

of evil nature, abiding in desire and greed, we shall shed tears 
and say, Whither is the bUnd sinner going ? 

[46] So soon as we have beheld the transgressor of the 
Good Law, from afar we shall show loving-kindness to him 
that he show not anger towards us. 

We will be on our guard as far as in us lies, restrained in 
word and deed ; not too suddenly addressing such as abide 
in their sin : 

Yet with gifts and deference we will here ripen those men, 
and afterwards exhort them so that they may in very truth 
be beyond the sphere of sin.i 

Giving up the society of householders, making our home 
the wilderness and the forest, we shall become like beasts of 
the field, with Httle wealth and httle care. 

Subdued, restrained, set free, in yon village we will settle 
and preach the Law to such as strive for it. 

Very far, too, will we go when we hear of such as desire 
the Law, and having ourselves obtained the love of abiding in 
it, we will work the good of all beings. 

Herein seeing face to face the manifold error of all creatures, 
we will examine ourselves abiding in love for the Law. 

Well received or ill received, we must stand forth like 
Meru, and unspotted by the world we shall become the world's 
leaders. 

And when we observe the reproach of Brethren who have 
broken their rule of life, we will take heed to our own Action 
lest their action bear its fruit. 2 

[47] They will employ ^ murderers, saying, ' These quahties 
belong to those who walk in them : they are not found in us 
at all.' 

Monks we are, but have not monkish ways. When they 
have heard our full rebuke, they reject this sutra. 

* Reading -dpdpa- as in note " of text. With text, it would be : reading 
'if pay a-, " when they are in veiy truth in the sphere of perdition." 

' There is a mark in the MS. which seems to denote an omission in the MS, 
although no lacuna is marked in the Tibetan. 

3 Tib. apparently " dis9over." The Tibetan makes the following words a 
quotation. 



48 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

A mirror to men docked of nose and ear, how should it 
please them ? But when fully they have heard our rebuke, 
then they cast away the Good Law. 

The monks that will be receivers of the Good Law will 
thus act, and let no one listen to their doctrine. ^ 

Kings will receive it, and the people will be there ; as 
though under Buddha's authority all beings will hsten to that 
doctrine in those days : 

At that evil time we will hold fast the Good Law, sacrificing 
our body with very Ufe for it, for the good of all creatures." 

In the Sutra of the Good Law it is also said : " Let him keep 
to the sphere of duty, Hving a life apart, and pure : shunning 
intercourse with princes and with kings. 2 

[48] No converse let him hold with king's servants, with 
Candalas, or with gypsies, with drunkards or with heretics at 
any time. 

He should not pay court to those who are puffed up, but 
defer to such as abide in the discipUne. Let him shun monks 
of evil conduct and such as approve of the Jains : 

Also let him always shun the nun of giggUng chattering 
ways ; lay sisters, too, that are openly unsteadfast. 

Such women as are made barren, let him shun converse 
with these : he must even shun matrons and maids hving in 
their families. 

He must of a surety not address them courteously to ask 
after their good health. He must shun also intercourse with 
butchers of swine or sheep ; and those who are panders, with 
dancers, fencers, and wrestlers, and all other persons of that 
sort. 

[49] Let him not pay court to choice singers and all others 
who hve by luxury, let him wholly avoid showing any courtesy 
to these. 

And when the sage has to preach the Law to womankind, 
he must not enter their room alone, nor stand jesting with 
them." 

Here is another evil to avoid, to wit, that mentioned in the 

Read Oy^^ 51^*^ ||. MS. H^ff , a Pali ending. 



DISSENSION IS THE WORK OF MARA 49 

Prajndpdmmitd as a work of Mara. Mara the Evil One will 
make a special effort against a Bodhisatva who has not long 
entered in the Way. In the same book it is said : " Again 
Ananda at the very time that a mighty Bodhisatva is exercising 
himself in the Perfection of Wisdom, then do most evil Maras 
bring hurt to the Bodhisatva and engender fear in him. 
They send abroad and display fiery meteors in every quarter 
of the world. Would this mighty Bodhisatva flinch ^ or shudder, 
whereby even a single aspiration after righteousness should 
fall away from the unsurpassed full enlightenment ? 

" Again they will write . . . and study with their minds 
on other things. * We have no relish in all this/ say they, 
and rise from their seats and are gone. So gaping and sneering 
they will study. All this is the work of Mara. So too there 
will arise wranglings in village and countryside. Thus they 
will take anxious thought for teachers, parents, friends, 
counsellors, relatives, cousins; thus too about thieves, thus 
too of robes and raiment. Again, the preacher will be desirous 
to dictate . . . and recite this august Prajndpdramitd, and 
the pupil will be weary ; or the reverse will happen. The 
preacher will be desirous to go to another country, and the 
pupil will decline : so we must suppose. The preacher will be 
full of willingness, the pupil unwilling : so we must suppose. 
In a word, dissension whatever between teacher and pupil is 
all the work of Mara ; so are we told." 

[50] In the Gaganaganja Sutra, too, it is said : "So too . . . 
busying oneself in things which are evil and abandoning things 
which are good, all this is the work of Mara." 

In the Sdgaramati Sutra also we read : " Again, O Blessed 
One, the Bodhisatva becomes a dweller in the forest, one who 
delights in sitting and lying in remote places, with few 
wants, easily content, a complete recluse, having no inter- 
course with householders or monks. Because his aims and 
his objects are few, he dwells at ease, and i& not zealous for 
the pursuit of wide learning, nor for maturing the heart of 
man : and when there is preaching or discussion of the Law, 

' Read ^T^Qft^ n- 



50 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

or exposition of its meaning, he does not conceive it his duty 
to attend. He becomes indifferent to religious dialectic and 
loses zeal for searching after what is good. And thro' Uving 
in the forest, by reason of his delighting in soUtude, the 
passions never come into exercise. 

" He is satisfied merely with stopping the uprising of passion, 
and he does not open the way to the destruction i of inclina- 
tion : living there he is intent neither on his own weal nor his 
neighbours. This, Blessed One, is the Seventh Hook of Mara 
appHed to the Bodhisatva's seclusion in the forest " [omission 
of Hooks VIII. and IX.]. 

Temptation by False Friends. "Again, Blessed One, the 
Bodhisatva honours, respects, and defers to evil friends who 
have the semblance of the Good Friend, such as dissuade him 
from the Four Elements of ConciHation,^ from the accumulation 
of merit, from laying hold on the Good Law, and make him 
apply himself to complete seclusion, apply himself also to be a 
man without interests and without activity, and constantly 
preach to him discourses really suited for the Disciples and the 
Pratyeka Buddhas; and at the time when he would make 
progress in the Mahayana by means of the secluded Hfe, then 
they overwhelm him with occupations, 3 on the ground that a 
Bodhisatva must have occupation : and just when the 
Bodhisatva ought to be occupied, then they bid him meditate. 
And thus they say to him : * Enlightenment belongs to the 
active Bodhisatva, not to the idle ; if you cannot gain perfect 
enlightenment in eight or nine aeons, [51] you can never gain 
it/ [But even] in this case, reverend sir, the Bodhisatva by 
a supreme effort might after all gain the state which is known 
to have Nirvana as its fruit.* 

*'This, reverend sir, is the Tenth Hook of Mara working 
under the guise of the Good Friend." . . . 

Consorting with Backsliders. ' ' There is another class different 

* Read -dgh- for -dy-. 

* Dhamasamgraha, 19; Childers, p. 447. 

Reading paligodha with MS. ; see note on text; 

* This line seems to be corrupt. 



THE HOOKS OF MARA 51 

from the last, who belong to the Bodhisatva's Way, but have 
been pierced by the Hook of Mara, and walk in evil ways. With 
these he [the Bodhisatva] finds his pleasure. For they pay him 
court, but he having connexions with low people, never reaches 
the highest ideal but goes along the lower way, I mean the way 
of dulness, the brute deaf and dumb way. . . . This is the 
Eleventh Hook of Mara." 

The way in which the character of a Bodhisatva shapes 
itself through very weariness when he has made a series of 
manly efforts is described in the Ratnamegha. Here the 
Bodhisatva makes a manly effort in all the four Attitudes, 1 
and he makes his effort so as to produce neither bodily fatigue 
nor mental fatigue. This is what we define as continuous manly 
effort. And what is the nature of this ? 2 It is this which 
prevents his having fatigue ; which there would be if a man 
of httle strength should undertake a heavy task, or if out of 
due time, or if a man whose aspirations are immature should 
undertake a difficult task such as giving his flesh. Certainly 
the Bodhisatva has given his own person ; but the author is 
guarding against an untimely consummation ; for otherwise by 
the destruction of the seed, the thought of enlightenment, 
which would result from the Bodhisatva's fatigue, there would 
be destruction of the whole quantity of the fruits for those 
beings. That is why in the Gaganaganja Sutra we find the 
doctrine expressed, that untimely desire is the work of Mara. 

He 3 must not refuse to make up his mind to sacrifice his 
body on the plea that "this is an unseasonable time;" for 
unless he begin to exercise himself he would never give. 

Accordingly, with this principle borne ever in mind, one 
must guard one's person from all who check the maturing of 
thought-enUghtenment, who from infatuation murder their own 
welfare, from cannibals, and from all who have their own ends 
to serve. 

* i.e. Walking, sitting, standing, lying (Childers, "P.D." s.v. iriyapatha). 

* At end of line 9 add Tf. 

* A new paragraph begins here. In line 15, read dyam ahhydsa " with 
MS. ; see note on text. 



52 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

" Even when one gives the seed of the beauteous tree of 
healing, meet for man's enjoyment root and branch, it must be 
preserved from untimely fruition ; so must it be with the 
heaUng tree of the enlightened sage/* 

This then in brief is the evil that comes from the works of 
Mara. 

How to avoid Evil. How to avoid this evil we are told 
in the Ratnamegha Sutra. " And how, my son, is the Bodhi- 
satva to gain skill in the means for avoiding the works of 
Mara ? 

'* To begin with, by all means in his power he shuns the bad 
friend. [52] Living in a country unsuited to the faithful, 
observing the spells of the Lokayatas, 1 gain and honour, worship, 
deference, and excessive respect, all this he will in every way 
avoid : and all the other lesser sins which obstruct the way 
of such as choose enlightenment ; while the contrary of all 
these he cherishes." 

Avoid Evil Communications. In the same book, the 
characteristics of the bad friend are given. ' ' By his abandoning 
every one who has failed in morahty you may know the man 
who is ready to avoid the evil friend. So too by abandoning 
every one who has failed in doctrine, failed in behaviour, failed 
in conduct ; by abandoning men who take delight in society, 2 by 
avoiding the indolent, those who cling to the chain of births, 
above all such as have their faces turned away from enlighten- 
ment. If he abandon all association with householders, you 
may know, I say, him who is ready to abandon the bad friend. 
But observe, my son, that while he avoids all these con- 
ditions, he must not feel towards these persons an evil, re- 
pellent, and a contemptuous feeling. And this is the feeling 
which he must foster within himself : ' Since the Lord has 
told me, " Towards the evil principles severally, such as lust 
and the rest, man's nature flows and ever oozes, and from 
the association they perish," therefore I will avoid such asso- 
ciation.' " 

1 For this sect, see Athenesum, 20 June, 1900, p. 811. 

* Sangai^iikaratna. Cp. V.P. iii. p. 449, cited at p. 403 of text. 



TRUTHFULNESS 53 

Another evil is discouragement in the thought of en- 
lightenment ; how this comes to pass is described in the 
Ratnakiita.^ 

" There are four principles, Kasyapa, which obscure the 
thought-enlightenment of the Bodhisat if they are found in him. 
(i) To break faith with preceptors, teachers, and those 
worthy of respect ; (2) To show scrupulousnessness for one- 
self 2 and none to others ; (3) To speak in depreciation, dispraise, 
defamation, disparagement of such as have set forth in the 
Great Way ; (4) To approach a neighbour with deceit and 
guile, and not with good intent/' 

The same book tells us how to avoid the evil. 

" There are four principles which, if they are found in him, 
bring the Bodhisat va face to face with though t-enUghtenment in 
every birth so soon as he is born, and he does not become 
confused in the interval until he takes his seat on the Throne 
of Enlightenment. 

" What are the four ? 

" (i) He never knowingly speaks an untruth, not to save his 
life, . . . (and so on to) even to raise a laugh ; [53] (2) With 
good intent he walks amongst men, and puts from him deceit 
and guile, and unto all Bodhisatvas he gives the title of teacher, 
and unto the four winds of heaven he proclaims their praise ; 
(3) All those whom he brings to maturity in the faith, he 
excites towards the perfect enhghtenment ; (4) No longing for 
an inferior Vehicle. 

** These, O Kasyapa, are the four." 

And in the Simhapariprcchd it is said further : 
"He who makes no obstacle to teaching the Law, gains 
thereby speedily communion with the lords of the world.'* 

* Tib. has nothing to represent jdyante samsy andante, and translates 
dsravanti by bsten=stick to. A causal would be expected. Jdyante is 
omitted, as it seems to disturb the metaphor. Compare Cowell, Sarva-darL 
sans- p. 53- 

2 sva- must be understood in the text ; it is expressed in the Tibetan. 
Compare Dh.-Sni, 1161, and Mrs. Davids, ac? /oc. The text may mean: 
" to cause others to feel scruples when scruples arc not needed." 

E 



54 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

Again : 

"Thus know, O prince, through teaching the Law one 
gains memory of former births." 

So too in the same book : 

"Therefore, in all his births he loses not the thought of 
enhghtenment. Even in dreams he has this thought : much 
more if he be awake." 

Again he says : 

"Whensoever in pleasure grove, village, or town he in- 
cites to wisdom, by this act he loses not the enhghtened 
heart." 

Again, in the Manjusnhuddhakshetragunavyuhdlankdra 
Sutra, he says : 

" There are four principles which, when found in the 
Bodhisatva, keep him from swerving from stedfast purpose . . . ; 
his pride is abased, envy and greed he eschews, when he sees 
another's success his mind is transported with joy." 

The way to avoid the loss above described of the thought of 
enlightenment [of a duly qualified person], i is still more clearly 
set forth in this same work, the Ratnakuta : "in every bodily 
posture 2 to have ready the thought of enlightenment, as a 
foundation for the action." 

So we read in the Candrapradipa Sutra : 3 " I declare and 
make known to you : In proportion as a man exercises his 
mind, [54] so his heart becomes fully engrossed through his 
reasonings * fixt upon their aim." 

Despondency is an evil, and we see how to avoid it in the 
Ratnamegha. 

Evil of Despondency. See Introd. xxxii. " Now the Bodhi- 
satva must not let himself think thus : * Hard to attain 
is enlightenment while one is but a man ; see my energy 
and small it is ; indolent I am, and enhghtenment must be 
sought and won through hundreds and thousands of seons by 

1 Not in Tib. 

a See p. [518]. 

' The same book as SantddhirdtjU. 

* Cf. Pali vitahko in Dh. Sm trans, p. 10. 



ILL-JUDGED INSTRUCTION 55 

a saint whose head-dress is radiant with Ught.i I am not equal 
to bearing such a load/ 

" The Bodhisatva then must let himself think in this way : 
' The Tathagata saints of supreme and full enlightenment in the 
past, present, or future gain it in each case by a way or method 
such as this, in fact by this selfsame energy they gain it, 
tmtil they become Tathagatas and attain to supreme enhghten- 
ment. So I too will strive and endeavour by the energy 
which is the common attribute and the support of all beings to 
gain the incomparable and perfect enlightenment.' " 

Again, another evil is seen in the Ratnakuta? 

Ill-judged Instruction. " That the Bodhisatva should confide 
in those who are immature, is a mistake ; and that he should 
explain the exalted doctrine of the Buddha to unworthy 
vessels, is a mistake : or again, it is a mistake in him to impart 
the Lesser Way to those whose mind is set upon high things, 
and it is a mistake with those who have mindfulness and 
other virtues fully developed and all good quaUties besides, 
to show them a sUghting spirit which picks out the qualities 
which are vicious and evil." 

Want of devoted enthusiasm is also an evil, as it is said in 
the Rdshtrapdla Sutra : 3 

" In whomsoever is not devotion for Buddha found, he 
cannot have devotion for his Law and his order ; nor has he 
devotion for rules and discipHne ; his mind is evil, and his 
face is set towards the Three Hells. [55] And when he leaves 
the present birth, fool and blind that he is ! he is doomed by 
the force of Action to find pain, be it amongst men or in hell, 
amongst brutes or ghosts." 

The eschewing of this fault we found laid down in the 
Ratnakuta : '* If there are depths which his wit cannot 
sound he does not in this case deny; for he feels, Here the 
Tathagata alone is my witness, the Tathagata knows, I do not 

^ Like the Bodhisatva Amitabha in Buddhist art. 
' Quoted in V.C.P. ad V. 89. See also Bodhic. v. 90. 
* See Fino's text, Bibl. Buddh., II. 20 ^-^, This reading Buddhe is adopted 
in the present translation. 



56 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

know : boundless is the enlightenment of the Buddhas. The 
preaching of the Law is always going on, while the Tatha- 
gatas take account of the variety of dispositions in the audience/' 

Moreover, it is when one is actively engaged in service that 
one should be skilful in avoiding all these evils. For in the 
Bodhisatvaprdtimoksha we find service enjoined, both in the 
form of hstening to the Law and of worshipping the Tathagata 
in the company of fellow-behevers.i 

And what is meant by being thus actively engaged we 
deduce from the Ratnardii Sutra. 

" In this case, the monk who does service must win the 
approval of the whole Order. In cases where monks Uve in the 
forest, and have bed and board in remote places, the monk who 
is engaged in service must not offer every kind of service indis- 
criminately to them. But if, on the other hand, a disciple's 
task included in the routine of the Order should fall to the lot 
of the monk dwelling in the forest, then our serving monk must 
either do this himself, or must induce yet another monk to do 
it ; but in any case the forest-dweUing monk must not be 
pressed. Then again : In a case where a monk goes his begging- 
rounds, then your serving monk must give him a share of any 
choice food which he may have. Then too, O Kasyapa, in a 
case where a monk practises self-disciphne, your serving monk 
must collect means of assistance suitable to the occasion, and 
also requisites, medicaments, and appurtenances for any bodily 
failure ; and in the place where this monk Uves no loud noise 
must be allowed ; but the serving monk must watch over the 
monk under discipHne, must prop up his bed or seat, and must 
offer him food both hard and soft, pleasant, acceptable, and 
suited to the character of his disciphnary course . . . Monks 
who are devoted to the acquirement of knowledge he must 
inspire with energy," [56] . . . and so onto "they also need 
his watchful care. For the monks who are preachers he 
must do duty as doorkeeper ; 2 and until the congregation has to 

^ Tib. " in accordance with the Law," " as the Law directs." Query 
Rh. D. translation of Mahavagga, 6. 13. 4. See below [94]. 

2 Tib. " must make them indefatigable," apparently a different reading. 



DUTIES OF THE SERVING BROTHER 57 

be dismissed,! the assembly-room must be kept in order. In a 
connected discourse the room must be kept clear until there is 
the abundant applause which is his due. ... In no case must 
he associate with any object the notion of personal ownership. 
Any transaction, however small, must be done by sanction of 
his Order, not by his own ; " and so on, until these words : " The 
[property] of his Order must not be confused with that of the 
cecumenical Order, 2 and vice versa. What belongs to the 
stupa in each case must not be made matter for traffic to and 
fro. But if a deficit should arise in the oecumenical Order, and 
if the receipts of the local Order should amount to a surplus, ^ 
then our serving monk, after gaining an unanimous ^ vote of 
the monks of his Order, may do the business of the oecumenical 
Order by drawing on the receipts of the local Order. So too 
when a stiipa is broken down, the same principle holds good : 
he must beg from givers and generous folk and thus restore it : 
such is the ordinance. If on the other hand the receipts of 
the stupa are somewhat in excess of the ordinary, the serving 
monk must not hand them over either to his Order or to the 
oecumenical Order. ^ And why so ? Whatever belongs to the 
stupa, even unto a single fringe, ^ dedicated by believers rich 
in devotion, that is in essence a shrine for gods and men : how 
much more a gem, or object esteemed as such, or the hangings 
for the sanctuary that are dedicated. Suppose that hanging in 
that same shrine of the Tathagata fall into decay by the action 
of wind, sun, and rain : but a hanging which belongs to the 
stupa must not be bartered for gold. For that which belongs 

^ We have followed the usual meaning of uyyojeti in Pali, not registered in 
Skt. Lexx., but apparently applicable in Mhv. iii. 141, i*. The Tib. brtson- 
par-hgyur seems to imply the keeping of the attention of the congregation. 

2 Caturdisasangha : See Yin. Pit. ii. 14722 (Cullavagga, Bk. vi. i. 4) ; 
Description, Rh. D. in India Antiquary, i. 140; S.B.E. xx. 159, note. The 
masc. noun which we have supplied, probably Idbha, doubtless occurred in the 
omitted passage. The Chinese version renders staupika by " belonging to 
Buddha." 

* Dele note 2 in text, as we understand utsado in its usual sense of " excre- 
scence," which gives " surplus " naturally enough. 

* The Chinese adds, " distributing splinters," i.e. doubtless sataka. 
^ In text 56^0 read sa'fighe na divisim. 

* Dele note *, as ekada^dpi stands for ekdpi dasd, not ekddaidpi. 



58 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

to a stupa has no market price, and a stupa has no deficit in 
any respect. ^ 

" Any serving monk, Kagyapa, who in a fit of anger plays 
the tyrant over virtuous and worshipful men, for that unholy 
deed is on his way to hell ; or if born again in the world of men 
he becomes a slave, or has to take his orders from others, and 
to get cuffs and buffetings and violent blows. . . . [57] Suppose 
he give to a monk an untimely errand or untimely order, with 
threats putting him in bodily fear of chastisement, the hell to 
requite that unholy deed is called Bahusanku, and there he is 
reborn, until his body is pierced in a thousand places, is burnt 
and consumed in the flames : his tongue grows out to the 
measure of a hundred leagues ; and there in his tongue- 
nerves myriads of heated iron spikes are embedded. 

''Again, whatsoever serving monk makes a hoard of the 
corporate revenue as it comes in, and does not produce it 
punctually when it is due, or produces it with a contemptuous 
or injurious expression, or withholds it from certain creditors : 
such an one, as wages for this unholy conduct, is born in the 
womb of a ghost belonging to the hell of Filth called Jangha. 
There other ghosts get food and show it to him : the butt of 
their scoffing, he eyes the food with fixed stare, a prey to hunger 
and thirst, terrible is the torment he endures, and never does 
he get the food even in a thousand years ; and if by any means 
he does get it, then it turns into ordure or pus and blood." 

In the Tale of Safigharakshita another evil is recounted. "The 
beings which you have seen, O SaAgharakshita, in the form 
of walls, were once monks. These people defiled walls belonging 
to the Order with their spittle ; by the ripening of that deed 
they have been brought to the form of walls. Those whom you 
see as posts, defiled the pillars of the Order with snot, therefore 
they have been turned into pillars. Those whom you see as 
trees, leaves, flowers and fruits, were once monks who turned 
to their individual enjoyment the trees, leaves, flowers and 
fruits of the community, therefore they have become trees, 

^ Compare 56" ; i.e. a stupa is not a business concern with surplus and 
deficit. 



THE PUNISHMENTS OF HELL 59 

leaves, flowers, fruits. Those whom you see as a cord or a 
besom, turned to their own individual use cords and besoms 
belonging to the community, therefore they have become cords 
and besoms. [58] The being whom you see yonder in the form 
of a platter was once an ascetic : he was once rubbing down a 
small platter ; some stranger monks arrived ; they saw him 
and asked, What is this, O ascetic ? Will the Order be supping ? 
In a fit of avarice he repHed, Do you not see the platter is 
clean ? the supper is over. Then the time is past, said they, 
and become hopeless they departed with wretched and 
dejected mien. By the ripening of this deed, he was made into 
a platter. The man that you saw in the form of a mortar was 
once a monk. To him fell the duty of looking after the bowls, 
and on this occasion a single novice who was arhat had been 
appointed to take his turn at the stamp. The monk said. 
Novice, give me a morsel when you have pounded it. He 
replied, Good Elder, wait a moment, I am busy ; afterwards I 
will pound and give you a piece. His wrath was kindled, and 
he said, Novice, if it were my pleasure to handle the mortar, I 
would fling you into the mortar and pound you up ! to say 
nothing of the small piece I ask. The novice concluded in his 
own mind. He has worked himself into a furious state : if I 
give him an answer, he will only become all the more angry ; 
so he remained silent. When the other's mood had passed, he 
came round to him and said, Good Elder, do you know who I 
am ? Yes, said he, I know you are a religious novice of 
Kasyapa the All-enlightened, and I am a monk and an Elder. 
The novice replied. Even if that is so, I have done what it was my 
duty to do as religious person : What have I done ? renounced 
my passions ; I have cut away all bonds and am free from all 
bonds ; you have given way to bitter words and deeds. Confess 
your transgression as being a transgression : perchance so that 
deed of thine may dwindle, become small, and make an end. 
[59] But the other did not confess his transgression, and in 
requital was turned into the shape of a mortar. Those whom 
you see changed into the form of cauldrons, were servants of 
the monks to do their behests. Once they were boiHng 



6o AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

medicaments and were spoken to harshly by the monks ; they 
fell into a rage and broke the cauldrons ; and so they were 
changed into cauldrons. The man whom you saw cut through 
the middle and held together by thread, was once a monk 
greedy and grasping for gain ; overcome by avarice, he appro- 
priated the receipts. The receipts which belonged to the rains he 
accounted for as of the winter season, and the winter receipts 
he changed over to the rains. By the ripening of this deed he 
goes about cut through the middle and held together by 
thread." 



CHAPTER IV 

AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

There are also grave evils detailed in the Sacred Books. As 
for example in the Akdsa-garbha Siltra.^ My son, there are 
Five Root Sins of the anointed prince ; by which Five 
Root Sins the anointed prince destroys all the roots of merit 
which he has laid up from of old. Caused to fall by some- 
thing, and overcome 2 by them, he goes the way to perdition 
banished ^ from all delights of gods and men. 

"And what are the five ? When an anointed prince, ^ my 
son, steals the goods of a stupa, or of the Order local or 
oecumenical, or whatsoever is dedicated thereunto, either him- 
self or through another, this is the First Root Sin. 

" When, again, one reviles the Law as set forth in the Scheme 
of Dehverance either of the Disciples, or of the Pratyeka 
Buddhas, or of the Great Way, reviles I say or causes hindrance 
to it, that is the Second Root Sin. 

" Again, when he, himself or through others, takes away the 
saffron robes from a monk whether virtuous or not, who for 
my sake wears tonsure of head and cheek and the saffron 
robe, [60] whether he observes my teaching or observes it not, 
or makes him a householder, or inflicts chastisement on his 
person, or casts him into prison, or deprives him of hfe : this 
is the Third Root Sin. 

^ Quoted in Bodhic, p. 159. 

* See Vajracchededika (Anecd. Ox.), p. 32. Compare the text pp. 60^*, 
62 5. The meaning is uncertain 

* Reading pardjitah with Bcp., p. 159", as in the similar passages 60", 61' 
below ; compare Tib. The word seems to have been unusual, if not un- 
exampled, and we must suppose the scribe to have written the more familiar 
word pdrdjikah, " worthy of expulsion (from the Order)." 

* Reading 0^:. 

61 



62 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

''Again, when a Kshatriya of intent takes (i) his mother's 
life, or (2) the Hfe of his father, or (3) of an Arhat, being a disciple 
of the Blessed One, or (4) makes a schism in the uninjured Order, 
or (5) of intent and with evil mind causes to be shed the blood 
of a Tathagata or of an Arhat fully enhghtened : when he by 
these five acts of inevitable result does this or that deed, that 
is the Fourth Root Sin. 

"When a Kshatriya becomes one of those who deny all 
causes,! and cares not for the next world, but is always 
following the ten Paths of Unrighteousness and incites, leads, 
induces many others to these Ten Paths of Unrighteousness, 
and establishes them therein : this is the Fifth Root Sin. 

''Other categories of Root Sins are detailed (in the Sutra), 
and amongst them the causing division in village, district, town 
or kingdom. . . . 

" There are eight Root Sins which beset young men or young 
wonien, when they are incept ors and just entering on the Great 
Way ; which cause them to stumble, which destroy all the 
roots of merit that they have before fostered. Immersed in 
objects of sense, they go the way to perdition, banisht from the 
delights of Gods and Men and of the Great Way ; they sink 
down for many an age into the round of births, bereft of the help 
of any good friend. And what are these eight ? 

1. Discouragement of Hearers.^ "When any persons have, by 
reason of previous ill deeds, been bom in this wicked world with 
its five stains, but though their root of merit is but poor they 
have resorted to a Good Friend, and are taught this excellent 
and profound Great Way, and so though their wit is but small 
these youths are turning their hearts toward the excellent and 
perfect enlightenment, and such among them as are inceptor 
Bodhisatvas learn, rehearse, and read this 3 scripture excellent 
and profound joined to the doctrine of the Void ; and when 

1 Such as the Ajivakas. Compare Dh.-Sni., 1028, with Digha-N., i. p. 53, 
M.N., i. 407, quoted by Mrs. Rhys Davids, ad loc. 

* With our title summaries may be compared the summaries of 
mulapattis Nos. 2-8 given in Bcp. ad V. 102 (p. 161). 

The Tib. (43a. 2) implies a reading imam sutrantam, not idam (maha- 
yanam). 



THE EIGHT ROOT SINS 63 

they record it as they have learnt it and as they have studied 
it and publish abroad at length with clear sense and expression 
in the presence of others who are in a hke state of knowledge 
to what theirs once was,i whilst these foohsh worldlings not 
making the effort, as they hear are dismayed, are astonied, 
and reduced to distraction, [61] and by reason of this distraction 
turn away their hearts from the Highest Enlightenment and 
aspire no further than the Disciples' Vehicle ; this is the First 
Root Sin of the Inceptor Bodhisatva. And by this Root Sin, 
the youth destroys all the Root of Merit that he has already 
acquired, caused to fall by something, and banished from the 
joy of heaven and emancipation, and his thought of enUghten- 
ment is beguiled, and he goes to perdition. Therefore a 
Bodhisatva must first know the bent of disposition in his fellow- 
men, and only then must preach the Law to them according to 
their dispositions in due order. Thus he conveys them across 
the mighty sea of existence in due order. 

2. Dissuading from following the Perfections Preaching 
Ideals that lead to the Hinayana. "Again, the inceptor Bodhi- 
satva may speak thus to some one : You are not capable of 
practising the Six Perfections. You cannot become enlightened 
with the perfect Enlightenment. Speedily produce the thought 
of the Way of the Disciples or the Pratyeka Buddhas ; by 
this means you shall escape from the chain of rebirth. . . . And 
thus, as aforesaid, this is the Second Root Sin of the Inceptor 
Bodhisatva. 

3. Preaching Mahayana as Substitute for Rules and Discipline. 
"Again, the inceptor Bodhisatva may speak thus to his neigh- 
bour : Good sir, what is the use of monastic rule, the rule of 
life taught in the Monastic Discipline, or keeping the moral 
rule ? 2 Speedily apply your thought unto full and perfect 
enlightenment. Study the Great Way ; all the demerit which 
has been accumulated in act, word, and thought by reason of 
passions is purified and becomes barren by that study. And 

* I.e. as the Skr. gloss (p. Oo, n. ^), " who are in the state of mind which 
they were in before they took the vow." 

2 Following the Tibetan, the stop is removed to stand after surakshitena. 



64 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

thus as aforesaid this is the Third Root Sin in the Inceptor 
Bodhisatva. 

4. Undue Disparagement of the l^ravaka Yana. "Again, 
fair sir, the inceptor Bodhisatva may thus speak to certain 
hearers : ' Avoid, young sirs, the preaching of the Disciples' 
Way ; hear it not, study it not, teach it not to others ; hide 
away this preaching : no great fruit will ye get from it, nor will 
you be able to make an end of sin as a result of it. Put your 
trust in the teaching of the Great Way ; hear the Great Way, 
study it, and teach it to others. Thus you will bring to nought 
all the ways that lead to ruin and perdition, and will quickly 
become enlightened with perfect enhghtenment.' If they do 
according to his word, then they would be incHning to this 
wrong view; and both parties are involved in that Root Sin. 
This is the Fourth Root Sin of the Inceptor Bodhisatva. 

5. Self-aggrandisement. "Again: The inceptor Bodhisatvas 
may be double-tongued and teach falsely. For purposes of 
renown and reputation, from motives of gain and aggrandise- 
ment, they read that Great Way, study, recite, repeat, [62] and 
preach it, and teach it to others as far as the ear ; and they 
will use expressions like these : We and no others are the people 
of the Great Way. They are grudging towards others from 
motives of greed and aggrandisement ; because their neighbours 
have enjoyment small or great, they make this a ground for 
displeasure against them, they speak in dispraise of them, 
treat them spitefully, injuriously, and opprobriously ; they 
exalt themselves and not their neighbours. Next, out of 
grudge against others, they lay claim to possess supernatural 
qualities. 1 Then, by this thing they fall, they dechne from the 
bliss of the Great Way, into so great and grievous a sin, that it 
sets them on the road to perdition. As a man might be going 
to the treasure island, and to go thither, is for crossing the sea in 
a ship ; but in the midst of the sea should he with his own hand 
wreck his ship, he would lose his life on the spot ; even so 
when inceptor Bodhisatvas, who desire to cross over the mighty 
sea of good quahties speak from a grudging heart as we have 

* See Patimokkha, X 4, and note to trans, in 5. B. E., xiii. p. 5. 



THE EIGHT ROOT SINS 65 

described, they thereby wreck the ship of faith and lose the hfe 
which is Wisdom. Thus it is that these inceptor Bodhisatvas, 
in their folly, from a grudging mind, by their false speaking, 
dechne into this great and grievous sin. This is the Fifth Root 
Sin of the Inceptor Bodhisatva. 

6. Advertising One's Profound Knowledge. "Again, young 
sir, in the future there will arise both householders and houseless 
folk, inceptor Bodhisatvas, who recite, read and study these 
scriptures of the Great Way, that are profound, that treat of the 
doctrine of the Void, that are within the reach of Bodhisatvas 
full of energy, great sages who are adorned with the patiences 
and the rapt meditation 1 and the stages of degree ; and when 
they have proclaimed these Scriptures to others, will declare : 
* It is I who by my own wit have become wise in these 
doctrines, and accordingly I am teaching them to you out 
of pure compassion ' ; or again, ' You on your part must 
apply yourself until you shall have discernment in these pro- 
found principles ; thus you shall one day have insight into 
knowledge such as I have.' But at this point he does not add, 
' It is by reading alone that I myself am teaching you all these 
profound principles, and not by personal perception.' He 
sells himself for gain and aggrandisement. For this reason 
he becomes a transgressor in the sight of the saints fully 
enUghtened, the Bodhisatvas, and the noble ones of time past, 
present, and to come, and falls into a great and grievous sin : 
he deceives gods and men by means of the Great Way. Even 
the Way of the Disciples is not his ; [63] much less has he 
attained to the distinction of having entered upon the Great 
Way, still less is full and perfect enHghtenment his. 

" Just as a man who has entered a mighty forest may be 
oppressed by hunger and thirst, and may climb a great fruit- 
tree therein ; he wants to get food, yet leaving the tree that 
has excellent fruit, without tasting how full of flavour and 
fragrance it is, he might ascend a poisonous tree, and eating its 
deadly fruits, meet his death thereby : such I say is the case 
of the persons, who have found what is so hard for man to 
* " well exercised in " Tib. 



66 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

get, in finding the Good Friend, who have a desire to 
enter upon the Great Way, yet for the mere sake of glory, 
gain and aggrandisement, choose to make display of them- 
selves : they oppress their neighbours, and thereby commit a 
great and grievous sin, and thus incur the severest censure of 
all discerning men. Such men are on the way to perdition ; 
they deserve not the respect of any class, whether princes, 
priests, merchants, or menials. Nay, the man who does honour 
them is himself a sinner in the esteem of all thinking men. 
This, young sir, is the Sixth Root Sin. 

7. Princes and Advisers who rob the Brotherhood of their 
Goods. " Again, young sir, in the future princes will have about 
them the most degraded of chaplains and ministers and bravos, 
fools, wise in their own conceit, full of riches and luxury ; 
conspicuous in undertaking of good works that consist in 
giving, themselves consumed by the pride of almsgiving, 
ahenate the princes [from the ascetics] i through infatuated 
vanity, and the ascetics from princes. They will apply to the 
princes, and cause fines to be put on the ascetics, filching away 
their money by the fine. By reason of that oppression, the 
Brethren in question first take from the community of ascetics 
property belonging to individuals, or the local Order, or the 
oecumenical Order, or the shrine, and then what is robbed from 
them they procure to be given to themselves ; then again, those 
degraded persons will offer it to the Prince ; these on both 
parts commit a Root Sin. 2 [This is the Seventh Root Sin.^J 

" There are degraded Princes who will show malevolence ^ 
to the ascetics, and declare to them a law in accordance 

1 So Tib. 

' The problems of this passage are : Who are the sinners ? and what is 
the sin ? (i) The gloss in note ^ of the text identifies the Inceptor Bodhisatvas 
in question with the " degraded chaplains and the rest," and takes the sin as 
twofold : (a) alienation of class from class ; (b) misappropriation of property. 
(2) According to the summary in Bodhicarydvatdra-panjikd, pp. 161-2, the 
Bohdisatvas are monks (cp. line 14 of our text), who make over the property to 
certain Kshatriyas, and the sin is double because committed by two parties. 

With this the Tib. appears to agree. 

^ Added from Tib. 45a : compare B. C. P., p. 162, 2 

* But compare Pali padussati and JM. V., i. 114*. It may mean " show 
malevolence," and so Tib. apparently sdah, " anger.'* 



THE EIGHT ROOT SINS 67 

therewith ; or abandon the Law and proceed to declare what 
is contrary to the Law. For they disregard the Scriptures, 
the Rules and the DiscipHne, and abandon the great principles 
and the precepts of casuistry ; 1 they abandon also the 
precepts of skill and expediency found in the teaching of the 
Perfection of Wisdon and of universal benevolence ; and the 
precepts set forth in other scriptures beside : and this done, 
[ with intent to injure the Brethren declare to them as their 
course of conduct the adoption of principles in accordance 
with all this. 2 And by these courses of action, injury to the 
Brethren does actually result, [64] and they give up setting 
their minds upon the systematic practice of spiritual insight 
and holy tranquilUty. The Princes in recklessness become 
full of malevolence ; and by that course the depraved tendencies 
of the Brethren, hitherto lulled, are no longer at rest and no 
longer kept down. Nay, upon occasion the Brethren fall away 
from their fixt purpose, from virtue, from right conduct and 
right views ; and for this cause they fall into laxity, busied with 
many things ; no real ascetics although making professions of 
asceticism, no true celibates though professing cehbacy, giving 
forth an empty sound hke the conch, proclaiming the Law of 
Sense. 3 Meanwhile they receive all the more honour, esteem, 
and respect from the Prince and his court ; and they utter 
reproaches amongst the householders, against Brethren who 
strenuously keep the rule, and then the Prince and his court use 
injurious and contemptuous expressions in the presence of 
Brethren who strenuously keep the rule. All the goods and 
blessings which are found among the loyal Brethren, all these 
they transfer to such as dehght in meditation. On both 
counts 4 they fall into a Root Sin. And how is this ? The 

* Tib. 45ai translates kdla by nag. po. bsten. pa, " precepts of the Black One '* 
apparently. 

2 Tib. bya-ba-mafi-bar-gyuy-pa apparently " busy bodies," the opposite of 
samatha. 

Compare Jat./ii. 1271^, 157^^, poUhabbo, of things sensual. The Tib. reg- 
par-bya-ba implies sprashtavya. 

* A gloss explains this as (i) evil speaking, (2) corruption of discipline, 
on the part of the renegade Brethren, 



68 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

meditating Brother is good ground, but not they who abide in 
study, not they who are devoted to study, i 

"Those who are fit vessels for the spiritual stages of rapt 
contemplation, the use of mystic formulae, or patient endurance, 
who are worthy of honour and who are fit recipients, these are 
the lights of the world, who guide the world in the right path : 
these bring dehverance to beings from the field of action and 
passion ; 2 they stabhsh them in the way that leads to 
Nirvana. 

*' These, my son, are the Eight Root Sins. 

"The means of escape from them is set forth in the same 
scripture. 

" If these Bodhisatvas, when they have heard the name of 
the Bodhisatva Akasagarbha, should long to see him, being 
desirous of confessing their root sins, for fear lest they fall into 
perdition ; and if they worship Akasagarbha and praise his 
name : then this noble Bodhisatva, as it were, by good fortune 
appears before them in his own shape, or in guise of a 
brahman . . . and in other forms, such as a maiden's : he 
lays before the Inceptor Bodhisatva his sins as they were 
committed ; [65] and teaches him profound skill in finding the 
Means, his walk, that is, in the Great Way, . . . and he stablishes 
him on the Ground from which there is no turning back. . . . 
But if he manifests not himself face to face before the Bodhi- 
satvas, then the inceptor, who is a transgressor and begs for his 
aid, must in the last watch of the night, arise from his seat, 
and stand facing the east, and offer incense ; and Aruna,^ son 
of the gods, must be the object of his prayer, and thus he must 
speak : ' O Aruna, Aruna, great in mercy, great in fortune, 
great is thy praise in all India ; shield me with thy mercy ; 
quickly make known my prayer unto Akasagarbha the merciful. 
In my sleep show the means whereby I may confess my sin. 
May I attain to the wisdom in the Means that is found in the 

* Tib. must have read adhy in both compoufids without the negative, 
and made these the subject to the succeeding verb. 

Read O^^-bfTt^O. 

The Sun. 



HOW TO ESCAPE FROM THE ROOT SINS 69 

noble Great Way/ Then for the time he must fall asleep on 
his couch ; and as soon as dawn rises, here in our own 
India he meets the Bodhisatva Akasagarbha, here and in 
his own form. He standing before the Inceptor Bodhisatva in 
his sleep, indicates his Root Sin by the means of the Great 
Path, and lays before him further knowledge of the Means of 
the same kind. And by this skill in the Means that our inceptor 
there and then gains for himself, the rapt meditation, whose 
name is the Never-failing. Thought of Enlightenment. And 
thus he becomes firmly established in the Great Path," and so 
our scripture continues. 

In connexion with the formula of supplication that has just 
been spoken of, the following ritual must be gone through. 
"Thus must it be. In the wood or grove, or in the open, 
agallochum or the tagara ^ powder or something else according 
to circumstances must be used as incense. Clasping his 
hands, and offering a benediction on every side, and making 
obeisance with the five members, 2 he must utter the following 
formulae, to wit : * Sumrsha (bis), O merciful one, let it 
pass, let it pass, pass out, pass together, O merciful one; 
miirara, murara, O swift one, namucame, hhujayata, O merciful 
one, fill up the mystic gem, O merciful one, establish all my 
hope, bearing command, [66] sphugu (bis), eminent in love 
(seven times), eminent in doctrine (seven times,) O fulfil, merciful 
one, my hope, let them fulfil it, and in all ways may there be an 
advance towards painless bliss. Hail \' " The ritual act must 
be performed as before, is to be performed for the averting of 
all pestilence, pain, all fear, all that is against our benefit, and for 
the perfecting of all that is desirable. 

How to deal with Sin in High Places. If even princes and 
other persons of rank become Bodhisatvas, how is their sin to 
be restrained, 3 with all their superiority to others ? And then 

^ Tabernamontana coronaria. 

2 Translating pancamav,4alika, with the Tibetan, 466 *, as if it were 
pancarigika. 

' Niyamo is rendered by iies, and adhikyam by the opposite ma-nes (" cer- 
tain . . . uncertain "), which appears to be a misapprehension of niyamo, 
and possibly some other word in place of adhikyam. 



70 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

moreover they are bound by no vows, i How is their sin to be 
made manifest ? Or how far are those who are bound by 
vows involved in the other's fault ? There is no fault. When- 
ever this happens to a considerable extent, there the sinners are 
struck at by their names being known and pubUshed, to be a 
terror to evildoers ; the fact is, all must keep clear of all sins 
by mutual assistance. Or else, in proportion as a man by 
reason of natural depravity is not even receptive (of admoni- 
tion), but incapable, and so cuts through his root of good, by so 
much the more (must) those who are bound by vows (confess 
to each other). So much for this train of thought. 

In the Updyakausalya Sutra also another Root vSin is 
described. 

" What, young sir, if a Bodhisatva be regularly instructed 
in the doctrine of the Confessional Office, and for a hundred 
thousand aeons have been eating roots and fruits, and support- 
ing good report or evil ; yet if he dwell with thoughts that 
are bound up with the spiritual stage of Disciple or Pratyeka 
Buddha, this is a grave Root Sin in him. And, young sir, 
just as a follower of the Disciples' Way who has committed a 
Root Sin is incapable of gaining final Release while his present 
personality lasts ; so also one like yourself, if he have not 
confessed that Root Sin, and renounced those thoughts of 
Disciples and Pratyeka Buddhas, is incapable of final Release 
at the Stage of a Buddha." 

And in order easily to acquire and comprehend the above- 
mentioned Root Sins, as well as certain individual opinions, 2 
we add these memorial verses by way of summary : 

(i) When one steals what belongs to the three precious 
things to his own use, an offence worthy of expulsion is 
deemed to arise. 

(2) A second like offence is proclaimed by the Sage, if one 
reject the Good Law. 

(3) Another, when one smites a Brother even if of evil Hfe, 

1 Reading te na divisim. 

2 Cf. p. 402 of text, Add. Notes. The word may possibly mean " unique " : 
B2 App. The Tib. has hga-zhig-gi. 



MEMORIAL VERSES ON SIN 71 

or steals his robes, or casts him into prison, or causes him to 
leave the Order. 

[67] (4) Again, when one commits the five sins of inevitable 
result, or adopts false views, or causes division in village or 
other community ; each of these is called by the Sage a Root 
Sin. 

(5) When one imparts the doctrine of the void to these 
whose minds are not fully prepared, 1 or turns away from fullest 
enlightenment those who have set out on the road to Buddha- 
hood. 

(6) When one directs towards the Great Way without 
keeping up the disciphne of the Confessional Office. Or when 
one maintains that the Disciples' Way does not make for the 
total abandonment of everything like passion. 

(7) When one publishes abroad one's own good quahties 
while one attacks others, or injures a neighbour, moved by 
greed and aggrandisement or self-glorification. 

(8) Or again, when one says in utter falsehood, ** deep- 
rooted is my patience," or compasses the punishment of the 
ascetics, or is liberal at the expense of the Master, the Law, and 
the Order. 

(9) If one appropriates what is given to the Order or causes 
the Brethren to leave their life of tranquillity, 2 or sets before 
Brethren devoted to their studies the enjoyment of seclusion. 

(10) These rooted sins which lead to the great hell, one 
must confess to the august Akasagarbha, standing before him 
in a vision of sleep. 

(11) The same, when one renounces the thought of enlighten- 
ment, or refuses charity to him that asks, from keen envy and 
greed, or from wrath and violence to one's fellow-creatures, 

(12) for such an one as has no patience with, his fellows 
even when diligently propitiated by them ; and lastly from 
proclaiming a false semblance of the Good Law out of mere 
depravity or out of complaisance to a neighbour. 



* Reading -sva-, i.e. akv with B. C, P., 162^* and both Tib. versions. 
' Reading samathatydg with B. C. P., 163^. 



72 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

In the holy Kshitigarhha Scripture again it is written : 

" O mighty Brahma, he who has been ordained in my name, 
but has fallen into evil and immoral courses, and though 
reputed to be a Brother is a man of naught, no true ascetic 
although making pretensions of asceticism, no celibate though 
professing celibacy, shattered, fallen, overmastered by many 
and various sins, nevertheless that wicked and sinful Brother 
^68] may as on this day become a preacher to gods and men, 
yea, to all who are vessels of righteousness, may in fact be the 
Good Friend. 

"And all the time he is an unworthy object. Yet by his 
tonsure of head and chin, by his deportment in wearing the 
saffron robes, although this be done merely for parade, he may 
still foster many a root of good in his neighbours and show the 
way of salvation. Therefore, whosoever has been ordained in 
my name, whether virtuous or no, in his case I do not allow 
to emperors and kings even, in that he has been ordained in my 
name, that even with justice on their side they should inflict 
on his person stripes, or cast him into prison, or sever him 
limb from limb, or put him to death; much less unjustly." 
And how is the dead saint spoken of in this book of the Law ? 
*' Now moreover that man is like orpiment and musk," are 
the words. 1 In the same passage he says : " Whoso shall 
injure such as have been ordained in my name and are in the 
Way of Salvation or vessels meet for it, they thereby become 
exceeding great transgressors in the sight of all Buddhas past, 
present and to come ; their roots of good are cast off and the 
propagation thereof consumed away ; and thus they are on 
the road to Hell." 

In the same passage he says : " This banner of salvation is 
under the protection of all the Buddhas, namely the red and 
saffron robe." 

And in the same place we are told : "At that time, many 
myriads of disciples and many myriads of Bodhisatvas were 
confessing in the presence of the Blessed One a sin of this kind 

^ Apparently the relics of a saint are an ornament to the Church as orpiment 
to the brow, and of sweet savour. 



CONFESSION OF SIN 73 

which they had committed in a previous birth, which formed 
an obstacle to the acquisition of merit. 

" ' We also, venerable Lord, have reviled, have injured, 
have been wrathful against men who were in the Way of the 
Disciples of the Blessed Buddhas, whether they were vessels 
meet or unmeet for the preaching of many Tathagatas of old 
time, and have uttered calumny and defamation against them. 
Through that obstacle to merit, we have each had meted out 
to us in the three hells suffering varied, keen, fierce, and 
grievous,'" and so on : " 'All that remains of this obstacle 
to merit we desire to confess now in the presence of the 
Blessed One.' Others say : * We have censured and abused 
disciples of the Blessed One with our words ' ; others, * we 
have assailed disciples of the Blessed One, both vessels meet 
and unmeet ' ; others, * we have stolen their robes ' ; others, 
' we have diminished the uses and enjoyments of disciples 
of the Blessed One ' ; others, ' we have made those who 
were ordained in the name of the Blessed One to become 
householders, and thereby placed them in an unseemly 
position ' ; others say, ' We, O Blessed One, have cast into 
common prison disciples of the Blessed Buddhas, whether 
vessels meet or unmeet, for some transgression of which 
they were guilty ; 1 and by that obstacle to merit for many 
aeons we have each had meted out to us in the three hells 
suffering varied, keen, fierce, and grievous,'" [69] and so on. 
Therefore we now confess all that remains of this obstacle 
to merit in the presence of the Blessed One. For the future 
we would take the vow. May the Blessed One receive us 
and show pity, may he raise us up from endless sins.' " And 
so he proceeds. 

In the Pravrajydntardya Scripture again another evil is 
described. 

" There are four principles, O Mahanaman, which if a house- 
holder be addicted to, he is apt to be born at an unseasonable 
time. Thus he is born blind, or dumb, or tongueless, or a 
Candala, and in no case 2 blessed ; he becomes a scandalmonger, 

* Instead of handing them over to the Sangha. * Read Tf ^TTW* 



74 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

a hermaphrodite, or a eunuch ; he becomes a permanent slave 
or a woman ; or again, he becomes a dog, a swine, an ass, a 
camel or a venomous snake, in each several birth. And what 
are these four ? In one case, Mahanaman, a householder 
causes hindrance to the thought of renouncing the world, or 
of receiving ordination, or following the Holy Way amongst 
such of his fellow-creatures as have been called by Buddhas 
in the past. This is the first principle. Again, a house- 
holder out of craving for wealth or craving for his son, not 
believing in the doctrine of the ripening of works, causes a 
hindrance to the ordination of son, daughter, wife, or the 
conclave of his kindred, because of his position as head of 
the house. This is the second principle. There are two 
besides : revihng the Good Law, and anger against ascetics 
and Brahmans." 

The Ten Bad Paths of action are evil. 

In the book Saddharmasmrtyupasthdna we see that they 
are bitter in their ripening. From this work only a selection 
of the Scripture is here set down. To begin with, there is the 
retribution for murder. 

The writer says : "There are a sort of birds which can fly 
into a flame without being burned, but come out with the 
more alacrity, break the skulls of the victims in hell, and drink 
their blood. Other birds, which break the head and drink the 
hot brains. Others tear the tongue piecemeal, and devour it ; 
and the tongue, when eaten, again grows, more sensitive than 
the petal of a lotus. [70] Other birds there are, with names 
answering to their functions. 1 Some tear out the teeth, or rip 
away the veins of the neck ; some lay bare the lungs ; some 
devour the stomach ; some twist round the spleen ; some eat 
into the depths of the intestines ; they feed on back and spine ; 
others piercing the openings of the joints, and cut away the 
vital parts, and so enter and consume marrow and pith, 
amidst their victims' shrieks ; others with beaks like needles 

1 As a matter of fact, each of the above classes of birds has a compound 
name invented to describe it, for which we refer our readers to the text. 



THE BIRDS OF HELL AND OTHER HORRORS 75 

drink their blood, or pierce between the bones devouring all the 
six skins ; some tear with their nails, slicing off the fat and 
laying the sinews bare ; some fill their bellies with hair they 
have torn out by the roots. 

" Now there is a district in the Avici Hell stretching for three 
myriads of leagues, called the Quarter of the Dragon Birds, 
where the guilty one is devoured with the other denizens of 
hell for many myriads of years, and there is reborn. At last 
with difficulty he is released from it all, but is still surrounded 
by the net of misery. There is a second region called the 
Precipice of the Chasm, whither he goes, in search of protection, 
refuge, succour, on every side surrounded by eleven masses of 
flame, unfriended, bound in the bonds of the noose of his actions, 
girt in on every side by enemies ; at last he reaches a 
wilderness, and so comes to a more terrible pain than any in 
the whole accumulation of hell, and so he roams over the 
region of the Svabhra Precipice, and every time his foot falls 1 
it dissolves wholly away, yet as he lifts it it grows again, 
tenderer and more sensitive, thrilled by keen and bitter pangs. 
Thus, when his face is distorted with fear, every Umb and 
member is wasting away, this Svabhra Precipice breaks on his 
view. Down that place he falls, and he falls down for three 
thousand leagues : then a wind caused by his actions 2 uplifts 
him. And as he falls he is the prey of herons, crows, vultures, 
owls ; and this rising and falling goes on for myriads of years. 
But by some means or other released from this, and wandering 
round, he falls into the Chasm of the Wheels. Here wheels with 
a thousand spokes appear before him, with felloes of adamant, 
fiercely blazing and quickly whirling ; as soon as he meets 
them, they attach themselves to his body and go on moving. . . . 
[71] Dragging off all his Umbs one by one, they burn them, 
and the soles of his feet are pierced by spikes. So on the Hill 
Makkotaka,3 when he is devoured by the tribes of animals 
called Makkotaka even to the uttermost atom within and 
without. But as he is devoured, so each time he is reborn 

1 Read TjfiTift- ' Cf. Avaddna-sdt. text 258 (Feer, p. 176 fin.). 

^ Tib. gnad-hjoms-pa, " vital-tearing." 



76 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

more sensitive than before, and by reason of his sensitiveness, 
has an ever-increasing pain to bear over and over again. And 
each time that he is devoured, his skin and flesh return in 
larger bulk to see. This is the fruit of the guilt of murder." 

He next describes the ripening of the sin of theft. 

"The sinner who practises evil deeds sees a great heap 
of wealth, piles of jewels, clothes, money, and corn, but unreal 
like a circle made by whirling a firebrand, like a mirage or a 
castle in the air. Thus he is overcome by greed, and maddened 
by his past demerit, he imagines, ' Yonder thing is mine.' The 
deluded wretch leaps over flaming fire-pits in his pursuit of 
the treasures. He is caught by the servants of Yama pro- 
duced by his actions, and enmeshed in knives he is torn limb 
from limb, cut to pieces, and burnt, until nothing but bones is 
left. And yet that greed, which existed for endless time past, 
never fails to torment him even though he has been reduced 
to this plight." 

And as to sexual passion he says : " The sinner, after passing 
through that lane of knives and with difficulty crossing the fire- 
pits, is sent wandering by his past actions, and reaches another 
region, called the Region of Phantoms. ^ There he sees 
women 2 produced by his actions, the same whom he saw- 
before when he had sinned ; ^ on seeing whom, the fire of lust 
which has been accumulating for endless time past, arises in 
him. He runs in their direction ; and they by his past actions 
are turned into women of iron. They catch him, and devour 
him, so that from his hips onwards he is so devoured that not 
a piece is left of that body of his so big as a grain of mustard 
seed. But again the body appears only to be devoured once 
more. Though he endures keen and bitter pain, he cannot 
turn away from the fire of his lust, but runs again after the 
women : and the pain of all this is not so grievous to him as 
the fire of his lust. [72] Then those women, with limbs of 
adamant and iron all red-hot, catch the man ; and all their 

1 In 71^^ of text, transfer the stop to stand after nama. 
So better with Tib. 

2 Lit. " when he had consciousness of transgressing (the Law)." 



PUNISHMENTS OF GREED, LUST, AND LYING ^^ 

bodies enwreathed in rising flames, crush the doomed one like 
a handful of sand. Again he is born as before. . . . 

" Women are ever the root of ruin, and of loss of substance ; 
when men are to be controlled by women how can they gain 
happiness ? " And so on, to the words 

" A woman is the destruction of destructions in this world 
and the next ; hence one must ever avoid women if he desires 
happiness for himself." 

As to false speaking, he tells us : 

" The Sinner is caught by the servants of Yama, who then 
rend his mouth open and drag out his tongue from it. And his 
tongue, through the force of his actions, is stretched to a length 
of five hundred leagues, as the fruit i of his false speaking 
And at the moment when it issues forth from his mouth, 
the servants of Yama pin it to the ground, which is made of 
red-hot iron ; and a thousand ploughs appear, produced by his 
actions, fitted with red-hot shares, and by the strength of 
stout bulls they plough deep into his tongue : and in it are 
rivers flowing with blood, pus, and worms. . . . And the 
tongue is then as sensitive as the eye of the gods, until from 
agony he thunders, and roars, and cries, and there is no one to 
relieve his pain. . . . And while he endures this fierce torment, 
myriads of years roll by, and the tongue is still being ploughed. 
Yet this tongue (large as it is) somehow can always go into the 
mouth of this prisoner in hell. He with his face distorted 
with fear runs hither and thither, plunging into the fire-pits 
and is burnt therein. When he is thus maddened by pain, 
without refuge or retreat, [73] once more Yama's servants 
appear, with hammer and sword in hand. They grind him to 
powder from head to foot. ..." 

Again : the ripening of Slander is the same as for Lying ; 
namely, the tongue is three hundred leagues long. But the 
distinction here is, that the servants of Yama draw swords with 
red-hot blades and cut it up. And in another region, the 
tongue is eaten by jackals. Tormented by bitter agony he 

' Read l|j^ff, as the Tib, shows : 50 /. 7, hbras-bu. 



78 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

cries and wails with indistinguishable sounds because his 
tongue is gone. 

As to the maturing of harshness, he says : " They rip open 
his mouth and tear out the tongue. They slice it with keen- 
edged knives, and throw it into his mouth again that he may 
eat it. He, tormented by starvation, his face all emaciated by 
hunger, proceeds to devour that very tongue of his, streaming 
with his own blood and spittle. And the tongue although cut 
up again takes root by force of his actions. Then smitten by 
pain he writhes on the ground and struggles and cries. And 
while he is thus pierced with pain, his eyeballs rolling in agony, 
prostrate, friendless, and alone (for thus he reaps the fruit of 
his own deeds), the servants of Yama thus preach to him in an 
admonitory stanza : 

" ' The keen shaft of speech, which once was shot from the 
bow of thy tongue, which was regarded as harshness, 
behold here is the fruit of it.' " 
And so the text continues. 

And next he describes the sin of inconsiderate i talk. Molten 
red-hot copper, heated by his actions, burns his tongue. After 
the tongue it burns the neck, then heart and entrails, then the 
stomach, then goes out by the lower part. Then too the 
servants of Yama recite these stanzas. 

[74] " The speech which thou usedst inconsiderate, its words 
unconnected with what went before or after, senseless, and 
incoherent : now behold its fruit come to thee. 

" The tongue that never spoke truth, that cared not to recite 
the scripture, has never been recognized by the wise as a tongue 
but merely as a lump of flesh." 

He tells of the ripening of the sin of covetousness. 

*' Next he sees a hollow unsubstantial heap of wealth in the 
possession of his neighbours, all this the product of his own 
actions. Then impelled and driven to distraction by his own 
actions, he thinks. All that must be mine. Thus our prisoner in 
hell runs where that wealth is. The fruit of this passion 

1 See Abhidharmakosa, iv. 76, 77. 



OF HARSHNESS, COVETOUSNESS, MALEVOLENCE 79 

called Covetousness, increased and harboured and indulged, 
is that the sinner sees in hell everything reversed. When 
his vision is thus distorted, overcome by covetousness, a knife 
appears in his hand, and he runs with it ; and the other 
prisoners in hell also have knives appearing in their hands. 
With the knife he fights with them, until he is hacked to pieces 
so that not a piece of his flesh as large as a mustard seed remains 
on his body, and only the bones of his skeleton are left. . . . 
When he sees his neighbours' blessings, 1 he longs for them to be 
his. This is the fruit he gets from the poison 2 that arises out 
of covetousness.'' 

He then describes the fruit of malevolence. 

"A crowd of Hons, tigers, serpents, generated by his actions, 
surround him full of fury. Panic-stricken at their approach, 
he flees this way and that. But how can he fly away from his 
actions ? They seize him ; and when they have seized him, 
the front part of his brain is being devoured, while on each side 
he is gnawed by continual bitings from the serpents' fangs, and 
behind is devoured by the tigers. His feet too are burned with 
fire ; the servants of Yama pierce him from afar with their 
arrows." And so the author continues. 

[75] The fruit of Heresy, again, is great beyond words, and 
we abridge our description of it. '' He is overwhelmed in a rain 
of knives, of javelins, lightnings, thunderbolts, and thunder- 
stones ; he is constantly being consumed by eleven jets of 
flame and by the fire of thirst and hunger issuing from his 
mouth. 

"Because desire is the root of all evil, therefore one must 
fear." As he continues in the same passage. " There is a Hell 
called Fire-pit. Then what is the action that brings beings to 
birth therein ? When a man who is no monk but pretends to 
be one, hearing the sound of the singing, dancing, or the bangles 
of womankind, listens with mind overcome owing to a wrong 
judgment to the laughter, sport, and revelry, and becomes 

^ From Tib. hbyor-ba-mthon-nas supply sampadam drshtvd, or the like, 
2 Visasya is not in Tib,, which has the equivalent of karmattas, las. The 
sentence (as reconstructed here) is a sloka in both Sanskrit and Tibetan, 



8o AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

incontinent. 1 . . . Then the prisoners in hell are ground to 
powder limb from limb beneath a shower of iron, are boiled and 
burned under a rain of live coals." Similarly : we read of the 
Hell called Paduma, the Lotus, as arising from the remembrance 
of the pleasant flavour of one's former passions, and from their 
remembrance taking place during sleep. There these prisoners 
in hell are boiled in cauldrons, and are pounded with pestles of 
iron in vessels. 

Likewise the hell called Maha-paduma is said to come into 
existence if by the prayer of a heavenly nymph one brings one's 
chaste life to an end. There flows the river called Ksharanadi- 
tarangim, the Stream of Brine. All the stones of this river 
are bones, its weeds are hair, its mud is flesh, its water is 
molten 2 copper, and its fishes are prisoners in hell, etc. Like- 
wise, endless varieties of punishments are described for the sin 
of sodomy. Likewise as the result of misconduct with children 
he beholds boj^s floating about in the River of Brine. They 
cry out to him, and he plunges into the river through the 
impulse of grief and pain arising from his keen affection and 
attachment to them. 

So sexual commerce, evil in its nature, with cows, mares, 
goats, and sheep is described as bearing especially bitter fruit. 
The sinner addicted to this bestiahty enters by way of the womb 
into those same animals, who by the power of his action have 
been fashioned in red-hot iron ; and in their belly, which is 
filled with a heap of red-hot coals, he swelters and is fried for 
myriads of years. [76] Similar punishments are described at 
length. 

Likewise, we read of men falling into hell who have mis- 
conducted themselves with nuns even when these have been 
already seduced by others. So too of the man who uses his 
wife against kind. So it is with those who abuse other men's 
wives forcibly abducted or girls whom they have procured. 
Terrible punishments in hell are also described for sin with 

^ Semen emittit. 

2 Reading kvathitam, as suggested by the Tib. bskol-ba. 



PUNISHMENT FOR SEXUAL SINS 8i 

women performing a fast, with wives of preceptors, or with 
women honoured by the title of kinsfolk. 

In the Saptamaithunasafkyukta Scripture it is said : 
*' Then a certain one, O Brahman, avows himself to be 
chaste. He has no intercourse at all with womankind ; but 
when with his eye he beholds womankind, he gloats over their 
shape : he then dehghts in it, is absorbed in it, abides in that 
absorption. This, O Brahman, is said to be a chaste student 
who is attached to sexual passion, not one detached ; the 
chastity that he practises is impure. So too when a man sports 
and romps and dallies with womankind, his chastity is but 
impure. So too when one delights in dancing attendance upon 
womankind. So also when one delights in such sounds as those 
of dance and song that come from womankind through wall or 
curtain, it is said that he thereby deUghts in sexual union. 
So again when one delights in looking at his neighbour who is 
given over to the five forms of lust. So again, by applying 
the fruit of his chaste life in the worlds of gods,i he is attached 
to sexual passion, not detached from it." 

And how these lusts, although as described merely affecting 
the province of memory and wish, in that way tend to ill, is 
expressed by the same speaker in the Kdmdpavddaka Sutra, 
" Keep your heart, O Brother, from lusts : fearsome and terrible 
is that road, full of thorns and of precipices, a rough road, a 
bad road, the path of pain, frequented only by wicked men. 
Never is that road frequented by good men. You are not 
wondering, are you, why the Blessed One pronounced desires 
to be insipid ? 2 Full of pain are they, full of misfortune, full 
of anguish ; [77] in them distress increases ever more and 
more. A disease, O Brethren, are lusts, a boil, a thorn in the 
flesh, sin and a root of sin, 3 a baited hook, mere death ; un- 
stable are lusts, and delusive ; their nature is to deceive and 
beguile ; they are but as a dream. Nay, these are but wheed- 

^ The Pali Aiig. N. iv. p. 55 explains this by his uttering an aspiration : 
" By this my virtuous life may I become a god." Tib. sno. 

* Dhp. 186, appassada dukha kama, iti vinnaya pandito. Jat. ii. 313, 
Divy. 224 13. 

* Reading agha for adya, with Tib. sdig. 



82 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

lings of children, i . . . Like a trap for catching deer, a net for 
birds, or seine for fish, a snare 2 to catch monkeys, a flame of 
fire to catch moths : even such are lusts. ... In the case of 
one who long time goes after the pursuit of passion, there is no 
limit to what is put into the lion's mouth ; (he is insatiable) as 
butchers or beefeaters, as the appetite of snakes for frogs. 
There is no end to the number of those who for a long time 
follow their lusts, and are apprehended for thieves, and their 
heads are split ; they are apprehended for adulterers, highway 
robbers, plunderers of village or countryside," and so on to 
" cutpurses, and their heads are spUt, and there is no end to the 
examples of this. Lust is a thing grievous, sharp, acrid, sour 
to the taste, blood shed and oozing, a thing more widely spread 
than the water in the mighty oceans. ... In fact this body is 
full of suffering. It is a framework of bones, bound by sinews, 
clothed with soft flesh, enclosed in the cuticle and covered with 
the epidermis, pierced and perforated with pores, swarming 
with vermin, pernicious for living creatures, the dwelling of 
sins and evil deeds. In this body many plagues arise : such as 
disease of the eye, disease of the ear, and so forth, piles, blains, 
or fistula. . . . The body has torments, the body has pains, it 
suffers decay, is broken down, is bent double ; it is lame, is 
greyheaded, is full of wrinkles ; the senses come to maturity 
and then decay, [78] the elements of the body grow old and 
decrepit : " and so on, to the words " one should not at this rate 
have respect unto the body, crumbling and falling away. . . . 
''And what. Brother, is this insatiate quest of passion in 
thee ? 3 and who ^ is it entices thee ? How art thou caught, 
unmanned, attached, fallen into a state of attachment ? ^ When 
I enter Nirvana, and the Good Law is obscured, and you 
through your persistently pursued passions will be on the way 

1 Lai. Vist., XV. 258I8 ed. BJ.=2i2,^^ ed. L. 

2 So Tib. ; the Skr. word ley a is unknown. Query lepa ? Chinese has 
" dung." 

3 Tib. appears to read "^^ 

* Tib. understands kdmah, " what desire." 

^ Dh. S. 1059, ajjhosanam. M.V. iii. 201^ anadhyavasito anadhimurcito . . . 
kamesu vigatamado. 



THE EVIL OF FLESHLY LUSTS 83 

to perdition, when will you release yourself from old age and 
death ? Enough, O Brother, keep thy heart clear of passions ; 
this is no time for the pursuit of passion, this is the time for 
the pursuit of the law." 

In the U gradatta-pariprcchd 1 also we read as follows : 

" Therefore a man must cease from the fulfiUing of passion 
and lust, contented with his own wife, free from desire for his 
neighbour's, beholding her with an eye unbewitched, with 
distaste in his heart. He must continually apply himself to the 
reflection, that desires lead to the perfection of pain. And 
even if in the case of his own wife his mind should come to 
dwell on passion, then even in the case of his own wife the 
passions must be regarded as under the dominion of sin ; he 
must regard her with misgiving, regarding her as full of im- 
purity. Thus he must fix his mind. I will strive that even 
in my intent I may not gratify my passions, much less by 
sexual union, or by amorous solicitation." 

And again in the same work, we read : " The Bodhisatva 
in presence of his wife must reaUze three thoughts. And what 
are the three ? She is my companion for passion and dalliance, 
but not for the next world ; my companion at meat and 
drink, but not for the fruition of the maturing of my acts. 
She is the companion of my pleasure, not of my pain. . . . 
Three other thoughts are these : that a wife must be regarded 
as an obstacle to virtue, to meditation, and to wisdom. And 
yet three more : she is Uke a thief, a murderer, or a guardian 
of hell." 

Further, in the Candrottardddrikdpariprcchd it is said : 
" Then the girl Candrottara, seeing that mighty crowd as soon 
as it began to run, [79] went up in the air to the height of a 
pahn tree, and there poised addressed the crowd in the following 
verses : 

" ' Behold this my body, delightsome, radiant as gold, 
glorious in splendour ; this fair form by no means belongs to a 
man with heart inflamed. But those who renounce passions 
inflamed hke fire-pits, not greedy for things of sense ; who live 

* Chapter II.,=fol. 9b of the separate Tibetan translation of the work. 



84 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

the life of chaste students, held by their vow from the in- 
dulgence of the six senses ; who when they see a neighbour's 
wife call her mother or sister : these become full of grace, of 
beauty, supreme in charm for ever. 

" Behold 1 this brilliant city on every side, and the fragrance 
that comes from every pore of my skin : this I bestow not with 
heart inflamed, nay this is the fruit of hberality and self- 
control. No thought of passion rises within me ; fix not passion 
on women in whom passions are dead. Witness is this mighty 
sage before me, that what I know is truth, and verily not 
falsehood. Ye once were my parents, and I was once your 
mother ; I have been to you brother, sister, and father : who 
could fix a heart of passion upon his mother ? And yet again 
before I plotted for all your lives ; I once more, I was slain 
by you ; ye were all enemies and murderers of your neighbours : 
how can there be a thought of passion in you ? No true beauty 
do men gain from passion ; hearts that are inflamed with it 
go not the Way of Bliss ; nor do they go the road to Nirvana ; 
therefore passion must be eschewed. [80] Through lust 
men fall into hell, through passion they become ghosts or 
beasts ; priapean demons and goblins are men whose minds 
have been narrowed by passion ; through passion men are 
born one-eyed, crippled, with tongue awry, misshapen : every 
varied blemish is the portion of such as walk the miserable 
way of lust. When men reach the rank of universal empire, 
or gods Hke Indra and the Thirty or Brahma, or such as exercise 
lordship, they owe it to having followed a long course of con- 
tinence. Those who are ever agitated by lust are bhnd from 
birth, deaf, and idiot ; dogs, swine, or camels, asses or boars, 
elephants or horses, cows, tigers, moths or flies. But those 
who have followed a long course of continence become proud 
lords of the earth, great merchants, rulers over houses and 
ministers in peace and contentment they wax great. The 
slaves of lust come to boiling tortures of the skull, suffocation, 
bonds, stripes and threatenings, cutting in sunder, cutting 
away of head, ears, hands, eyes, nose or foot." 

^ Tib. Itos as for ikshadhvam in line 3. 



THIS VILE BODY 85 

In the Udayanavatsardja-paripYcchd passions are also 
described. 

'* He runs like a fly which has spied a wound, hke an ass 
which has spied something unclean ; as a dog to the shambles 
for meat : so rush fools in their passion for women. 

[81] "Enveloped in ignorance, clad in a mass of darkness, 
as crows to carrion, so are fools attached to women. 

"He is the prey of Mara whosoever has entered on the 
downward course. The lustful have but the same sort of 
enjoyment as a worm on a dunghill. 

" Like a painted pot of worms 1 wheresoever it be seen, 
full of urine and ordure, or a skin inflated with wind : 

"Mucus, phlegm, spittle, brain liquefied in humour, fetid 
matter discharges from the body ; like as honey from 
flowers. 2 

" Like an ulcer, a thing full of bones, with the mouth for 
its opening, a pile of flesh, skin, and such-like things, is this 
body, despicable and smelling raw. 

" Full of all sorts of life, as an ulcer would be : just so this 
body is a vessel of impurities such as ordure. The belly is full 
of the twisted gut, stuffed up with liver and lungs ; there are 
the kidneys with blood, bile, brains, bone, and marrow. The 
eighty thousand worms which remain within the body, fools 
cannot see, because they are enveloped in the net of delusion. 
[82] Men's bodies discharge impure and fetid pus by their 
nine wound-hke openings. Fools take a hint at word or look, 
but when once filled with desire, thenceforward know not how 
it is a place despised of all. Fools take to excrement, and feed 
on humours and phlegm. They cleave to what is abominable, 
as flies when they have caught sight of a wound ; sweat drips 
in their armpits and evil odours fly about. Evil deeds they 
do whereby they go down to hell, cherishing evil desires and 
evil principles. Foolhardy, they go to the Avici hell, there to 
suffer fierce pain. Unsavoury as ordure are women ; so the 
Buddhas declare. Thus 'tis an evil man that consorts with 

* Tib, " ordure," which is also a lexical meaning of klta. 

* Tib. joins kayad with bdldndrh, " from the body of fools." 

G 



86 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

evil women. Who penetrates a body which is but a receptacle 
for impurity, receives like fruit to that which he does." 

And in the same passage the author says : 

"Owing to these enjoyments, sought with pain and accumu- 
lated as though for dear hf e, they are not able to give anything 
to ascetics or Brahmans or to the deserving poor and suppliants, 
being brought into the power ^ of women, mastered, enthralled 
and enslaved by them. As a result of the same passion for women 
they have no power left even to contribute to the support 
of the woman herself and to follow the moral law. With his 
desire set upon them, he bears with the women's chatter and 
even with their threats, their angry looks, and their reproaches. 
When threatened by womankind, man though he is he subsides 
and takes a humble place, and has regard to her good pleasure. 
To indulge and gratify his passion he becomes her slave. Such, 
O King, is the evil course of the man who is tormented by lust, 
occupying himself in pleasure which is but dung, who delights 
in the unclean, behaving Hke a senseless fool. * . ." 

[83] " When they but hear of fever hke this, there is no 
emancipation for them. All the more they have to do with 
women, and take delight with them. They make a habit of 
wretched passion, and are blameworthy in their talk. When 
they have heard the Law, they speak, they are confused as to 
its meaning, and so they speak the good word. His mind is 
set upon a woman as a cat's is upon a mouse. When he has 
heard a saying of Buddha, bursts out again like deadly poison 
his fever of passion in a moment. On seeing a bit of filth, 
like a swine's appetite, it goes on for a moment, then ... it 
becomes greedy again. So it is that fools, bent on pleasure, 
forsake the Buddha's teaching, and make a habit of base 
passion which leads them to hell. Infatuated and given 
over to passion, they commit some dire crime and renouncing 
virtuous ways, go at the last to hell. 

" But the man who knows the path of duty in such matters, 
and carries no favour for womankind, has the path to heaven 

* Reading vasikrta}i with Tib. dbar-du-gyur-cifi. 



THE HINDERING OF A BODHISATVA 87 

ever clear before him. The highest enlightenment is not hard 
for him to gain. . . . The wise man, when he has gained the 
fitting time, and has listened to teaching such as this, will 
forsake all lusts in this world, and may enter the Order if 
intelligent." 

In the Prasdntaviniscayapratihdrya Sutra another evil is 
described. 

[84] "If (O Manjusri) a young man or woman were to slay 
all the inhabitants of India and take their goods, and if another 
should cause hindrance to a Bodhisatva whose mind is wholly 
set on good, or stunt his root of merit, even when he is born 
as an animal, if it be but the depriving of a morsel of food : 
the second commits an immeasurably greater crime than the 
first. And how is this ? The hindrance to roots of merit that 
might have resulted in the uprising of a Buddha is permanent. 
Whosoever, O Manjusri, behaves with spite or contumely 
towards a Bodhisatva amongst others has to fear therefore at 
that time as his reward three terrors, which are : the fear of 
being bom in hell, the fear of being born bhnd, or the fear of 
being born at the ends of the earth." 

Again he says : 

" The man who does him despite, or speaks to his discredit 
truly or falsely, or in a fit of anger speaks harshly or disturbs 
his peace : such an ill-disposed person is born in the hells 
with a vast body, and as a fallen being feels bitter pain. His 
body is five hundred leagues in length, he is for ever being 
lacerated and devoured by a hundred thousand dogs.i 

"The reviler has five thousand heads, and each head five 
hundred tongues ; each tongue has five hundred flaming 
ploughshares to plough it for the sinful word it spake. 

[85] "The unrestrained sinners that oppress Bodhisatvas 
fry in the Hell Pratapana, which surges with the fire of bitter 
pain. All too easily they may find birth in the womb of an 
animal in hell, to last for a thousand aeons. In the next birth 
they become cruel serpents with fell poison ; hunger and thirst 
overpower them, and make them commit merciless acts, and 
* iund is therefore collective. So Tib. 



88 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

even when they get food and drink, it never satisfies them. 
And if such an one after that birth appears amongst men, he is 
born blind, or wicked, or maUcious and uncontrolled. 

''The man who has spoken an injurious word, a speech of 
contempt for the venerable, when he passes from the world 
of men again goes to hell, so that in many seons he sees not a 
Buddha incarnate." 

Again he says in the same place : 

"As often, O Manjusri, as one Bodhisatva cherishes towards 
another feelings of hatred or contempt, for so many aeons he 
must make up his mind to abide in the nethermost hells. 

" A Bodhisatva can be brought to shipwreck by no other act 
than just the sin of defaming another Bodhisatva : just as the 
diamond, Manjusri, cannot be cut by another hard object, such 
as stick or clod, but only by a diamond, so a Bodhisatva can 
only be brought to shipwreck by defaming another Bodhisatva." 

[86] In the Aryasraddhdbalddhdndvatdramudrd Siltra, it 
is said : 

" Suppose, Manjusri, a man or woman in a fit of wrath were 
to succeed in shutting up every living being of all the ten 
quarters and all the worlds in a dark prison ; and suppose 
another man or woman in a fit of wrath were to stand and look 
askance at a Bodhisatva, saying, ' I will not look at yonder 
sinner ' : the second woiild be a sin immeasurably greater than 
the first." And again, in the same passage: "Whosoever, 
Manjusri, might be supposed to steal all the property of every 
one in India, commits a sin immeasurably less than one who 
should revile a Bodhisatva of any standing whatever." Again, 
in the same book : ' ' The man or woman who should wreck and 
burn stiipas numerous as the sands of the Ganges, commits a 
sin immeasurably less than one who abuses a Bodhisatva 
devoted to the Great Way, cherishing a heart of malice and 
obduracy. 1 The reason is this. It is from the Bodhisatvas 
that the venerable Buddhas come ; and from the Buddhas 

^ Khila. The Tib. tha-bais variously rendered " evil " (adj.) and " anger " 
(subst.). In Sanskrit, it means " barren soil," and as a derivative meaning 
" a problem that will not come out," " obduracy," See Pali hhilo. 



OFFENCES AGAINST A BODHISATVA 89 

come the stupas and all other depositories of blessing, and all 
the assemblages of the gods. When one neglects to honour 
a single Bodhisatva, all the Buddhas are thereby left un- 
honoured ; and when one has honoured a Bodhisatva, all the 
Buddhas are honoured thereby. Thus he who would show 
the highest honour to all the Buddhas, must needs honour the 
Bodhisatvas." 

And how the honour done to such persons comes to maturity 
is shown in the Prasdntaviniscayaprdtihdrya Sutra. 

" But he who gives righteous protection to such as proclaim 
the Law leaves behind all forms of perdition and becomes an 
Indra, yea a Brahma, a Yama, a Tushita, a Vasavartin, in suc- 
cessive births. And when he is born amongst men he becomes 
a universal emperor, [8y] or a flourishing and wealthy merchant 
or householder armed with wisdom and mindfulness, blessed 
and free from ill." 

But why speak of helping or hindering a Bodhisatva ? It 
is the same just with an ordinary person ; as is said in the 
Sraddhdbalddhdrdvatdramudrd Sutra. 

" If a man or woman, Manjusri, should give 1 day by day to 
all the beings in all the world, numberless as motes in a sun- 
beam, fine food of a hundred flavours and fine raiment likewise, 
and continue for the space of ages countless as the sands of 
the Ganges ; and if another should give but for one day food 
to but a single lay Brother whose only master is the Master, 
and follows the Ten Paths of Virtue, because he says, This 
man is taught in the teaching of the Blessed One ; then this 
person lays up immeasurably greater store of merit than the 
first. And if a man or woman likewise gives these countless 
gifts to as many myriads of lay Brethren, for as many ages, 
and if another gives food but for one day to a Brother ; this 
last giver lays up stores of merit immeasurably greater than 
the other." 

In the Niyatdniyatdvatdramudrd Sutra we read : 

" If all beings in all the worlds, Mafijusri, should have their 

* dadan here and below (87. 11) is a misprint for dadad. 



90 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL | 

eyes torn out (to put an imaginary case), and any man or 
woman out of a benevolent heart should restore their sight (to 
put an imaginary case) ; yet if another man were to look 
with kindly heart upon a Bodhisatva who is an enthusiast for 
the Great Way ; the last lays up stores of merit, immeasurably 
greater than the first. If a man or woman, Manjusri, should 
set free from prison countless prisoners who are in prison 
in all the worlds, and set them in the bhss of emperors or the 
estate of a god ; and if another merely desire to behold with 
kindly heart the enthusiast for the Great Way, and tell forth 
his praises : the second lays up stores of merit immeasurably 
greater than the first." 

[88] So too we read in the Kshitigarbha Sutra : 
" Suppose again, reverend sir, a noble prince, minister, 
soldier, ascetic, or brahman, shall have a care for his neighbour, 
himself, and the world to come, who shows care, deference, and 
honour to every man (be he meet or unmeet to receive the 
gospel of the Blessed One, be he a shaven monk or the 
friar clad in tatters of the yellow robe) and hkewise shall hsten 
with due respect to the word of the Disciples, and the Pratyeka 
Buddhas ; honouring of course the word of the Great Way 
and those who have set forth on the Great Way, when holy, 
rich in virtue, ready with fit speech, ^ with such he takes pleasure 
and delight, consults them and interrogates them, thinks he 
must listen to them and act accordingly. . . . How much sin, 
O Blessed One, shall he thereby cancel ? The Blessed One 
repUed : Well, fair sir, suppose a man arise who fills all India 
with the seven precious things, makes gifts to venerable 
Buddhas when they are there, and does the hke at noontide 
and at even, and so for the space of a hundred thousand years, 
what think you, would he lay up great store of merit ? The 
disciple repUed, He would indeed accumulate a mass of merit 
immeasurable and vast ; insomuch that it could be estimated 
by none but a Tathagata. 

^ Tib. 59, 1. 3 appears to have read muktdn (grol-pa) as a separate word, 
which is followed by rig-pai (translating an uncertain Sanskrit equivalent) 
spobs-ba-can {=pratibhdndn). 



MERIT OF SERVING YOUR NEIGHBOUR 91 

" The Lord replied : But the noble prince who acts as afore- 
said lays up a greater store of merit, in measure far greater and 
more vast. He who in the last five hundred years of the 
present dispensation preserves the leading ^ of the Good Law, 
he preserves himself, his neighbours, the next world, preserves 
my gospel, preserves also the disciples whether apt or in- 
apt [89] . . . (yea, all the Church), whether tonsured monks 
or friars clad in the yellow robe. He causes no hurt. Yea, 
he increases his own realm and the realm of his neighbour ; he 
diminishes the states of suffering and brings men to the abode 
of the gods and prolongs their hfe ; he destroys the depravities 
of himself and others ; he gives support to the Six Perfections 
in the way towards full enlightenment. He leaves behind all 
states of perdition. He has not long to traverse the round of 
Birth. He always associates with Good Friends and Venerable 
Buddhas, with Bodhisatvas and Great Beings. He is destined 
at once without separation from his Good Friends to attain 
full and perfect enlightenment at no distant time in Buddha- 
fields according to his wish. Then all spiritual beings from 
the gods and their attendants down to the goblins with their 
attendants arose from their seats and did reverence to the 
Buddha, and said : Whatsoever followers, O Blessed One, 
thou shalt have down to the last five hundred years, be he 
noble prince, or householder, or others as aforesaid, so they be 
preservers of the Good Law who shed lustre upon the traditions 
of Buddha, the Law, and the Order : . . . these, each and all, 
we and ours will preserve, protect, and give them increase, in 
ten ways. And what are the ten ways ? We will prolong 
the life of each, and we will duly avert any obstacle to his 
Hfe, we will give them increase in health, state, wealth, use 
and enjo3mient, lordship, fame. Good Friends, and achieve- 
ment of wisdom : these are the ten ways." And so he 
proceeds. 

And so with those who have not entered the Stages this 
course of ripening may be observed. 

* See Add. Notes to p. 88 in text. 



92 AVOIDANGE OF EVIL 

In the Avalokand Sutra moreover it is said : 

" He who makes solemn procession round the stupa of the 
Lord of the World, when he has aroused the thought of en- 
lightenment for the weal of all that breathe : " 

[90] Thus the poet goes on to describe the reward, and 
tells of further benefits ; and then proceeds : 

" But he who works mahce upon these sons of the Buddha, 
shall leave the worlds of gods and of men with hell in his sight." 

And so he proceeds in the description. And in what has 
just been said no cause of superiority can be seen ; and when 
we have said this we may pass on. 

In the Karmdvaranaviiuddhi Sutra, an evil is meant by 
the term hindrance. " Passion, hatred, delusion are called 
hindrances, and also giving, and the group of virtues, good 
conduct, patience, manliness, meditation, wisdom. . . . How 
so ? Fools and worldUngs, Manjusri, when they give a gift, 
cause ill feeUng amongst the envious, and from this ill feel- 
ing they feel mahce ; and through the sin of maUce and 
obstinacy they are reborn in the hells. Such men, when they 
practise good conduct, blame and gird at the ill conducted 
and speak in their dispraise ; and when they hear of their 
faults excite ill feehng against them in society at large ; and 
as the result of this ill feeling they are on the road to perdition. 
Such men when they practise patience, in their pride therefore 
exalt themselves and become heedless. * We are they,' say 
they, ' who are entitled to speak of patience, while the rest of 
these are malevolent.' These persons, intoxicated with pride 
of patience, fall into the pains which have their root in heed- 
lessness. When such men begin to practice manhness, they 
exalt themselves and oppress others. ' These men,' say they, 
' hve but the hfe of lazy monks, enjoying the offerings of the 
faithful without any personal devotion. They do not deserve 
even a cup of cold water.' Thus their practice of manhness 
turns to self-glorification and the oppression of others. I call 
them mere fools. When they reach the stage of meditation, on 
reaching it because of this attainment they allow arrogance 1 

^ So Tib. snems, although this meaning is not recorded for Sanskrit sprkd. 



CONTEMPT OF OTHERS FORBIDDEN 93 

to spring up within them. That is what they think. * We/ 
say they, * are they who abide in meditation ; the rest are 
persons of dissipated intelHgence : How can they ever become 
Buddhas ? ' " In this strain he continues. 

In the SarvadharmapravrttinirdeSa Sutra moreover it is 
said : 

" The Bodhisatva exhorts sinfully : enlightenment is far 
off ; [91] and he gets an obstacle to his merit. He exhorts 
enviously ^ : enhghtenment is far off. He exhorts with cere- 
monial posturing : enhghtenment is far off. If he conceives 
a mean idea of a Bodhisatva, and a lofty idea of himself, 
he injures himself and gets an obstacle to his merit. Now 
when a Bodhisatva has to apply admonition or instruction to 
another Bodhisatva, it is only after he has caused the other to 
regard him as a Teacher that he may admonish or instruct him. 
A Bodhisatva must not engender a feeling of contempt for 
another Bodhisatva, so long as the latter has not lost his 
enlightenment. My son, there is no way in which a Bodhisatva 
can so easily cut his roots of good as when he has to do with 
another Bodhisatva." Thus he says. 

The fact is, that even when the thought of enlightenment 
has not been produced, contempt for a being capable of 
enlightenment 2 is forbidden : how much more when that 
thought has been produced. 

As it is said in the Surakgamasamddhi Sutra. " Here, 
Drdhamati, we inquire what is meant by a declaration as to 
the thought of enhghtenment when not yet developed. Now 
such a man is born in the five divisions of successive existence, ^ 
whether it be in hell, the brute creation, in the world of Yama, 
amongst gods, or amongst men ; suppose this man to be keen 
in his faculties and noble in his enthusiasm : of him a Tathagata 
has foreknowledge. That man will develop the thought of the 
highest enhghtenment in so many ages, and in ages untold will 

^ Reading trshayd. 

Reading, with the MS., bodhibhavye. 

' Dh.-Sang. 57 gives six states of existence : nirayo, tiracchanuyoni, peta- 
visayo, manussa, dcva, asura. 



94 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

arrive at full enlightenment. This is what we mean by a 
declaration as to the thought of enlightenment, when not 
yet developed, for a Bodhisatva. On the same occasion the 
Venerable Kagyapa addressed the Blessed One thus : From this 
day forth, my lord, we must give the title of Teacher to all 
creatures ; and why ? Because we have not your knowledge. 
How many Bodhisatvas can be credited with faculties that 
will mature enlightenment, and how many cannot ? We in 
our ignorance, O Blessed One, might meanly regard such, and 
thereby we might be injured. ^ 

[92] " The Blessed One said : Well spoken, Kasyapa ; it 
was because I fully saw that this was the force of my teaching, 
that I preached to you in this strain, * Brethren, let not a 
man take upon him the duty of discerning between men. For 
a man is quickly injured in discriminating between his fellows, 
thinking he or one hke him might do an injury to a fellow-man.' 
On this principle, Kasyapa, a Bodhisatva and a Disciple also 
will give the title of Teacher to all fellow-creatures, saying to 
him, * May not such a man prove a follower of Bodhisatvas' 
Way ? ' Hence one must be on one's guard in this matter. 
But in a case where a man unmistakably shows a sign of 
the attainment of Enlightenment ; here one must be most 
carefully on one's guard against showing contempt." 

As we read in the Saddharma-pundanka Sutra : 

" Men joyfully make stupas to the Jina of brick or clay 
piled up : who erect even heaps of dust in forests or mountain 
fastnesses, in devotion. 

** Children playing here and there have made mounds of sand 
as stupas in devotion to the Jinas. All these have become 
partakers of enlightenment. . . . 

[93] " Such as on painted walls make a figure [of the 
Sugatas] with every hmb and their hundred sacred marks : 
when one so paints, himself or by another, all such become 
partakers of enlightenment. 

" Such again as when they were receiving instruction there 

* Cf. 15. 18, supra. 



MERIT OF SIMPLE ACTS 95 

and then were amusing themselves in sport, and made with 
nail or wood figures on the wall, whether men or boys they all 
became partakers of enlightenment. 

" Such as sounded iron cymbals or drums or water-drums 
or sang a sweet and lovely song in homage to the Sugatas : all 
these became Buddhas in the world. 

" And all the manifold worship done to relics, be it even but 
a tittle 1 to the relics of Sugatas, or if one have sounded no 
more than a single musical instrument, or done worship with 
but one flower, [94] they shall behold myriads of Buddhas 
according to their works. 

" Such too as have made homage of the hands before a stiipa, 
be it complete, or but a single joining 2 of the palms, or have 
bowed the head, be it but for a moment, or bowed the body but 
once, or have but once made the salutation ' Glory to Buddha ' 
there and then before the relic shrines, yea even but once and 
with distracted thoughts ; all these have attained the highest 
enlightenment. 

" Such beings as in that ancient day heard only the name of 
the Law from the Sugatas, whether entered into rest or then 
living, all these became partakers of Enlightenment.'' 

In the Mahdkarund Sutra again it is said : 

"Just as an angler by a large pond throws out his baited 
hook to catch fish, and as soon as he has thrown it finds it 
swallowed by a fish ; the fish swims about in the water, and 
yet it is to be considered caught by the line which holds it fast 
and is tied to a staff on the shore. Then up comes the fisher- 
man, and knows that a fish is caught by the tautness ^ of the 
Hne. Accordingly he lands him, and takes him off the Hne, 
and uses him as he will. [95] Just so there are, who amongst 
the Blessed Buddhas, bring their hearts to confidence, and 
establish a root of merit, even by one such act. Yet such men 
have often been born at an unfavourable time * owing to the 

* pi for pi with Tib., which does not support -kampi from kaitip as in text; 
" sakti MS. for sakti. 

' sutyalaghavena : Tib. than, explained by S. C. D. as " tenseness." 

* See Dh. S., p. 66. 



96 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

obstructive power of their evil actions ; and then the Blessed 
Buddhas catch them as with a Une by the Conciliations, ^ by 
reason of the knowledge of a Buddha. Then they draw them 
out of the waters of the Lake of Transient Existence and land 
them upon the dry ground of Nirvana." 

And this is why one must give to such men the title of 
Teacher, and when we honour them, must do the honour in 
heart. For even a novice is worthy of honour by virtue of 
the thought of enlightenment; just as Megha the Dra vidian, 
though himself a great Bodhisatva, honoured the novice the 
Reverend Sudhuna, bowing his whole body low before him. 
And this is a matter of certain interpretation. Just in matters 
Uke exhortations towards thought for higher things, reverence 
was to be permitted to every member, all and several, of 
such as follow the Bodhisatva's Way.2 And how can we 
avoid the contradiction of the same person receiving and 
giving honour ? Because we rely on their being mutually 
entitled to honour. Hence too we infer that there is no true 
hohness without giving credit for the same. 3 And the same 
is expected * in the case of a Buddha : we must not fall into 
the logical fault of regressus ad infinitum. Though alone, he 
must not fall short in this. 

In the holy Sarvadharmavaipulyasamgraha Sutra yet another 
evil is described. 

'* Subtile, O Manjusri, is the hindrance to good merit that 
comes from the rejection of the Good Law. In case of a man 
who speaks in praise of a principle set forth by the Tathagata, 
while in another case he speaks in dispraise : he rejects the Good 
Law. In so rejecting he denies the Tathagata, and rejects the 

1 Dh. S. 19 and p. 39. 

* " And by the expression all, we must undetstand oneself." Gloss, not in 
Tib. 

' We can make nothing of the Tib. nam{s)-su-blans-pa. We assume a 
strict causal sense in dsvadana, for which however we cannot quote examples. 
But compare the use of svddayati in the entire language, and Ved. svddana, 
" one who prepares a savoury mess." 

* That he must give as well as receive honour ; because if we give honour 
only to our superiors we should have an indefinite series of persons above the 
Buddha. 



THE LAW IS NOT DIVIDED 97 

Law, and traduces the Order. The man who says [of the 
Law] ' This provision is fitting, that unfitting,' is really rejecting 
the Law. T have never preached the Law in separate portions, 
one for the Disciples' Way, one for the Pratyeka Buddhas' 
Way, one for the Great Way. Therefore are they children of 
confusion who make divisions in this my Law : saying, * This 
belongs to the Disciples, that to the Pratyekas, and that to the 
Bodhisatvas. He who says this rejects the Good Law by 
describing it as being divided. So does he who says, This 
point of the Law belongs to the discipline of a Bodhisatva, and 
the next does not. He rejects the Good Law who says, The 
Preacher of the Law has inspiration, has not inspiration. He 
rejects the Good Law, who represents a principle of the Law as 
not a principle. 1 [96] He rejects the Law, who says. Although 
a Buddha no longer appears in the world it is unlawful to have 
recourse to spells. 2 He also rejects the Law, who defames the 
conduct of the preacher, or says that he is not endowed with 
religious grace, s or rebukes him heedlessly, or finds fault with 
his deportment, or rebukes him for following the letter rather 
than the spirit, and falling away from morality ; or says that 
he is not ^ effective with his intuitive wit ; that in him the 
light of true principles is not clearly seen. So too he who says 
that he sets spell against spell without enlightenment ; or does 
not sound the depths of the Buddha's teaching, because he 
cleaves to the letter ; or that he sets scripture against scripture, 
or sacred verse against verse ; or uses the letter of the Law as 
a test to make out this man to be devoted, that man not ; or 
who wrests the preacher's words into another meaning than 
they have ; or who attributes to him the action of one whe 

^ So with Tib. 64a i, chos-ni-chos-ma-yin-par-ston-te. The Sanskrit 
text as explained by the gloss {96, note i) appears to mean : " He who repre- 
sents a thing (dharmam) as really a thing rejects the Law," which, according 
to one sect at least, teaches that things do not exist but are really void. 

* We omit the next sentence of the Sanskrit, with Tib. 

* Tib. phun-sum-tshogs-pa, which contains the word for "three." and is 
explained by Sarat Chandra as " grace, glory and wealth." Cp. Mah. V. ii. 
357"- 

* MS. na added in margin of MS. which, as the sense as well as the Tib. 
shows, must be restored at this point. 



98 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

sees crooked i ; or accuses him of frivolous speaking ; or of 
inconsistency, attributing to him moral conduct in this and not 
in that, saying that this is well said and that ill said 2 ; or says 
that part of his preaching agrees with the Buddha's doctrine, 
and part does not : Thus, Manjusri, as far as he wrongs 
the preacher in any point, so far he rejects the Law. If the 
preacher is said or thought to be like this by Brother or Sister, 
by lay disciple male or female, each one of them rejects the 
Good Law." 

In the same work we read : 

** Whenever, good sir, it comes into any man's mind to 
preach to beings, according to their devotion, a precept of the 
Tathagata, who has entered into Nirvana ; if then in that 
congregation only one hearer feels one thrill of joy or lets fall 
but a single tear : in each case it comes by power of the 
Tathagata. At this point there will be sons of delusion, 
Bodhisatvas in profession but not in practice, who disparage 
the Bodhisatvas, hypocrites, 3 who will say to the preachers of 
the Law, ' Who are these ? they know nothing.' .... [97] 
When men thus throw contempt on Bodhisatvas, I cannot say 
that hell has any hmit for them. And why do I say this ? 
The Bodhisatva who reviles the preacher, is abusing Buddha, 
is rejecting the Law, is reviUng the Order. He who flouts 
the preacher, flouts Buddha. He who does not desire to see 
a preacher, does not desire to see a Buddha. He who speaks 
in dispraise of a preacher, speaks in dispraise of the 
Buddha. He abandons Buddha, who cherishes a thought 
of anger against a Bodhisatva, even if he be one who is 
only just begetting in his own mind the first thought that 
leads to enlightenment. ... As regards the full knowledge, 
O Maitreya, of the six Perfections, for the enlightenment 

1 The Tib. here is unintelligible. On further consideration we have restored 
vicaksuhkarma as a compound. 

* The next sentence is not in Tib. and appears to be a mistake of the 
cop3rist, whose eye caught the line above. 

3 " Men who deceive by a show of religion " : Tib. chos-rku-ba-thsul. 
Compare Sarat Chandra Das, Diet. 76, col. i, " chos-rku-ba; ' stealing by (im- 
posing on another in the name of) religion,' " with Tib. authority cited. 



DISCREDITING BUDDHA 99 

of Bodhisatvas, this is how those sons of delusion will 
speak : ' A Bodhisatva's instructions need only be in 
Wisdom ; what has he to do with the other Perfections ? ' 
They think that any other Perfection is to be disparaged. 
What thinkest thou, Ajita : Was the King of Kasi foohsh, who 
gave his flesh to the hawk to save the dove ? Maitreya 
answered, He was not, my Lord. The Blessed One answered. 
When I was living as a Bodhisatva, and accumulated the roots 
of merit that are bound up with all six Perfections, did I 
aught amiss in respect of these roots of merit ? Maitreya 
replied : You did not, my lord. The Blessed One said : You 
at least, Ajita, attained full understanding in the Perfections of 
Liberahty, Morality, Patience, ManUness, Meditation, Wisdom, 
in the course of your transmigrations, sixty aeons for each 
Perfection. Now these sons of delusion will say, * It is only 
by one rule that enHghtenment is attained, namely by the 
dcctrine of the Void.' Now I ask you, Can such men be pure 
of heart in matters of conduct ? " 1 

* The Tib. expresses this rhetorical question by a negative. The gloss 
(see note ' in text) implies that a negative answer is implied. The delusion 
here seems to be the supposition that the higher teaching, e.g. that of the 
Void, can be got directly without previous practice of the various aspects 
of morality. 



CHAPTER V 

AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

We have given a summary description of Evil. The avoid- 
ance of it may be exemplified by a passage like that in the 
Adhydiayasajhcodana Sutra. 

Commencing Bodhisatvas who are afraid at hearing evils 
such as these, must act in accordance with what they have 
taken upon them to do. [98] This is what they say : " We 
who are here present, O Lord, from this day forth, in the 
presence of the Tathagata do make this solemn undertaking. 
We shall have broken faith with the TathSgata, the Saint, the 
fully Enhghtened, O Lord, if hereafter we reproach with a sin, 
whether truly or falsely, any man, householder or one who has 
taken the vows, who walks in the Bodhisatva's Way ; if we 
contemn or speak in dispraise of such an one ; yea on seeing 
such an one gratifying or indulging himself with the Five 
Pleasures of the Senses, if we treat him unkindly, or upset his 
mind, or show him disrespect, or then refuse him the title of 
Teacher ; if to please friends or dole-givers ^ we inflict pain of 
mind or body to men who walk in the Bodhisatva's Way ; 
if when we see such an one we address him with but one ugly 
word ; if we should fail in one threefold reverence by night or 
day to such an one ; if we fail to sacrifice the acquisition of 
Kingship or of wealth, or life itself for the motive of the vow 
we have taken upon us ; if we show contempt to one who walks 

1 With Tib. slons-mo-ster-ba, " givers of alms," " patrons of the dole," we 
regard -ada as causal. Thus bhiksdda has not the sense of the later word 
bhiksdsin, " beggar, rogue." We abbreviate the verbiage in the following 
passage. 

100 



THE DISCIPLES' VOW loi 

in the Way of the Disciples or the Pratyeka-Buddhas, saying, 
We are more distinguished than they ; if we fail to Hve with 
humble mind, with mind like that of the lowly pariah ; if we 
exalt ourselves, or oppress our neighbour ; if we refuse to go a 
lea^e, or a hundred leagues, to avoid wranglings and quarrels, 
as soon as we are urged to do so ; if we profess ourselves to be 
virtuous, or learned, or pre-eminent in the ascetic practices, or 
exalt ourselves in respect of one or other virtue ; if we fail to 
live with our good points concealed and our faults confessed ; 
then I say, we shall have broken faith with the Tathagata, the 
Saint, the fully enlightened. . . . Then the Blessed One said 
to Maitreya the Great Being : [99] ' Maitreya, the disciple of 
either sex who desires to diminish the Hindrance 1 arising from 
action, must take a vow as these disciples did.' " 

Again, in the Sarvadharmdpravrttinirdega it is said : 

** Thrice by night and by day as often, he should do 
reverence to the Bodhisatvas : he should not spy out for any 
slip of theirs ; let him ever follow his duty according as he 
has chosen. 

" When he sees one 2 indulging in pleasures of the senses, 
he is not to spy out a slip in him ; that man also in time will 
attain s the good path, the best path towards enlightenment, 
with its endless stores of virtue. 

" By graduations of fitness * and by graduations of acts he 
will become a Conqueror, and not all at once : 'tis countless 
ages since he has set forth in the panoply of righteousness with- 
out a change of character." 

In the same book he says : 

** All [Bodhisatvas], young sir, who are in evil case, through 
the obstacle to good action just described, must see that they 

* See note to abstr. Bodhisattvabhumi, I. 

* Gloss : " A Bodhisatva." 

' Restoring the MS. reading ; see note in text. 

* Tib. rigs, implying the doctrine of gotra, as to which see Bodhisattva- 
bhumi, I. I. 

H 



102 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

fall i;ot into error respecting any of the conduct of a fellow- 
Bodhisatva. All his actions must be left alone. ^ Thus he must 
think : * I know not the thoughts of my neighbour ; men's 
motives are hard to discern.' Seeing the real meaning of this, 
the Tathagatava thus declares the Law : [loo] ' One man must 
not measure another. It is I, or one hke unto me, that can 
measure a man. Whoso desireth to preserve himself in safety, 
must never sift the conduct of any man ; nor must be censorious 
about his neighbours, assigning one character to this and one 
to that. He must be devoted to the Buddha's Law ; day and 
night he must have a longing desire for service to the Law." 

Then in the Ksitigarbha Siitra it is written : 
" Then the myriads of sages rose from their seats, and did 
obeisance to the Blessed One in these words. * Thus, Sire, in 
the presence of the Blessed One, we make our solemn vow. As 
long as we remain in the circle of rebirths, so long, since we 
possess the desire for the virtue of Patience, we will never possess 
the estate of a King, nor of a minister, nor of chief in town, 
village, or market, nor the chief estate amongst chaplains or 
soldiers, or even caravan-leaders ; nor yet amongst teachers, 
ascetics, householders, landowners ; yea, in all ways we renounce 
leadership over our fellow-creatures, until we are fully possessed 
of patience. Otherwise we should be casting discredit upon a 
profound principle of action, such as we have described, the 
gospel of the Buddhas." And so it goes on. ,m 

In the CandradTpa Sutra again, the avoidance of evil is 
thus described : 

*' Suppose any persons have 2 this idea, that no sin is not 
allowable, with such hold no intercourse in this late age. But 
if you must speak to them in ordinary talk, show them due 

1 A sense not easy to parallel ; but Tib. 66, 1. 6 has bya-ba-la mos-par-byas, 
"acquiesce." 

* The MS. is corrupt, and the Tib. gives little help. Query : Hi bhuteshu 
for kumdrd ieshu, which may help to explain (i) the gloss rdjakumdrdvdnt, 
i.e. " he means princes," and (2) Tib. gzhon-nur-gyur-ba=Awwam6/fw/a. 
Rdjabhuteshu would scan, but iti is needed. 



SEEK NOT THE FAULTS OF OTHERS 103 

civility. Do not hesitate to show them honour, for the sake of 
the higher enhghtenment. 

[loil " When one is elder, ask his age, then do him honour, 
bowing your head, and reverencing his feet. 

" Let him not look for a sUp in them ; for they also look 
unto the Throne of Enlightenment. Let him conceive no 
malice, but let the thought of friendship be in him. 

" When one sees a sUp in any of them, one must not pro- 
claim it as a fault : for whatsoever act a man shall do, he 
shall reap the fruit of it. 

" With clear and smiling face to young and to old aHke, 
be the first to say a kindly word, and ever be free from 
prid.e. 

" Receiving them with gifts of raiment and alms, thus you 
may do them a service,' and all will be leaders." 

And if one does not show outward respect or favour to 
one who has begun to cherish the thought of enlightenment, he 
should impute to him all the virtues of one who has begun to 
cherish thoughts of enlightenment, as we read in the Gandavyuha 
that the Venerable Maitreya did to his teacher Sudhana, and 
this for the following reasons : to guard himself against the 
danger of falling headlong into perdition, for the enjoyment of 
all pleasures seen and unseen, for the purifying of all that is 
turbid in the heart, for attaining goodness and activity of 
heart. 

" When [the good man] beholds mortals oppressed by old age 
and disease, attacked by a hundred pains, tortured by sorrow 
and fear from birth to death, moved by pity he directs his 
conduct for their weal : when he beholds a world oppressed by 
instruments of pain in the region of hell, he seeks for the 
thunderbolt of knowledge which surely breaks these instruments 
of pain in that region. 

[102] " He seeks for the strong plow of knowledge in order 
to clear the field of the world, which is covered with the scrub, 

* There is nothing in the Tib. to represent cittam ; the translation of the 
pada being : de-dag-la ni phan gdags in, " by doing them a service," which 
suggests hitam. 



104 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

thorns, and weeds of passion and hate, and all tangled with 
thick undergrowth of heretical doctrine, i 

" The world is sunk in delusion, ignorance, and greed, with 
the eye of wisdom bhnded, and its guide lost. He will lead the 
world Uke a caravan, well able to show it safe places. 

"Riding upon the chariot, and clad in the armour of 
patience, drawing the sword of knowledge against sin his foe, 
son of heroes, giver of peace, he will be the guide of the world. 2 

" As a well- trained captain he guides the ship of the Law 
on its voyage on the sea of knowledge : holding the helm, he 
steers it to the isle of the priceless treasure of peace over the 
ocean of threefold existence. 

' ' He is a sun whose disc is resolution, whose rays are know- 
ledge, illumining all the world of beings, rising over the world 
of being as the sun in the sky, he is pointed out 3 as the Buddha 
sun. 

" Cooling with meditation on brotherly love as with sandal- 
wood, shining fair on all beings aUke, in his purity like the moon 
at the full, he is pointed out as the Buddha moon. 

"He will stand upon the firm ground of resolution, and 
walk in the path of a Buddha's conduct : he will be the shrine 
of all the jewels of the law, the chief ocean of knowledge.* 

" Having the power of the lord of snakes & for the enlighten- 
ment of the heart, as the rain falls from the clouds upon corn 
and fruit, [103] so he will send into the world of being increase 
of every noble act. 

"He is as the lamp- wick of purity which drives away the 
darkness of the threefold defilement ; he is the sure vessel 
of benevolence, affection, and mindfulness ; as the lamp of the 



1 The two accusative adjectives agree with the noun implied in the compound 
satva. For dosha the Tib. has sdan, " hatred "=dvesha ; as in Pali doso, and 
the list of five saiigas in Childers, of which rdga and dosha are the first two 
and ditthi the last. 

' Read varma* with Tib. and Chinese versions. 

' There seems to be a confusion between sanmddesyate and samudeshyati : 
Tib. has " rise-.," 

* Read sdgara. 

^ I.e. power to bring rain. 



COMPARISONS OF THE GOOD MAN 105 

Law, he will enkindle on every side the radiant and pure fire 
of the enlightened heart. 

" The thought of enhghtenment is the germ ; in the second 
stage of growth is compassion ; the third is brotherly love, 
firm, steadfast in resolve ; then the limbs duly grow forth, 
which are enlightenment ; and so it finally develops into the 
embryo Buddha. 1 

"In so far as he is born with the embryo of resolution, in 
so far he will develop the embryo of holiness and of prudence, 
and will be manifested as the embryo of knowledge. 

" As those rare men in this world, endowed with mercy and 
brotherly love, with minds bent upon good and the salvation 
of beings : so is he pure in heart. 

" As a tree which stands being well rooted in resolution and 
grows through firm unswerving practice to give shade to the 
three classes of beings, a tree most rare that gives the fruit of 
knowledge. 

" He being desirous to perfect all good qualities, eager to 
question on all things, and to cut away every doubt, he uses 
every friend assiduously. 2 

[104] " He cleanses the sin and depravity which come from 
Mara, he purifies the defilement and desire 3 that come from 
heresy, he is active for the salvation of all the world, he is ever 
wise in searching for excellent things. 

" In whatever path of virtue he stands, he makes hell empty 
and shows the way to heaven, and will lead the way to final 
release. 

" He releases from misery in all the kinds of existence, he 
gives happiness in all the kinds of existence, he cuts all the 
bonds of existence, he will become the illuminator of the states 
of existence." 

By thinking of this the avoidance of evil becomes easy. 
Then in the Adhyd'sanasancodana Sutra the avoidance of 

* Technical terms of Indian embryology are used. See Jolly, Meditin, 41. 
' " Good friends," gloss. 

* Reading ^irshva*' ; see p. 103, note i", to which the note 1 p. 104 refers. 



io6 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

evil is described. " There are four qualities, Maitreya, wherewith 
if the follower of the Bodhisatva's Way be armed he will be 
happily saved even when the destruction of the Good Law is 
going on in the five hundred ^ latter years. And what are the 
four ? 

" Heedfulness intent upon his own faiUngs ; charity for the 
sins of his brother Bodhisatvas ; not excessively to regard the 
opinions even of the tribes of one's friends and fellow-monks ; 
abstaining from senseless talk. With these four, Maitreya," 
as before. " There are four others : and what are these ? 
Avoidance of ignorant men ; having no addiction to company ; 
keeping bed and board in remote places ; the practice of self- 
control and quietism. With these four," and so forth. 

Again in the same work we read : 

" The commencing Bodhisatva, Maitreya, who has attained 
to wisdom, must eschew greed of gain and honour, but must 
regard such greed as a sin. . . .2 [105] He must eschew taking 
pleasure in society, but must regard it as a sin ; he must eschew 
taking pleasure in talk, or slumber, or action of all kinds, or 
useless activity 3 but must regard each as a sin. ... In this 
connexion, Maitreya, the Bodhisatva, the Great Being, must 
regard greed of gain and honour as begetting passion, as causing 
the failure of watchfulness, as causing pride or despondency 
according as one gets or does not get, as making delusion arise, 
as tending towards selfishness in the family, as giving rise to 
cunning by promoting one's personal interest, as causing 
shamelessness by avoiding the society of the four castes ; ^ 
likewise greed of gain and glory must be regarded as having 
the disapproval of all the Buddhas, and as giving rise to pride 
and infatuation. This greed despises its teachers, is of the 
host of Mara, has its root in utter heedlessness, cuts off the root 
of good, is like to a wheel of lightning and the thunderbolt ; 



^ The Tib. again supports the correction of 50 to 500. 
2 Cp. Ang.-Nik., iii. p. ^49. 
' See below, 115. 

* I.e. apparently, if it tempts him to live amongst degraded people for 
greed's sake. 



THE EVIL OF GREED 107 

it is full of longings and cravings, it has excessive regard 
for the opinions of the tribes of friends and fellow-monks, 
produces dejected melancholy and distraction of wit, makes one 
partaker of pain by giving him beloved objects, robs him of the 
four forms of mindfulness, weakens his moral quality, makes 
him eschew the four kinds of quietism, 1 destroys transcendent 
knowledge and the supernatural faculties, makes him now do 
honour, now dishonour, honour his enemy and desert his friend, 
like a courtezan seduces him, makes him abstain from medi- 
tation and the perfect exercise of virtue, 2 causes him to fall 
into hell, the womb of a beast, or the world of Yama, makes 
him Uke Devadatta and Udraka 3 in conduct. So he must 
regard the greed of gain and honour. 

[106] " These are the evil results, Maitreya, which the 
Bodhisatva must regard as inherent in the greed of gain and 
honour. With this view, he must rejoice in having modest 
wants, and must not torment himself. And why so ? For the 
man of modest wants, Maitreya, has no faults of this kind, 
nor anything to hinder his becoming a Buddha. He is not 
moody with householders or members of the Order ; he is 
worthy of the protection of gods and men, as abiding in his 
pure principles ; whatever calamity may befall, he is undis- 
mayed ; he is not overcome when assailed by threats ^ ; not 
to be caught, being released from Mara's domain ; not to be 
tempted by any vice ; beloved both by gods and men ; ^ ever 
abiding in the practice of ecstatic meditation, he becomes pure ; 
devoid of all guile and cunning, perceiving the mischief of the 

* The four prahdnas embody the ideal of avoiding all kinds of Karma. See 
M. Vyut. 39, which gives them ; where the expression pradadhdti is used 
indeed, but is not confused with pra-hd-, as is done first by Childers 435a, 
after him by Wenzel, Dh. Sgr. 44, Sarat Ch., Tib. Diet. 1127, and Senart, M. 
Vst. ii. 519. 

' See M. Vyut. 69, Childers, s.v. appamanhd : friendliness, compassion, 
goodwill, equanimity. 

3 M. Vyut. 1781, a heresiarch. 

Reading tarjanddhigatah, dh and v being practically indistinguishable 
in MS. 

^ The Tibetan arrangement places a stop after bhavati in line 7, which is 
preferable to that of the MS. 



ro8 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

five pleasures of sense, he is vigilant ; a man of his word, by 
living in a good caste ; i beloved by the wise and the chaste. 
Such, Maitreya, are the blessings which the Bodhisatva who is 
wise must recognize, and therefore must take delight in a 
resolution towards moderation in his wants. Therefore one 
must cherish moderation so as to put an end to the greed of 
gain and honour." 

As touching the delight in society, it is thus written. 

" Avoiding passion, avoiding fault, the devotee does not 
mix in society : bent and devoted he is to this end ; so he 
would not take dehght in that fault. 

" Pride, laughter, and also wranghng, all these are found in 
society : wicked and unrestrained is the life of him who frequent 
vain society. 

" The fools delight in worldly talk ; 2 the fools renounce 
converse on higher things in this life ; [107] strife and super- 
fluity of wranglings increase ; on account of that fault [the 
Bodhisatva] is not to be found amongst them. 

" And the Brother also does not thrive by learning when 
once he has set his affection on improper talk : therefore eschew 
improper talk, and take your delight in the Law continually. 

" A thousand times did I give up my members, 3 because 
each time I longed for enlightenment ; never did I get my fill 
in hearing the Law ; but they will be wearied in listening to 
the Law. 

'* Altogether to be eschewed is talk improper and un- 
hallowed : thus set your affection upon the precious Law, which 
is hard to attain in many a hundred ages. 

" He who hves in the forest, virtue his quest, must not pry 
about for a neighbour's fault, nor must he allow the thought 
to rise, that he alone is the elect, he best alone. 

[108] " Such infatuation is the root of all heedlessness : 

^ Cp. 105I above (trans., p. io6). 

Tib. uses here and hereafter the word smra (used io8^ for bhashya) for 
mantra, apparently in the sense of " talk," which suits the context better ; 
but we can find no exact Sanskrit authority for it, although the word means 
" counsel." 

' a^tdni is a misprint for angdni. 



THE EVIL OF TALKATIVENESS 109 

even lowly Brethren are not to be despised : this is the regular 
course ^ of the gospel in the world, in one birth 2 none can 
obtain enlightenment." 

In the same place he discusses dehght in talk. 

" These are the faults of the man who delights in talk. 
Intoxicated with learning he loses respect, and becomes im- 
mersed in contentious talk. He becomes forgetful and un- 
discerning. 

" He is far from thought centred on the inner self,^ neither 
thought nor body is tranquil ; he falls into pride or despon- 
dency ; these are the faults of one who delights in talk. 

** The fool is ready to fall away from thought on the Good 
Law ; he is harsh and unkindly in heart, far from insight and 
holy calm ; these are the faults of one who delights in talk. 

*' He ever lacks respect for teachers, [109] having conceived 
an affection for talk * about worldly desires ; abides in that 
which is naught, is bereft of wisdom : such are the faults of 
one who dehghts in talk. 

" He receives no honour from the gods ^ ; they conceive 
no affection for him in that respect ; he is devoid of discernment : 
such are the faults of one who delights in talk. 

" He is reproved also by wise men, such as are eyewitnesses ^ 
from time to time, his life is aimless : such are the faults of one 
who delights in talk. 

" Suppose the fool has to die, he grieves : * I have achieved 
nothing, 7 what am I to do this day ? ' He is plunged in an 
abyss of sorrow. Such are the faults of one who delights in 
talk. 

"He is unstable as grass waving in the wind ; so wavers 
he, be sure ; never is his mind firmly fixed : such are the faults 
of one who dehghts in talk. 

* anupubbo seems to be a subst., cp. Pali anupubbam. 
' Tib. reads kalpena. 

' Tib. nan-gi-sems. 

* Tib. gtam. 

5 gunaih is a misprint for gav,aih. 

* Cp. Jat. 5, 424I*, kdyasakkhi. 
' I.e. no karma. 



no AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

[no] "He is like an actor i who stands on the stage and 
recites the virtues of other heroes, and yet has no achievements 
of his own to tell : such are the faults of one who delights in 
talk. 

" A hypocrite he is, frivolous, hopeless, wrangles again and 
again, far is he from the true religion : such are the faults of 
one who delights in talk. 

" When he is well treated he is thrilled with delight, lacking 
steadfastness ; being ignorant, when ill treated, he cowers > 
for Uke an ape, his mind is fickle : such are the faults of one who 
dehghts in talk. . . . 

" When for a long time he has enjoyed his spell of talk, he 
finds no satisfaction or inward joy ; now to think of one 
subject is better, in which he may find lasting joy. 

" Not in the husk of the sugar-cane is any sweetness ; in 
the middle its sweetness is, which is so delightful ; it is not 
possible in this world for what is best in the sugar-cane to be 
enjoyed if only one chew the husk. 

[in] " What the husk is, in this world is talk ; what is 
the juice, that is meditation on a good thing ; therefore ye 
must eschew all deUght in talk, and think of what is good with 
unceasing vigilance." 

Of delight in sloth it is written : 

" He wraps him in a great and increasing net of error ; he 
becomes a doubter, and falls into heresy ; many an act of his 
is done in heresy, when a man delights in sloth. 

** Their judgment becomes weak ; a man's wit leaves him, 
nay is absent altogether ; wisdom he loses for ever, when he 
delights in sloth. 

"He is lazy, idle, without judgment ; gobHns find their 
occasion against him, and wound him as he lives alone in the 
forest, when a man delights in sloth. 

" He has no desire for a wholesome mind ; he cares not for 
the Law, nay his love is generally for the unlawful, 2 when a 
man dehghts in sloth. 

" He is distracted and bereft of all desire for the true Law ; 

^ Read in text nato. * Read -kamas-. 



THE EVIL OF SLOTH AND WORKS iii 

the fool is lacking in every virtue ; he obstructs Ught and 
himself falls into darkness, when a man deUghts in sloth. 

[112] "He lacks readiness, he becomes desponding at heart, 
his joy is not unbroken, swallowed up he is in sleep, his Umbs 
are slack, when a man delights in sloth. 

" Himself unconsciously 1 becoming a prey to laziness, he 
grudges at those who are endued with manly strength, he 
speaks ill of those that have manly strength, when a man de- 
lights in sloth/' . . .2 

" That which is the destruction of all pain and darkness, 
the principle which leads us to avoid perdition, the virtue that 
has ever been praised by all Buddhas, that noble virtue 
manliness ever keep in thy grasp. '* 

As touching de^s^otion to works, he says : 

" He is unruly when exhorted by his teachers ; he does not 
accept their instruction respectfully, and soon he falls away 
from good conduct. These are the faults of the man who is 
devoted to works. 

** He is always full of regrets, 3 since he is for ever brooding 
over the works of a householder's life ; meditation and ab- 
straction are nothing to him : these are the faults of one who 
is devoted to works. 

" His passion becomes keen, and infatuated amidst things 
which are sweet or loathsome, [113] and takes no delight -in 
anything. These are the faults of one who is devoted to 
works. 

" He is pleased with a great company, he is annoyed when 
he is deprived of it ; he is confused Hke an ass ^ : these are the 
faults of one who is devoted to works. 

" Day and night his heart is set on nothing but food and 

* Tib. mi-ies, which suggests tv ajndtvd, the reading of t^he text correctly 
reproduces the MS. ; but it is probable that the scribe had before him dimd:n 
na jndtvd (cf. similar form of nn in line 15 below=59a 3). If so, dttndn is 
accusative by analogy, Pali attam. 

' Cp. Jat. No. 381, line 2 and passim. 

' The gloss explains this, " he desires all other kinds of works." 

* The reading is confirmed by Tib., de-ni bon bu-bzin-duhdre-bar-hgyur, 
but the point of the simile is obscure. 



112 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

raiment continually ; very poor is he in virtues always : these 
are the faults of one who is devoted to works. 

" He asks of worldly doings ; he finds his pleasure in improper 
talk ; in proper talk he finds no pleasure : these are the faults 
of one who is devoted to works." ... 

" Then Maitreya the Bodhisatva, the Great Being, thus spake 
to the Blessed One. ' Limited in wisdom, Blessed One, nay 
devoid of wisdom, will be the Bodhisatvas who will renounce 
their high principles of action to busy themselves in works of 
insignificance.' At these words the Blessed One thus repHed 
to the Bodhisatva Maitreya, the Great Being : ' Yea verily, 
Maitreya ; true is it that thou hast said : hmited in wisdom 
will be those Bodhisatvas who will renounce their high principles 
of action to busy themselves in works of insignificance ; and 
thus I declare and announce to thee. 

[114] "'They are not true Bodhisatvas ordained in the 
gospel of the Tathagata, who have no application, no power of 
meditation ecstatic and concentrated, no studiousness, no eager 
pursuit of learning. Moreover, Maitreya, the gospel of the 
Tathagata arises from meditation ecstatic and concentrated, 
it is fitly framed and compact of knowledge, it arises from earnest 
application : it does not arise from subservience to the usual 
ends of the householder's actions. For such action belongs to 
those whose application is misappHed, who delight in the chain 
of existence, by the way of subservience which is longing desire 
for worldly objects. Not on such an object a true Bodhisatva 
must set his heart. If, Maitreya, a Bodhisatva devoted to such 
subservience were to fill a myriad worlds with stiipas each 
composed of the seven precious things : such an one would do 

me no homage, no honour, no respect Then suppose 

India to be filled with Bodhisatvas doing such subservience : 
a single Bodhisatva devoted to his prescribed duty and his 
portion of study is worthy to receive from all of them homage 
and respect. And if India be full of these latter, one Bodhisatva 
devoted to profound and secluded meditation is worthy to 
receive from them all homage and respect. . . . And why is 



THE EVIL OF USELESS ACTIVITIES 113 

this ? A difficult thing is this to get, the getting of wisdom. 
High, higher than all, exalted above all the three worlds, 
exceeding marvellous : therefore, O Maitreya, the Bodhisatva 
whose aim is self-discipline, whose longing is manly effort, must 
earnestly strive for wisdom/ " 

About delight in useless activities, it is said : 

*' The eight unlucky moments are not far from him, the 
best moments of success are not for him ; these evils are ever 
with him ; these are his faults who practises the useless 
activities. . . ,. 

" The wise man should fully understand these faults, and 
avoid all useless activities ; evils come all too easily to one 
who practises these : therefore he must not abide in useless 
activities. 

[115] " Let him far rather walk an hundred leagues than 
stay where there may be useless activity or strife. Let him not 
make his dwelling, nor abode, where even for a moment there 
is passion. 

" The truly ordained make virtue their object, not wealth ; 
do not make strife with anger at heart : you have no fields, no 
husbandry, no commerce, for which cause there might be such 
activities. 

" No son nor daughter has he [the true Bodhisatva], nor no 
wife ; no friend has he, no troop of kinsmen ; he has neither 
manservant nor maidservant nor any to exercise lordship over : 
therefore make no strife when once ye have forsaken the 
world. 

" When once the red robes with faith have been taken, 
they are cherished in peace and quiet ; in stillness, peace and 
quiet rest, avoid useless activity and beget patience. 

"Be on your guard against serpents of cruel heart ; hell 
and the region of Yama's beasts 1 are not far from him who 
practises useless activity : therefore to patience one should 
add manUness. ..." 

" By this devotion lay hold on purity ; bring to naught all 
hindrance that comes from action : that man who firmly gets 

* Compare the "hellbirds" at p. 70 of the text. 



114 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

in his grasp Mara with all his hosts and chariots, he produces 
patience." 

[ii6] And our whole topic of the Avoidance of Evil is thus 
summarily discussed in the same book : 

" Therefore, O Maitreya, a disciple of the Bodhisatva's 
Way, of either sex, in the last five hundred years of the world, 
when the break-up of the Good Law is in progress, if he desires 
release with full and unimpaired salvation, and if he desires to 
bring to nought all hindrances of action, he must dehght in the 
absence of society, Uving in the remote parts of the forest, must 
avoid all persons that lack devotion, must keep watch for his 
own failings and not for those of others, must delight in silence 
and abiding in wisdom." 

In the Ratnamegha also the Avoidance of Evil is thus 
described : 

" He tramps for alms so long as there is gain in so doing : 
only wherever there are fierce dogs, or cows with young calves, 
or naturally vicious beings who have passed into the womb of 
beasts, or men or women, young be they or old, who are bent 
on mischief, or in fact all places of reprobation, he is to shun 
by all means in his power." 

By this the following is proved : *' that when one does not 
avoid an instrument of mischief, altho' he see it, sin accrues 
to him." 

Now the avoidance of evil that is spoken of in the line, 
" And that how must I well secure ? By ever shunning 
fruitless waste," i in this the fruit is for others' good ; and any 
waste of power that does not tend to others' good, must be 
avoided, because it cannot result in fruit. 

Similarly we read in the Candrapradipa Sutra, in discussing 
the topic of bodily vows, ** he is not destructive 2 in hand, nor 
in foot, because he has restraint both in hand and foot." 

Then in the Dasadharmaka Sutra also it is pointed out : 

" Flourishing of hand and flourishing of foot, running 

1 Kdrika yh. 

* So with Tib. mi-rgod, a meaning allowed in M.W. Diet,,* without how- 
ever quoting authority. 



THE WELFARE OF ALL CREATURES 115 

up 1 and down, leaping and swimming, all these are called the 
depravities of the body." 

[117] Now in the holy Dharma-samgtti Sutra, the point is 
clearly illustrated how no other activity is fitting for Bodhi- 
satvas, except working in another's interest. *' Every case of 
the Bodhisatva's bodily action, O Blessed one, or verbal action, 
or mental, as it goes on, is regarded from the point of view of 
his fellow-creatures, is under the constraining power of mighty 
compassion, has as its object to establish the weal of all 
creatures, as the result of taking thought for the weal and 
happiness of all beings. Then it is called ' Thoughts for others' 
weal' This is the attainment that I must attain, bringing 
as it does weal and happiness to all beings. . . . Looking 
on the bodily faculties as a collection of emptiness is also 2 an 
attainment ; and accordingly the Bodhisatva does not desire 
to relinquish his faculties altogether." 

So too in the holy Gaganaganja Sutra we read : 

*' Just as the wind enters through a chink, so MSra takes 
his opportunity from any point where there is a chink in the 
heart. Therefore the Bodhisatva's heart must be whole and 
without chink. This is what we mean by whole-heart edness ; 
namely full realization of the doctrine of the Void, which 
implies a knowledge of all kinds. 3 

But what is this doctrine of the Void " implying a know- 
ledge of the best of all kinds ? " ^ Why, it means the Doctrine 
of the emptiness of all existences, reaHzed in the present and in 
the past, without giving up the practical moraHty of the 
Bodhisatva. 

And this is explained fully in the Ratnacuda Sutra, A 
similar point is set forth in the Akshayamati Silira : 

** Suppose a man conceive a desire to renounce sinful and 

1 Delete the avagraha with Tib. ; it is, however, in the MS. 

2 This word is expressed in the Tib. Cp. Kadka, 21, 23. This is the 
speculative side, the other was the practical. 

3 Tib. 

* For a definition of this scholastic phrase (which Tib. records in line 9 in 
place of sarvakdrajnaidydh of our text) see line 11 below, and 272^^. The 
printed text reads as the MS. 



ii6 AVOIDANCE OF EVIL 

wicked principles. In this connexion, anything whatsoever 
which tends to perplex the mind, whatsoever also is hostile to 
the aggregate of his meditative faculty, this is called the 
opposing principle of meditation. Therefore are these called 
sinful and wicked principles." 



CHAPTER VI 

PRESERVATON OF THE PERSON 

[ii8] The avoidance of fruitless waste has been described ; 
the writer now proceeds to describe how this is to be secured : 
" this aye complete by mindfubiess." i 

These are the twelve forms of mindfulness which conduce 
to the avoidance of fruitless waste, namely : (i) Mindfulness 
of the respect due to the Law of Ripening, by observing and 
not transgressing the commands of the Tathagata. (2) Mind- 
fulness of the abiding character of the immovable essence of 
each body. (3) Mindfulness of the abiding nature of the 
essential quahty of each body. 2 (4) On the part of a novice, 3 
mindfulness to move the Hmbs when there is a commotion ^ 
connected with such events as fear, joy, or the Uke. (5) Mind- 
fulness in consideration of the question of assuming the four 
Postures. (6) From time to time mindfulness to consider 
perfection in the matter of postures with a view to guarding 
against disorder in these postures. (7) At time of speaking, 
mindfulness of restraint as to any contortion of face, head, foot 
or hand which would be excessively disagreeable, under the 
influence of partizanship, contentiousness, pride, or carelessness. 
(8) A person who is to be addressed as a pupil, recognizes his 

1 Karika 8a. 

' That is, from the point of view of sammiti, " conventional truth." Really 
they are neither stable not unstable, because they are sunya, "void." (The 
rest of this line is unintelligible to us both in the Sanskrit and the Tibetan.) 

* Reading navakasya with Tib. gsar-bu. He is not to remain immovable. 

* In the comment on the passage quoted in note ^ of the text, a burning 
house is given as an example of alarm, and ratnapuja as an explanation of 
utsada. The Tib. translates sambhrame as " to show respect by tilings like 
fear, joy, etc., by means of a connexion " ; whatever that may mean. 

117 I 



ii8 PRESERVATION OF THE PERSON 

object by a tone which is moderate ; so we must be mindful 
not to use accents which are excessively high, because other- 
wise we should fall into the fault of intimidating our neighbours J 
(9) In presence of a gathering of uneducated persons, one 
must be mindful of a steady aim to propitiate their intelligence 
by one's own. (10) Mindfulness that the mad elephant of 
the heart should be firmly bound to the post of quietism. 
(11) Every moment mindfulness to examine the state of one's 
heart. (12) In a great assembly of people mindfulness of a 
steady aim to maintain all these forms of mindfulness as they 
have been detailed, even at the cost of relinquishing all other 
actions." 2 

[119] By these kinds of mindfulness the avoidance of 
fruitless waste is secured. And what is meant by " devotion 
keen gives mindfulness " ? ^ There " devotion " is essentially 
the main thing, and the opposite to wilful disregard. And 
this " devotion wisely bred of zeal is the great soul of inward 
peace " by steady aim.^ 

What is this " inward peace " ? The " peace " which in 
the Akshayamati Sutra is thus described : " What do we mean 
by the indestructible nature of peace ? It means the calm 
and the tranquilHzing of the thought, the control of the senses 
which lose their power to perplex : not being puffed up ; not 
making too free, not fickle, not wavering, courteous, well 
guarded, ready for action, noble, ^ single in purpose, single in 
deUght, avoiding society, rejoicing in sohtude, apart in body 
and undistracted in heart, with the mind set upon the woodland 
life, craving httle . . . , watchful in regard to bodily postures, 
knowing the right time, the occasion, the just mean, and 
deliverance ; frugal, easy to support, and so forth." 

What again is the great soul of this *' inward peace " ? 
The power of engendering the knowledge of things as they are. 

^ Tib. omits anyatra, but combines pard with what follows. We translate 
it " otherwise," i.e. if not mindful. 

* In place of anyakdryatydgena Tib. has ma sov-du. 
3 Kar. 8a. 

* Kar. 86 ; tdtparyena, which breaks the metre, is not in the Tib. 

^ So with Pali, see notes to text, pp. 26, 119 ; or with Tib. " wise." 



INWARD PEACE 119 

For " * Whoso hath fixed mind, knows well all as it is : ' 
thus saith the sage." 1 As it is said in the Dharma-sangUi : 
" The man whose mind is wrapt in meditation sees things as 
they are. The Bodhisatva who thns sees things as they are feels 
profound pity towards all beings ; and thus he thinks : * This 
meditation, the means, with the power of seeing all things as 
they are, I must put within the reach of all beings.' He 2 
being impelled by that profound pity towards lofty virtue, 
lofty thought, lofty wisdom a discipline fine 3 in its fullness 
attains full and perfect enlightenment. ' Therefore,' quoth 
he, ' I must be well estabhshed in virtue, unswerving, un- 
relaxing.' " 

When one has grasped the fact, that this " great soul of 
inward peace," for oneself as for one's neighbours, has as its 
essence the avoidance of pain (such as perdition in its endless 
forms) and the full attainment of joy in this world and in others, 
likewise endless : one must cherish zeal through a longing for 
it ; even as a man shut up in a burning house longs for cool 
water. Therefore he is keen in his attention to his studies, and 
therefore also mindfulness is ever at hand ; and with mindful- 
ness at hand he avoids all that is fruitless. [120] And he who 
avoids fruitless waste, in him wicked things do not arise. 
Therefore he who desires to protect his person, must reach the 
root of mindfulness and must ever have mindfulness at hand. 

It is just on this point we find in the Ugrapariprcchd * the 
following passage in reference to a Bodhisatva who is still a 
householder : " Therefore one must shun the intoxication that 
comes from spirits, arrack, and other hquors, and thus sober, 
one must be neither frenzied nor fickle, wavering nor confused, 
garrulous nor savage, not puffed up, with mindfulness at hand 
and awakened consciousness." ^ In the same book in reference 

1 See Add. Notes to Text, p. 403. The saying is quoted in Milinda 39' as a 
saying of Buddha. It is a prose saying forced into verse. Kdrikd, ga. 

' If sa can be the person just mentioned, the speech will go on here. 
Otherwise sa means the person who thinks, and is said by the author, 

' This adjective caturdm is unconfirmed by the Tib. 

* From chap. ii. fol. loa 6 of the Tib. version of this work. 

* Reading with Bc-p, v. 54 smrtind sasamprajanyana. So the Tib. 



I20 PRESERVATION OF THE PERSON 

to the Bodhisatva who has renounced the world, it is said : 
" There must be no disturbing of the mindfulness and the 
awakened consciousness." 

On this matter, mindfulness is mentioned in the holy 
Ratnacuda Sutra : " That mindfulness which keeps all sin 
from arising ; that mindfulness which gives no occasion for 
the works of Mara ; that mindfulness which keeps from being 
wrecked on a wrong path or a bad road ; that mindfulness 
which is the doorkeeper, and gives no entrance to any of the 
unwholesome principles of heart or thought : this is the 
perfect mindfulness." 

Of the awakened consciousness it is said in the Prdjiid- 
pdramita : " When he walks, he is conscious that he walks ; 
standing, he is conscious that he stands ; lying, sitting, or 
howsoever his body is placed, he is conscious that so it is. . . . 
Whether he pass on or step back, his movement is done with 
full consciousness. Whether he look this way or that, whether 
he contract or expand his Umbs ; whether he have on him 
wristband, cloth, band and robes ; in eating, drinking, chewing ; 
in slumbering or resting, in coming or going, in standing or 
sitting, in sleeping or waking, in speech or in silence or absorp- 
tion, of every act he is fully conscious." 

[i2i] For virtuous conduct is conducive to meditation. i 

As it is said in the Candrapradlpa Sutra : " He quickly 
gains meditation free from sin. These are the blessings of one 
whose virtue is pure." 

Hence we understand that all outward acts that lead to 
meditation are included under virtue. Therefore if you want 
meditation, you must have the virtue of awakened conscious- 
ness ; so also if you want virtue, you must make an effort for 
meditation. As we learn from another passage in this book- 

For we read there 2 amongst the blessings of ecstatic 
meditation : *' Not devoid of good conduct but well established 

1 Cp./.i2.^.S. 1898, pp. 191,461 ; but Sarat Chandra, 7'i&. Dzc/f. 490I, gives 
the traditional interpretation of the Tib. as sinless, nishklesa and anangana 
being added as synonyms. 

See p. 404* of text. 



MEDITATION AND THE MIND 121 

therein, the devotee keeps to his proper sphere and avoids a 
sphere which is not his. He hves in freedom from all distress, 
guarded, his sense restrained." 

By these two, virtue and meditation, interacting one on the 
other, comes the complete perfection of the action of the mind ; 
the Bodhisatva's doctrine amounts to this, the cultivation of 
the mind, because all things 1 have their root in the mind. 

For it is written in the holy Ratnamegha : 2 

" All principles of things have their origin in mind : when 
mind is exactly known, all principles are known. Moreover, 
* By mind the world is led ; mind beholds not mind ; ^ mind is 
the mine of action, whether merit or demerit.' Mind is like 
a circling firebrand : mind is like a heaving wave : mind is 
like a blazing forest fire : [122] mind is Hke a rushing mighty 
flood. The Bodhisatva * by full examination, Hving with 
ever-present watchfulness directed to mind, goes not into the 
power of mind, nay it is mind that comes into his power ; and 
when mind is come into his power, all principles of things come 
into his power." 

Likewise in the holy Dharmasangiti Sutra we read as follows : 
" The Bodhisatva Mativikrama said : * Whatever thing is 
called a thing has no local existence general or particular, but 
only in dependence upon one's own mind. Hence I must 
strive to make my own mind well-ordered, well-established, 
well under control, well- trained, well-subdued. And why so ? 
Where mind is there is virtue and vice. Where is no mind is 
no virtue or vice.^ Then the Bodhisatva diverts his mind from 

^ So with Tib. hdi-ni chos-thams-cad-kyi rtsa-ba yin-te, which ignores saita. 
For the doctrine see the saying of Buddha quoted twice by Nagarjuna : 
Subh.-Sang. 2oio^ note 2. 

* MS. iur", but Tib. rlabs ; see p. 404. 

' Apparently the author connects ciitam with ctyate etymological ly ; 
lit. " Karma is heaped up." Cp. Lankdv. ii. 109. 

* Skr. sa," he," meaning the ideal Bodhisatva or sage, spoken of in the 
Sutra from which the passage comes. 

* Adding the word suparijiiath from Bt. ad V. 18, which is confirmed by 
our Tibetan iin-tu yul-ba. 

* The MS. dharmasamdddnah may stand as a compound ; cp. micchd- 
ditfhisanidddno, Childers, p. 423*', and vissam dhammam samddtyati, Childers, 
244^ 



122 PRESERVATION OF THE PERSON 

vices and turns it towards virtues. (Thus it is said : Things 
depend on mind, and enlightenment depends on things.) He, 
O Blessed One, takes upon him the Law of things, i and he is 
on the road to the easy attainment of perfect Enlightenment.' " 

Again, in the Gandavyuha Sutra, the matter is further de- 
scribed. " Dependence upon his own mind is the whole 
discipline of the Bodhisatva ; this is the training which brings 
all beings to maturity. . . . This, my son, is my opinion, 
mind and mind alone must be supported by all the roots of 
merit. As the clouds water the earth, so the mind must be 
by the Law of Things. It is the mind that must be cleansed 
from the Things that lead to obscuration. The mind must be 
fortified by manly energy." 

In the same book, when the Venerable Sudhana was 
perturbed because he could not find Mayadevi, here is Ratna- 
netri, patron deity of the city, giving him the following admoni- 
tion with a view to finding her : " You must take care, young 
sir, to protect the City of the Mind by not abiding with the 
lust for the objects of sense in the chain of existence. [123] You 
must be earnest to beautify the City of the Mind by attainment 
of the Ten Powers of the Tathagatas. You must be earnest 
to cleanse the City of the Mind by sending into the draught 
envy, covetousness, and guile.^ You must be earnest in 
developing the City of the Mind by increasing your own power 
of heroic endeavour to prepare for knowledge in all things. 
You must be earnest in aspiration to make the City of the Mind 
strong against storm and siege by keeping yourself invincible 
against sins, and bad friends who are Mara's bodyguard, and 
against all the hosts of Mara. You must be earnest for the 
expansion of the City of the Mind by the diffusion of boundless 
benevolence throughout the world. You must be earnest for 
the defence of the City of the Mind by aspiration for the wide 
shelter of the Law and for hostility to every principle of evil. 

* In the original the same Protean word dharma is used for " things " 
above and " Law " here, which we have therefore paraphrased " Law of 
things." 

^ The Tib. here, and elsewhere, inserts four passages which are not in our 
text. 



THE CITY OF THE MIND 123 

You must be earnest to throw open the gates 1 of the City of the 
Mind, by putting the whole world in possession of the reahty 
of things, personal and external. You must be earnest in 
aspiration to make strong and firm the City of the Mind by the 
conviction of the essential impermanence of all principles of 
evil." 2 And so on, until the following : *' By being earnest in 
cleansing the City of the Mind, the Bodhisatva can attain to 
the perfection of all the roots of good. And why so ? For such 
a Bodhisatva as has the City of his Mind thus cleansed cannot 
be confronted by any of these obstacles : be it the obstacle 
to the vision of Buddha or to hearing of the Law ^ " . . . 

From this we conclude as follows. The doctrine of the 
Bodhisatvas simply amounts to the preparation of the mind : 
and that is a mind not unstable. " From inward peace move 
not thy heart, turning away from outward acts." * The mind 
of one who is robbed of his watchfulness, under the influence 
of some unintelligent neighbour, is unstable, because it is 
always being led in a direction other than the desired object. 
But when the man is intelligent and watchful and has succeeded 
in keeping off outward activities, [124] then his mind by 
virtue of these quahties can remain fixed as long as desired on a 
single object. And then as before there follows a full statement 
of blessings. And moreover, at this present, he becomes 
capable of ministering to the needs of all beings, because he 
has won their confidence. How ? ** Steadfast in all, with 
loving speech gently win over worthy folk : for this the 
Bodhisat becomes unto all men acceptable." ^ This then 
is a duty of the Bodhisatva, the winning over of all beings ; 
which is made clear in the Dharma-sangtti Sutra, by the 
Bodhisatva the Venerable Priyadarsana. " Thus, reverend sir, 
the Bodhisatva must in every way make it his object that all 
may feel confidence as soon as they see him. And why ? For 

1 Tib. agrees with H. in inserting " door." 

* Following H, and Tib., which implies that " one cannot suppose a con- 
tinuity in evil." 

^ See 309!* of text ; and Bodhisattvabhumi 7a in Museon N.S. vi. 46. 
Kar. 96. 

* Kar. 10. 



124 PRESERVATION OF THE PERSON 

this is the whole duty of the Bodhisatva, reverend sir, to win 
over all beings. It is the ripening of all beings to maturity, 
reverend sir, which is the Bodhisatva's true Rehearsal of the 
Law." 1 

On the other hand, the guilt in neglecting this course is set 
forth thus : 

" The worldling who the scion spurns of Jina, and accepts 
him not, shall burn alive in all the hells like fire that smoulders 
under ash." 2 As it has been shown above. 3 

That which causes this contempt for him is an Evil. 
" Therefore the essence of the Vow Jina in Ratnamegha tells : 
all that destroys men's confidence, that one should strenuously 
eschew." * 

As it is said : " What are these practices of the Bodhisatva ? 
In this world the Bodhisatva does not abide in a wrong spot, 
nor at a wrong time ; speaks not out of season, is not ignorant 
of time or place : which might give his neighbours an excuse 
to want confidence in him. He by watchful care for his 
fellows, and to attain the fulness of the perfect Buddha, 
shows himself one that has all the excellences of deportment, 
speaks gently and deliberately, frequents not often society, 
but rather turns his face towards solitude, yet is of a cheerful 
countenance." 

[125] Therefore it has been declared in the Dharmasangiti 
Sutra : " He that preserves Uving beings preserves virtue." 
In this way the world would be preserved with the womankind 
in secret and in public. This is why in places watery or dry 
meant for use one should not emit urine, excrement, spittle, 
pus, or such vile matters secretly or openly, for the protection 
of the multitudes of gods and men. 

In the Saddharmasmrtyupasthdna is described how a man 
who has thrown away the leavings secretly without giving any 
of that which is not left shall become a Preta. 

1 Here the title Dharmasangiti is taken in its etymological sense. 

2 Kar. II. 

* Above, Chapter TV. pp. 69 73 of text. * Karika 12. 



RULES OF DECENCY 125 

Then again in the Bodhisatvaprdtimoksa we are told to avoid 
want of respect : "Do not use a toothstick before them ; 
do not drop phlegm before them. This rule of respect 
and decency is to be always observed, not amongst the rehgious 
students only." In the same Sutra is a paragraph for the 
religious, to show them the danger of more serious offence : so 
he says in that place, " Do not speak loud." This too is an 
absolute rule. So also it is said in the Brahmapariprcchd : 
" The Bodhisatva must not be Hke one who takes life." So 
from the Prdtimoksa also one must avoid carefully what is 
objectionable to people. 

For instance : 1 " Do not fill the mouth in eating, or make a 
noise, and stuff the cheeks ; sit not with danghng leg ; chafe 
not the surface of the arm." 

Thus one should observe for himself, should see and hear, 
and avoid what is objectionable to people. But it is easy 2 to 
avoid offence in word, therefore this avoiding is explained only 
to refresh the memory. 

[126] In the holy Sugar amati Sutra it is laid down as follows : 
" He has no despondent talk, no disconnected talk, no mis- 
representation, ^ nothing inflammatory or provocative of 
passion, no vulgar talk or unrestrained, none to excite malice, 
no wavering or unstable talk, nothing fictitious, nothing to 
discredit an eye-witness." 

In the holy Tathdgata-guhya Sutra again it is said : " Indeed, 
sir, the Bodhisatva' s speech is not passionate, or malignant, or 
foolish, or tortuOus ; confused in details, partial to his own 
side, or unfair to the other side ; no encouraging his own 
praise, or discouraging the praise of others ; no shirking a 
promise, no show of self-conceit." 

Again, in the holy Dasahhumaka Sutra it is said : " What- 
ever speech is unpleasant, whatever hurts one's own nature or 
others, that speech he avoids ; but the speech that is kindly, 
gentle, pleasant, sweet, agreeable, winning, gracious, welcome 



^ Reading JC^, Tib. de-la. 

* Tib. omits ^, 

* Cp. Digha, i. p. 247, Tib. nog-nog, " obscure.' 



126 PRESERVATION OF THE PERSON 

to the ear, reaching the heart, affectionate, clear to the ear 
and the understanding, worth hearing, independent, agreeable, 
welcome, and pleasing to many, commendable and wise, 
bringing good and happiness to all creatures, making the heart 
leap for joy, causing delight to one's own and others' nature, 
allaying passion, hatred, delusion, and all faults this kind of 
speech he uses." . . . and so on, to the words, '* he utterly 
abandons the gossiping manner of speech." 

In the holy Gaganaganja Sutra, moreover, it is said : ** By 
not violating the teacher's words, by not disregarding the 
words of others, he is born as one whose words are received 
and be accepted." 

[127] And in the DJiarmasangiti Sutra it is said : *' Gaga- 
nagaiija the Bodhisatva said : A Bodhisatva must not use 
that speech which would irritate another, or which would 
annoy another, such as to inform an enemy, 1 nor that by 
which purposes are thwarted ; he must not say that by 
which he would not convey knowledge, nor what does not go 
to people's hearts, what is not understood of the people, not 
pleasant to the ear : that kind of speech also must not be 
used." 

How to avoid offence to others is concisely shown in the 
holy Sdgaramati Sutra : " Another rule serves to sum up the 
Great Vehicle : By taking heed to one's own stumbling, o;ie 
would take care of all." 

This is the care of oneself, that one should not be injured 
by others, and that one should not injure others. This essence 
of a world of texts must be always kept in the heart of the 
Bodhisatva : 

** All unmovable, all gracious, firm, respectful and reverent, 
modest, cautious, calm, intent upon conciliating others, at the 
service of self and all creatures always in blameless things, like 
the model bodies created by the will of a magician, 2 without 
pride : such is the mind I keep." 

1 The Tib. seems to mean " what another would not understand." It 
translates apara and para, gzhan. 

2 Bodies created by the will of the Buddha, and so without selfishness. 



PLEASANT SPEECH, MEDICINE, FOOD 127 

Is that the whole guarding of one's nature ? Not so, but 
it is also protected by medicines, dress, and so forth. Here 
medicine is of two kinds : one for permanent use, one necessary 
for sick persons. 

Taking first the permanent medicines, this class is set forth 
in the holy Ratnamegha : " So he puts forth one morsel from 
the dish for the pious, a second for the afflicted, a third for the 
ruined ; a fourth he partakes of himself. This he takes with- 
out appetite, but detached, not greedy, without setting his mind 
on it : 1 only just so far as to support the body and to maintain 
it. He eats in order not to become too emaciated, and not too 
stout. [128] And why is that ? Too emaciated, he fails in 
health ; too stout, he is confirmed in sloth. Therefore, in 
partaking of the food he must have health in view." 

In the holy Ratnardsi it is also said : " Therefore before 
you go a-begging through village, or town, or city, you must 
buckle on the armour of righteousness. And what is this 
armour ? If you see unpleasant shapes, you should not repel 
them ; if you see pleasant shapes you should not attract them. 
Thus with things pleasant or unpleasant, sound, smell, taste, 
touch, when discerned, you should neither repel nor attract. 
With senses carefully guarded, the eye not being raised from 
the ground, and looking ahead no more than a yoke's length ; 
with mind noble and disciplined, that forgets not the doctrine 
it has learnt, with nature not bent on desire, you should go a- 
begging ; it should be done district by district ; 2 where alms 
is given, there should be no attraction, and where none is 
given, no repulsion. Alms is not taken by entering in at ten 
households and leaving the eleventh. Nevertheless you should 
not worry, but you should think such thoughts as these : 
* Those persons are busy (ascetics, ^ Brahmans, or house- 
holders) ; they are not obliged to give me anything ; it is a 



^ Compare M.V. i, 139^^, anadhyavasito anadhimurcito anupaliptacitto. 

2 In M.V. i, 301^ and note 595 this word is discussed. It appears to 
mean dividing the town into districts, and each keeping his own, not choosing 
the district or house. 

Om. Tib. 



128 PRESERVATION OF THE PERSON 

wonder that they notice me. How much more that they 
give alms ! ' Thus one should go a-begging without worrying. 
All the beings that come within his view, men, women, boys 
or girls, and even the lower animals, for these friendship and 
pity should be felt. ' I will so behave that I shall make those 
creatures attain bliss that come into my sight or give me alms. 
This is the way I will set about it. Whether the alms gotten 
be poor i or good, we must look round all the four quarters of 
the world, and ask : [129] ' What poor creature is there in this 
village, or town, or city, to whom I may give a share of this 
my alms ? ' If he sees a poor creature, he must give him a 
share of the alms. It he sees no poor creature, he must ask, 
' Are there any unseen that have not come into my sight ? 
For them I set apart a first share of this alms : I hope they 
may accept and enjoy it.' Then let him take the alms of 
these persons and go up into his place in the forest, and wash 
his hands, in decent fashion, and with the ascetic's proper 
customs and ceremonies, 2 seated upon the proper place with 
legs crossed beneath him, let him eat his doles. ... As you 
eat, you must ponder thus : * In my body are eighty thousand 
worms ; by this same energy may they dwell happy and at 
ease ; Now I will partake of this food for them. And when 
I attain wisdom again, I will feed on the Law.' But if 
he has a poor dole, he must think thus to himself : ' By the 
poorness of food my body will become light and fit for medi- 
tation, the quantity of my excretions will become small ; and 
the offerings of the faithful will become small : lightness of 
body and lightness of thought will be mine ; weak and little 
will the sloth be in me.' But when he has an abundant dole, 
even then he must be moderate in eating and must abstain. 
Then as from his receipt of alms he moves away from one or 
other doorpost he must say to himself : * Whatsoever company 
of birds or beasts may wish for food, let them accept the gift 
and enjoy it.' " 

1 For luha see MY. Index and ii. 50Q, note. 
Reading with Tib. ^^ for j^. 



HOW TO PARTAKE OF ALMS 129 

Again he says : "He must not notice the flavour at all. 
[130] . . . 'I must be hke a young Candala ; clean in mind 
and body, not ceremonially clean in food. For this reason 
however nice be the food eaten, all becomes putrid excretion 
in the end, stinking, offensive. Therefore I must not desire 
nice food. So I must not think, It is a man gives me alms, 
not a woman ; it is a woman, not a man ; it is a boy, not a girl ; 
it is a girl, not a boy ; it is nice, not poor food I receive ; it is 
hospitably given, not inhospitably; given at once, not after 
delay, and may they welcome me as soon as I enter, and may 
there be no neglect of me ; I would take food that has been 
carefully kept, nice foocj of many kinds, but inferior poor 
food I would not take ; whether all should come out to meet 
me, men and women, lasses and lads.' All these thoughts are 
bad : one should avoid them. . . . For as a rule beings that 
are greedy of fine flavours do evil deeds for the sake of food, 
and go to the hells ; but those who are content, not greedy, 
not covetous, careless of flavour, contented as to the sense of 
taste, and support their Hfe 1 on even the poorest food, these 
when they leave the body and die, attain heaven ; they come to 
happiness among men and gods ; they share the nectar of the 
gods. Thus, Kasyapa, when a Brother goes on his begging 
rounds, he shall put away the lust of the palate, with con- 
templative thought he should eat the cooked sour gruel without 
being annoyed ; and this is the reason why : ' I must eat food 
for the purpose of supporting the body and keeping to the 
Road.' . . . But if, Kasyapa, the Brother on his rounds is 
unable to proceed in a storm of rain, he may spend two or 
three nights provided with the food of friendship and fixed in 
the contemplation of the Law, without eating. And he must 
think : There are ghosts of the world of Yama that have done 
evil deeds, who in a hundred years do not receive so much 
as a clot of phlegm for food. Therefore I must be fixed in 
true and exact meditation upon the Law, and I must not 
encourage weakness in body or weakness in mind. I will 
endure hunger and thirst. Nor again will I relax my 

1 Reading jdpayaiUi, line n. 



130 PRESERVATION OF THE PERSON 

resolution by meditating upon the holy Road. . . In whatever 
family he shall make the food pure food, [131] there let him 
sit down and discourse on the Law. When the food is 
not wholesome, let him take his dole, and arise from his 
seat and go further. A Brother on his rounds, Kasyapa, 
should not give broad hints ; there should be no gossip, no 
hypocrisy. 

' ' Now what is a hint ? When he says to other people : ' My 
dole was poor, my dole was disagreeable ; what I ate was not 
what I ought to have had. I had to share my dole with a 
number of people. I had little to eat and I am hungry.' Any- 
thing of this kind said for the sake of hinting, is called hypocrisy 
of mind. All this must be eschewed by the mendicant on his 
rounds. He should be indifferent. Whatever drops in the 
bowl, be it poor or nice, good or bad, that he should eat. with- 
out annoyance, with simplicity of heart, intently meditating on 
the Law : ' This dole is to be eaten for the purpose of supporting 
the body and of keeping on the holy Road.' " 

So in the Ugra-pariprcchd it is said : " If he is able 1 to 
complete his own aim or another's by eating of his dole at the 
house of any woman, I authorise the mendicant Bodhisatva to 
accept the invitation." 

Just so must he support himself by the physic that is 
always useful : but even then not with fish or flesh, because it 
is forbidden in the Lankdvatdra Sutra. [132] For thus it is 
said : "No flesh must be eaten ; so I say to the pitiful Bodhi- 
satva. . . . Because of kinship, because of its wrong, because 
it is produced by semen and uterine blood, the devotee should 
avoid flesh as improper for Hving creatures. The devotee 
should always avoid flesh, onions, intoxicants of different 
kinds, garlic of all sorts. He should avoid oil for anointing ; 
he should not sleep on beds with hollow posts or holes or where 
there is danger for living creatures. ^ . . . For gain a living 
creature is killed, for meat money is given , both these sinners 
are burnt in the Raurava Hell and other hells." . . . iVnd so 
on to this : "He that eats flesh in transgression of the words 

* Tib. "?f. ^ Something like this the Tib. seems to mean. 



NOT TO EAT FLESH 131 

of the sage, the man of evil mind, for the destruction of the 
two worlds, after being dedicated under the gospel of Sakya, 
those sinners go to the most awful hell ; the flesh-eaters are 
burnt in terrible hells Uke Raurava. Flesh free from the three 
objections,! not prepared, unasked, unsolicited, there is none: 
therefore one should not eat flesh. A devotee should not eat 
flesh, which is blamed by me and by the Buddhas : members 
of a family that eats carrion flesh, devour each other." . . . And 
so onto this : 2 " Ill-smelling and abominable, mad, [133] he is 
born in a Candala or Pukkasa^ family, amongst low-caste 
dancers, again and again. He is born to one sprung of a female 
imp, in a flesh-eating family, he is born to a she-bear or a cat, 
the vile wretch. In the Hastikakshya, the Mahdmegha, the 
Nirvana, the Angidimdlika, and the Lankdvatdra Sutra, I 
have reproved the eating of flesh. By Buddhas and by Bodhi- 
satvas and by religious persons it has been reprehended ; if 
one eats it, he is always born shameless and mad. But by 
avoiding those who eat flesh men are bom among brahmins or 
in a family of devotees, and one is intelligent and wealthy. In 
suspicion touching things seen and heard one should avoid all 
meat; philosophers understand nothing if members of a 
family that eats carrion flesh. As passion would be an obstacle 
to deUverance, so would be such things as flesh, or intoxicants. 
In future time, the eaters of flesh, speakers of delusion, will 
say that flesh is proper, blameless, praised by the Buddhas. 
[134] But the pious should take his morsel in moderation, 
against the grain, Uke a useful physic, as though it were the 
flesh of his own son. I who abide in kindliness have always 
reprehended this food ; [such an one] should keep company 
with lions and tigers and other beasts. Therefore one should 
not eat flesh, which disturbs men's natures because it hinders 
deliverance and righteousness : this is the work of the 
noble." 

But the eating of flesh described in the J ndnaravl-parivarta 

* In 132I* the reading should be OjfT^. 

* Lines 10-17 are wanting in the Chinese version. 

' MV. ii. 487*, caQ^alo va pukkaso va : iii. 264*=Pulka9a. 



132 PRESERVATION OF THE PERSON 

is harmless, because it is useful for a great end. Accordingly 
it is thus said : 

*' If 1 this Brother should die, the very name of tranquillity 
in Jambudvipa would be ever destroyed for all creatures ; if 
he is cured, he obtains tranquiUity." 

He was endowed with great mercifulness ; there was no 
question that kindhness was in him ; thus there is no fault in 
the statement. [135] Even if this is said in the holy 
Ratnamegha, "one who Uves in a cemetery 2 should eat no 
meat." 

This is said elsewhere for the sake of teaching beings of this 
kind. " Even in the DiscipHne, what is said to authorise the 
use of things free from the three objections 3 is no hindrance 
to renunciation." 

This is for the purpose of casting out the over-pride of those 
who believe that purity is to be obtained by this renunciation. 
This is also said to put aside the idea that those who are capable 
of entering salvation cannot enter because they are attached 
to that sort of meat.* 

And thus it is said in the Lankdvatdra Sutra : "In different 
places there is in the scripture a succession of rules like putting 
down the foot on the steps of a staircase. First there is the 
exception of what is pure in three kinds : ^ but then concerning 
acts forbidden, in the end even animals that have died a 
natural death are forbidden." 

Now we have dealt with permanent medicine ; we must 
also use medicine suitable for sick persons. 

In the ^rdvakavinaya also one may sell even one's bowl 

1 Prof. Bendall's conjecture yadi is confirmed by the identification of the 
passage : Samddhi-rdja, ch. 34. R. A. S. MS. fol. 158, b. 2. Below the reading 
is shyan tikinnite smin sa, which although very corrupt suggests a good read- 
ing, cikitsite 'smin sa sam. 

" Ascetics often lived there to keep death ever in mind. 

* Not killed by oneself, not seen by one to die, not killed on purpose, 

* Reading W^W^, de la chags pas. 

' This is conjectured from the context. First, it is allowed, then it is 
forbidden. 



THE USE OF CLOTHES 133 

and robe for one's own sake or the sake of virtuous life to 
support the body : how much more for the body of a 
Bodhisatva, for the sake of preserving an infinity of persons ! 
And it is difficult to obtain favourable circumstances for so 
blessed a consummation. Therefore the Blessed One himself 
made use of medicine in that place, for the purpose of ex- 
plaining this matter. 

It is also said in the holy Ratnamegha Sutra : *' When this 
is their practice, if they cannot get to eat supports of the body 
or remedies such as these, whether at the right or the wrong 
time, that is, ghee or oil, choice roots and raw sugar 1 and fruits, 
if one sees others eating he does not cherish an angry thought. 
But if one who will not eat what is not permitted, 2 or a 
Bodhisatva, be ill, with such a disease as is a danger to Ufe or 
a hindrance to good, then without remorse and without 
hesitation he may put the idea of a remedy upon these things, 
and eat them. 

[136] The occasion for use of clothes is laid down in the 
Ugrapariprcchd Sutra. " The loin-cloth, because of shame 
and the fear of sin ; but to protect from (mosquitoes, gnats, 
and wind, sun-heat and serpents), ^ and to exhibit the marks 
of an ascetic, those yellow garments are (in essence) a shrine 
for the three worlds, gods and men and demons ; ^ for the 
purpose of a shrine they are properly to be worn : those robes 
are not dyed in the stains of dye, but in stainlessness and 
emancipation ^ ; they induce calm, not attachment and excite- 
ment ; by those reddish garments our sins will be made 
manifest. Those who do good deeds are not intent on the 
ornamentation of their monk's robes. By thinking that those 
garments are a help on the holy Road, we shall so behave 

^ See Pali khalupaccdbhatiiko, Diet. p. 310, b. If he has once cause to 
refuse any food he must eat no more. 

* Tib. bu-ram ; the word ganda is not known in this sense. 

* The words in brackets come from the Tibetan, the first three from the 
Chinese also ; they are omitted in the Sanskrit. 

* See 56^1 above. 

* mg'a=dye or passion. 

K 



134 PRESERVATION OF THE PERSON 

as never to be stained with sin as we wear them,i no not for 
a moment." 

The cause of this is laid down in the Ratnardsi Sutra, 
" But, Kasyapa, those who from slackness being without self- 
control, and hence free from the rule of the ascetic's virtue, 
wear the yellow clothes on their body but do not show respect 
to them : then, Kasyapa, there is a special hell, named Srama- 
navarnapratiriipaka, and in that special hell pains are inflicted 
in mimicry of the ascetic's hfe : blazing clothes, blazing heads, 
blazing bowls, blazing seats, blazing pallets to He on. He who 
has had part or lot in these things, he all blazing burns in 
flames all over. By these things they feel pain and agony in 
mimicry of the ascetic's hfe." 

[137] Now in the holy Ratnamegha it is said : " If a Bodhi- 
satva who lives in the open fall sick or feeble in body, he 
should dwell in the monastery and think as follows : ' The 
ascetic's rules have been ordained by the Tathagata to combat 
the passions, so I will take care so to behave in the monastery 
as to work for the cure of passions. But I will not set my 
desire upon the monastery nor make it my home.' And he 
thinks : * We must benefit the munificent, and we must not 
think only how to support ourselves.' " 

Again he says in the same work : " When they arrange 
their lying down, they arrange it on the right side. Placing 
foot on foot, their bodies covered up with their robes, 2 re- 
membering, in full knowledge, conscious of uprising, conscious 
of looking, they arrange their lying ; they take no pleasure 
in sleep ; no pleasure in lying on the side, except so far as 
to keep and support the great elements." 3 Thus by that 
precept all things must be used for the sake of all beings. 
But to indulge one's own desire leads to or fall into sin.^ 

1 A pun on Kdshdya and Kashdya. 

2 Correct text to ^WiT, 13 7^ (so MS.). 

3 I.e. to maintain life. 

* Karika 13, p. xliii. of text. 



WHEN THE GIFT IS GOOD 135 

As it is said in the Candy apradipa Suira, " They receiving 
sweet-flavoured food as offered enjoy it without meditation ; 
this food tends to their destruction, as lotus roots not washed 
do for young elephants/' 1 

And in the holy Ratnardsi Sutra, when the Blessed One 
enjoins the acceptance and use of the offerings of the faithful: 
*' Then in that assembly, two hundred brethren devoted to 
meditation heard the teaching of the Law, and wept aloud, 
and this is what they said : ' Better die, Blessed One ! rather 
than to eat even one mouthful given by the faithful until we 
have attained the Fruit/ [138] The Blessed One said : ' Softly, 
sirs, softly ; your answer, when you are so full of repentance 
through shame, having before you fear of blame in the other 
world, is indeed noble. No ; in two cases, Kasyapa, I permit 
the offerings of the faithful ; and what are these two ? The 
devotee and the emancipated. 

" ' If, Brethren, a Brother who is meditative, devoted to 
meditation, familiar with my teaching, aware that all sentient 
conditions are transitory; if he knows the pain of aU the 
conditions of sense, has confidence in the theory 2 that all 
states are unreal, if he longs for peace and final deliverance, 
he may enjoy the gifts of the faithful in portions as large as 
Mount Sumeru. Very pure is the gift he gets. And whenever 
the offering is enjoyed by the gift of any munificent givers, 
most rich and splendid for them is the ripening of merit there- 
from. This is the reason : Chief of those fundamental good 
works is the mystic state of benevolence. 3 Then, Kasyapa, 
when a Brother after receiving garments and alms from a 
generous benefactor attains infinite peace of mind, infinite 
ripening of merit is to be expected for that generous benefactor. 
If the great oceans in a thousand myriad worlds were to waste 

1 Read f%^ as in Bodhic. p. 141. The Tib. is a literal version of this. 
The stanza occurs in the Candrapr. (Samadhiro), chap. ix. 

2 For the anatmika theory see M.V. iii. 446I* q^^ gg^ rupam anStme 'ti 
samanupasyanto 

3 See Ang. Nik. ii. 54, 51, i. 



136 PRESERVATION OF THE PERSON 

away, there would be no wasting for the stream of his 
merit.' " 

That is why, in beginning to seek for akns or beginning 
to eat, the memory must dwell on three things : benefit for 
benefactors, the collection of worms in the body, and the 
understanding of the Law which causes the good of all beings. 

Moreover, in all acts the memory must dwell on the ac- 
compUshing of the Tathagata's commands ; and to begin with, 
one should recite the spell set forth in the Trisamayardja, for 
the purpose of keeping the practice of the sacred circles. 
[139] ' Glory to all Buddhas and Bodhisatvas, Om Viraji, 
omnipotent Viraji ! Sata, Sarata, Trapi, Vidhamani, Sabha- 
jani, Sambhajani, Taramati, triumphant in the highest, hail ! ' 

With that he enters into any sacred circle. Or let him 
recite eight thousand times the ' Heart of the Tathagata,' then 
he enters the mundane or supermundane circle. And what is 
that Heart ? ' Glory to the Tathagatas of the three times, 
past, present and future, everywhere irresistible in might, who 
have attained righteousness. Om ! without peer, wholly and 
for ever lord ! Hara, smara, smarana, in holiness and righte- 
ousness ! Sara, samabala, hasa, traya. sky, O protector 
of mountains, blaze, O blazing one, in the ocean. Hail ! ' " 1 

This is the essence of all the Tathagatas : highest honour 
is to be paid to it. By this, even the beginners may achieve 
for all beings the immeasurable activity of a Buddha. It is 
this that makes the best protection against Mara and all other 
such maUgnant powers. With hand-clapping, ashes, white 
mustard, 2 water, whether with sight or mind, he makes his 
magic circle simabandha around him. 

In diseases, medicine and water should be apphed with a 
charm recited. Or let him offer woodland flowers upon a 
shrine, or to the image of Buddha, or the book of the Good 
Law, his mind intent. By doing this every fortnight he gets 

* All these charms are transliterated in Tib. Some of the words have no 
meaning. 

* This sarshapa figures several times in the charms of the Bower MS. (see 
Index). Compare Lotus, chap. xxi. 



CHARMS AND MEDICINES 137 

rid of the great diseases. By dependence upon Buddhas and 
Bodhisatvas, and a mind that yearns after the good of all 
beings, the charms must be said after the rites of the Bhadra- 
cari 1 : this rite is to be taken at the end of the ceremony. 
If one murmurs it thrice there is no fault in the recital. 
There is no fault if some recite it even when impure. Things 
in the shape of parched grain 2 are not to be eaten or treated 
contemptuously. There must be no mounting on a platform. 
Intoxicants must not be drunk. The preliminary stage will be 
achieved if one stand immovable in the moral precepts without 
doubting, even if one were ill-behaved formerly : always 
assured for wise or simple. 

[140] Thus it is said in the same place : " He whose 
thought of enlightenment is firm, and his mind free from 
attachment, he need have no doubt, and his aim is always 
accomplished." The firmness of the thought of enlightenment 
is here mentioned to make an exception of ordinary men 
because they waver in thought, not with reference to one 
who has entered the Stages of Perfection. 

For which cause it is there said : ** Success may be attained 
by one who desires to get the state of investiture and illumina- 
tion, to come from great darkness into light, yea, even by one 
who has fallen into sin. 3 The text means to condemn the 
despondent spirit who says. How can I, so weak in merit, 
succeed ? But that aforesaid fault does not exist in one who 
has escaped the states of punishment, who has an abundant flood 
of fortitude and a heap of accumulated merit, having entered 
the Stages of Perfection. Then there is no fault in the recital 
from ignorance, if there be too many syllables, nor if too few, 
nor if they deviate from the ritual. On the contrary, follow- 
ing the power of faith, the power of the thought of enlighten- 
ment, the power of all-renunciation, one must unhesitatingly 
proceed ; necessarily he attains the state of a Buddha or a 

* A charm, BhadracaripranidhanarSja : see Bendall, Cat. Camb. MSS. 
p. 14, etc., ed. by K. Watanaba, Leipzig, 1912. 

' Used in Tantrik ceremonial. 

See MV. Index. It applies to the four unhappy kinds of birth. 



138 PRESERVATION OF THE PERSON 

Bodhisatva,! and even in this world he gets all the success he 
could wish." 

Or he should guard himself by the charm, which " holds 
all the thunderbolts " : " Glory to the Tathagatas of the three 
times, who wield all thunderbolts, O Candala ! Gala, 2 vajra, 
santana, phalana, cara, marana, vajra dala phata. O thou 
that thunderest everywhere ! blaze ! glory be to thee, delight 
of the high and mighty rulers ! Ha ! blow, burst, Hail to the 
invincible thunderbolt ! " 

When this is only recited, all troubles and hindrances keep 
away ; gods and nagas and the Hke are no match for him ; it 
would protect you in all acts of eating and drinking, Ijdng 
down and sitting, and worship by the consecrated water, 
whether seen or thought upon. All this one should do with 
heart unmoved. Or this also : 

[141] " Glory to those who thunder everywhere : 
Protector ! 3 Unfailing, violent and wrathful, burst it asunder. 
Ho ! drive away, ho ! save us, ho ! mam ! om ! I give strength ; 
O garlanded with glory, hail ! " 

This should be chanted eight times to consecrate the first 
morsel, in remembering that the Buddhas and Bodhisatvas 
have supreme power in medicine. 

And a charm against poison, namely : " Ilimitte tilimitte 
ilitilimitte, dumbe, duhse, duhsaliye dumbaliye, takke tarka- 
rane, marmme marmarane, kasmira kasmiramukte, adhane 
adhanadhane, ilimiliye, akhapye akhapye, sveta svetatunde, 
ananurakshe, hail \" ^ 

He that hears this spell once, is proof against snake-bite 

1 Reading by conjecture Of{re(ri4H- 
* Among the objects named appear to be thunderbolt, death, honey, 
cobra's head. The translations are uncertain. 

^ If trdta can be a modification of trdtar. 

* Most of these words are jingles, but they contain some glimmerings of 
sense ; e.g. tilitsa a kind of snake, marman vital spot, maranam death, kasmira 
Kashmir, sveta white, tundam point, raksh protect. Similar jingles in the Bower 
MS. pt. vi. p. 228, show the same liking for cerebrals and liquids : idi vidi 
hividi, nide ade yade drgade . . . ele. mele, etc. . . . itti mitti . . . duma 
dumba . . . mili mili tili tili . . . chulu chulu mulu mulu . . . huhu 
(5 times) baba (5), jala (4). So p. 236. 



CHARMS AGAINST SNAKE-BITES 139 

for seven years, and no poison will enter his body. If any 
snake bites him, its head would burst into seven pieces like a 
spray of flowers. 1 

He that knows this spell is free for Hfe from snake-bite, 
and no poison will enter his body. These magical charms which 
make the snake die must not be recited in the presence of the 
snake. 

To wit .-2 " Ilia cilia, cakko bakko, koda koda, nikuruda 
nikuruda, pada pada, mada mada, puruda puruda, cobra hood 
avaunt, top of cobra hood avaunt, snake avaunt, snake's 
tooth avaunt, serpent avaunt, serpent's tooth avaunt, come, 
traitor with sharp poison, cold and venomous, halale halale, 
tandi tada tadi, mala, sphuta phutu, hail ! " 

[142] " So, Brethren, when the snake charmer 3 recites 
this spell against poison in all the assemblies of all creatures 
all is real, exact, very truth, unassailable, incontrovertible : 
* Let this poison be no poison ; let it go back to the giver, let it 
go back to the biter, let it go to fire and water, mound or pillar 
or wall, let it pass over the earth ; let it go into peace ! hail \"' 

As protection against thieves and suchHke, let him murmur 
the Mdnci charm, * as follows : " Parakramasi, udayamasi, 
vairamasi, arkamasi, markamasi, vanamasi, antarddhanamasi. 
On my path guard me, on the wrong path guard me ; from man 
and from thief guard me, from king and from Hon, from tiger, from 
snake, and from serpent, guard me from all ; guard me and all 
beings from all fears, and from all troubles in every event ; 
hail ! Umvadili : I praise the knot for all enemies. Glory 
to the Three Jewels ! ^ Glory to the divine Marici ! I will 

* arjaka ocimum gratissimum. 

2 As before, some words have sense. Pali cakko=:cakra wheel, bakko= 
vakra crooked, ko4a is a musical term, rah= a.ha.ndon, accha=coiae, chala 
traitor, sdta either sharp or decayed, stta cold, tdlaka a venomous insect ; 
the translation is uncertain. 

3 Reading with Tib. jangulya. 

* See R. Mitra, Skr. Buddh. Lit. p. 174. The Sanskrit formulae as usual 
are transliterated in Tib. (88, 2). Pardkramasi; " you advance," sets the type 
for the following jingles, which by their stems imply to go up, to attack, light 
and darkness, forest, concealment. 

^ Buddha, the Law, the Order. 



I40 PRESERVATION OF THE PERSON 

turn my heart to the divine Marici, thus : Battali badali 
badali baraU varahamuchi. Protect from all enemies : close 
the mouth : hail ! " 

The following spell he should add, remembering the infinity 
of births ; a spell most mighty, with fifty-seven syllables, 
written in the Vidyddharapitaka, with the purpose of guarding 
against all dangers ; thus : " Atte batte natte kunatte, take 
thake tharake, urumati rurumati, turn, hih mili, sarvajno- 
dupadagga, Glory to all supreme Buddhas, may my spell be 
effective : hail 1 " 

[143] " Thus duly to preserve one's frame hy raiment and by 
medicine comes," etc. : ^ this must be said with remembrance 
of the good of all ; *' hut to indulge one's own desires leads to 
the fall of sinful men.*' 

The Bodhisatva has renounced all things to all beings. 
Therefore if he forgetful consumes another's property for his 
own sake, he falls into a bad sin ; if he consumes it without 
desire, without attachment, remembering that it is for the 
benefit of other beings, he does not fall into a bad sin. If 
recognizing it for another's property, he consumes it for his 
own sake, he is guilty of the sin of theft. At the full penalty, 
in the Pratimoksha he is liable to expulsion. But if he thinks 
that the body is the servant of all creatures, and it is protected 
by using that which belongs to all creatures, there is no fault. 
For a servant always busy about his master's business does 
not always own that which he is busy with. 

It is said also in the Dharmasahgtti SUtra : "A Bodhisatva 
should be like a servant, asking himself what needs to be done 
for all beings." 

And when a servant is wholly devoted to his master's 
interest, and he is distressed with disease or the like, there is 
no fault if he eat even without asking his master's leave. Nor 
is disapproval justified in case of a Bodhisatva who does so, 

* Karika 13. 



THE TRUE SPIRIT OF ENJOYMENT 141 

by one who knows the nature of the action, by failing to dis- ^ 

tinguish selfishness and renunciation. Nor is there any doubt 
in the rule : for the whole precept has been set forth already in 
detail by the Blessed One. And thus the protection of the body 
has been explained as for the good of all creatures. The pre- 
cept is laid down to produce clear knowledge of this, not with 
a view to one's own interest. 



CHAPTER VII 

CARE OF ENJOYMENTS 

So much for the care of the person ; now we come to the 

care of enjoyments. Here one must remember the verse : ^ 

'* Put still thy hand to noble deeds, and know withal the golden 

mean : 

This precept should not make it hard to guard the power well to 

enjoy.'* 

[144] Now in the Ugrapariprcchd the rule is given : " The 
quaHty of acting with careful circumspection and the quality 
of doing good. This forbids evil use, excessive care, and 
disrespect with regard to enjoyments. 2 By the description of 
tranquillity right measure and propriety are enjoined. Then all 
goes well. By tliis is discovered the proper aim, that is even 
by one who has a small or mean share, and there is no need 
to trouble about the lack of a large share by oneself or others." 

Therefore it is said also in the Ugrapariprcchd : " ' With 
due provision for son, wife, servant and handmaid, assistant, 
labourer.' Thus renunciation or not-renunciation must not 
be made so as to cause hindrances to the true enhghtenment 
or knowledge of self or others. ' When a Bodhisatva has 
power equal or superior for the good of all creatures, he must 
not make givings or not-givings which would be hindrances to 
a merit equal or superior : ' then all is well." 

In connexion with this, it is declared in the Bodhisatva- 
Prdtimoksha : " But, Sariputra, when a Bodhisatva has gone 
out to be an anchoret, and is intent upon the things necessary 
for attaining enhghtenment, 3 how must he give, and what 

1 Karika 14. 2 Read ^0 for J|- 

3 Seven bodhyangdni : see Childers, p. 936. 
142 



\ 

DUTY OF MODEkATION 143 

gifts, and how great ? ... He must give a knowledge of the 
Law, a generous giver. If a Bodhisatva, being a householder, 
Sariputra, filling the Buddha's fields 1 with the seven jewels 
Hke the sands of Ganges' banks, should give gifts to the noble 
Tathagatas supreme in enlightenment ; and if a Bodhisatva that 
is numbered among the anchorets should recite one stanza 
containing four lines, from this he extracts greater merit. The 
Tathagata, Sariputra, does not allow the gift of flesh to an 
ordained anchoret. . . . But he indeed, Sariputra, who has 
received a portion in the bowl, laid in the bowl, a proper 
portion properly gotten, he must partake of it in common with 
his fellow-pious. But if any one should go and ask for bowl 
or robe, he would have something in excess of the three robes 
authorized by the Buddha ; as he casts off one, another may be 
given him. But if there should be a robe lacking to him on 
which the dress of a religious man depends, [145] that must not 
be given up. And why so ? The three robes are not to be given 
up, says the Tathagata. But if, Sariputra, the Bodhisatva, 
having cast the three robes, thinks a great deal of the asker,2 
he would not be practising moderation in his wishes. And, 
Sariputra, if a Bodhisatva has left the Hfe of a householder, he 
must practise righteousness. He must be intent on that." ^ 

Otherwise, for the sake of conciliating one person * there is 
great loss of advantage to a great multitude of beings and to 
that being, by the hindrance of the means by which a Bodhi- 
satva attains purity of motive. ^ Therefore to waste things 
which might bring great good is called *' throwing away." ^ So 
much for the prohibition of renunciation or not-renunciation. 

As it is declared in the holy Sdgaramati Sutra, that receiving 
much is among the hindrances to the Great Vehicle. The same 

^ When a Buddha appears. 

' The meaning of the word is clear, but not the sentence. Perhaps 
" thinks a great deal of asking for new ones." 

' Read -jf^ for 7^^ with Tib. and Bodhic, p. 144. 

* sativasangraha,see Dh. Sang. xix. : ddnam is the first of the four sangraha- 
vastuni ; see Lotus, pp. 4, 5. 

^ diayavisuddhi, one of the three roots of virtue, Dh.S. xv. 

Pali khalayati, Jat. 2, 20512^ etc. = cast out. 



144 CARE OF ENJOYMENTS 

rule that is applied to oneself is also to be applied in respect of 
another Bodhisatva. How is that ascertained ? Because it is 
explained in the holy Ugra-pariprcckd : '' For the sake of 
others' interest we renounce our own profit/' 

So in the Vimalakirti-nirdesa too it is said : ** What must 
one foster who is in fear of transmigration ? He spake : A 
Bodhisatva, Manjusri, who is in fear of transmigration, must 
foster the great soul of a Buddha. He spake : He that desires 
to foster the great soul of a Buddha, where must he abide ? 
He spake : He that desires to abide in the great soul of a 
Buddha must abide in impartial benevolence towards all 
beings. He spake : He that desires to abide in benevolence 
towards all beings, where must he abide ? He spake : He that 
desires to abide in benevolence towards all beings should work 
for the deliverance of all beings." 

So also in the Dharmasangtti, Bodhisatva Sarthavaha said : 
" A Bodhisatva, O Blessed One, desires enlightenment first for 
all beings, not for himself ; " . . . and so on to '' this is the 
Dharmasangi ti. " 

Only from renunciation comes the success of one's own acts. 
" Moreover, he does not place his own i burden on one who is 
unfit from fear of the loss of the interests of all beings. But 
where he sees no loss in the interests of all beings, what difference 
is there whether that which is good for the world be done by 
himself or another ? [146] owing to which he does not renounce 
his own good for the success of the good of another Bodhisatva ; 
but let us suppose that he fears the suffering of a bad re-birth 
for himself. Well, that very thing would be the suffering of 
another. But he would say, the suffering of this ' other ' does 
not harm me, and therefore he would take no account of it. In 
that case, by the Siitras already mentioned, he commits sin." 

As it is in the Ratnakuta Sutra. It begins : '* There are 
four counterfeit Bodhisatvas, Kasyapa. One aims at his own 
happiness, not at doing away with the unhappiness of all 
beings." Therefore, as before by the rule of the Ugrapari- 
prcchd, self must be neglected ; this is the doctrine of the 

^ Tib. ran-gi khur ^^t- 



SELF AND OTHERS 145 

Bodhisatvas, as was explained in the Dharmasah^tti Sutra by 
the holy Nirarambha : " How, sirs, are we to recognize those 
who are established in the Path ? He spake : When they have 
not a false opinion about other creatures. He spake : And 
how does that come about ? He spake : When they do not 
reject charity and great pitifulness. Subhiiti said : What is 
the Bodhisatva's great charity ? He spake : When they give 
to all beings body and hfe and all the roots of good, and expect 
no return. He spake : What is the great pitifulness of the 
Bodhisatvas ? In that they desire first enlightenment for all 
beings, and not for themselves." 

In the same place he says : " The doctrine of all the 
Bodhisatvas has as its root great pitifulness. We come 
necessarily to the conclusion, that a thing is not to be prohibited 
by the Blessed One, when such a thing is desired for the sake 
of another Bodhisatva. On the contrary he certainly enjoins 
it,i because a precious gift of a giver, to a man really worthy, 
gains a wide ocean of great merit. . . . But otherwise, for him 
who does damage only death would follow." 

But as it is declared in the Praidntaviniscaya-prdtihdrya 
Sutra : " The expense that you have incurred here. Great 
King, in a hundred thousand years, all lumped together 
would make the support for one brother ; so with each of all 
the Brethren. And when a Bodhisatva, engaged upon reciting 
the ordinances, dignified, loving the Law, takes the food given 
by the faithful, thus he must think : By this, I will enter on 
the inquiry into the Law. The expenditure of that offering 
does not come within the hundredth part of this good." It is 
said with reference to the purifying of the happiness of his 
house. But there is no harm by the rule already given. 

The Protection of Enjoyment has been briefly described ; 
it remains to describe the Protection of Merit. Here "thy 
merit guard by towering thirst for seeing fruit of thine own acts 
mature." 2 

[147I As it is said in the Ndrdyana-pariprcchd : " He does 

* Sense dubious ; the Tib. does not clear it up. * Karika 15a. 



146 CARE OF ENJOYMENTS 

not guard virtue for his own sake, nor for heaven's sake, nor 
to become Sakra, or for enjoyment, or majesty, form, colour, 
or glory . . . not through fear of hell. . . . Thus he guards 
virtue not for fear of being born as an animal : only he does it 
to get the Buddha's vision . . . " as far as " for the sake of 
the good, happiness, and welfare of all beings. The Bodhi- 
satva who has this condition of virtue does not lose the ten 
good quahties. And what are these ? That is : he does not lose 
the power of universal monarch ; then he is diligent and desirous 
of enlightenment, craving for a Buddha's perception ; thus 
he does not lose brahmahood, the getting of the uninterrupted 
vision of a Buddha, and pious learning," . . . as far as ** he 
does not lose the acquiring of a Bodhisatva's restraint for the 
purpose of gaining piety according to precedent ; he does not 
lose unbroken clear intelligence, the rapt desire for all things 
that are good. Thus the Bodhisatva, established in the 
conditions of virtue, becomes a great being always honoured by 
the gods, always praised by the nagas, always honoured by the 
yakshas, always worshipped by the gandharvas, always respected 
by the Kings of nagas and asuras, always well revered by 
brahmans, Kshatriyas, persons of rank, householders, always to 
be sought by the wise, always to be noticed by the Buddhas, 
a teacher approved for all beings, in sympathy with gods and 
with men. The four ways of birth he follows not, which are 
these : he does not go the way of misfortune 1 except by the 
ripening of Ufe ; he does not go to a Buddha's field empty 
of a Buddha ; he does not go to be born in a family of 
heretics ; he does not go the way of any of the unhappy 
births." 2 

Thus care must be taken even of merit abandoned before 
by oneself, which he might take upon himself again by the 
power of passion. If merit arise from the resigning of merit, 
from that same no ripening is to be expected except for another's 

1 See M.V. i. 405, note; Childers, s.v. akkhano. It means those lives (as of 
animals) in which there is no opportunity for the holy life. 

These would be the four apayas (Childers) : niraya, tiracchana, petaloka, 
asuraloka. See also Dh. Sgr. 57, which differs. 



GUARD VIRTUE FOR ITS OWN SAKE 147 

sake. However one may wish to preserve merit, he should 
*' ne'er repent." 1 

As it is said in the Ugrapariprcchd : " And after giving, 
one should not feel regret." [148] From weakness of comple- 
tion comes weakness of the act itself ; 2 from regret comes also 
destruction of merit, as well as of sin, that is the meaning. 
And do not " blaze abroad thy goodly deed." 3 For in many 
ways the Lord declares that merit must be hidden and that sin 
is to be revealed; for then what is revealed dwindles away; 
sin dwindles just by the remorse, and merit by the satisfaction. 
There is no offence * when a disinterested person proclaims it 
for the sake of all beings ; as in the Ratnamegha the instance 
of the physician explains the harmlessness of self-exultation. 
Again, if one desires to guard his merit, 

" From honour and from gain recoil, 
Exalted thoughts for ever shun ; 
The Bodhisat steadfast in faith 
In the good law must have no doubt." ^ ^ 

This is also said in the Ratnakuta : '' Four things there are, 
Kasyapa, which possessed by the Bodhisatva make the good 
not yet produced not to grow and the good already produced 
to disappear. 6 And what are these four ? To be proud by 
searching after casuistical controversies ; to be concerned with 
gain and honour by paying attention to families ; by calumny 
and hatred of a Bodhisatva ; by rejecting all scriptures except 
those which one has heard and been taught." 

And in the books of the Sarvdstivddms it is laid down : " See, 
Brethren, that Brother faUing prostrate with his whole body on 
a hair-and-nail shrine, bringing his mind into a reverent frame. 

1 Karika 15&. 

* An act is regarded as consisting of preparative, action proper, and 
completion (prayoga-, maula-, prstha-karman). 

* Karika 156. 

* Reading with Tib. in 1482: JTT^rr I ^r?TTqO. 
5 Karika 16, 

* Reading doubtful : we follow the Chinese version. (See note on text.) 



148 CARE OF ENJOYMENTS 

Yes, sir. The ground covered by that Brother, 80,000 leagues 
downward down to the golden circle, 1 as many as the grains 
of sand between those so many thousands of imperial kingships 
are to be enjoyed by that Brother." ... (as far as) " Then the 
Reverend Upali, making obeisance to the Blessed One, thus 
addressed him : According to what the Blessed One has said, 
that Brother has great roots of good. How do these roots of 
good dwindle, decay, disappear ? I do not see, Upali, [149] any 
such damage or loss, as when one fellow-student encourages evil 
thoughts in the presence of another ; then, Upali, these great 
roots of good dwindle, decay, disappear. Therefore in that 
case the rule must be laid down : That even against the red-hot 
pillar 2 we will not be angry, much less against a creature 
endowed with consciousness." 

In the holy Manjuin-vikndita Sutra also he says : " Anger 
indulged again and again destroys a root of good heaped up 
through a hundred ages ; therefore it is said, Anger," etc. 
And in the holy Gandavyuha Sutra they give an old story 
told by the deity of the night to Samantasatvaparitranyojas. 
These people by a root of mischief created by contempt of one 
another, fell from the full measure of life, family, and strength. 
Then pride must never be indulged. This is always said by 
way of admonition. 

But gifts and honour are sometimes sought also. As it is 
said in the holy Ratnamaegha : " Here, sir, a Bodhisatva 
receiving even a heap of precious things high as Mount Sumeru, 
accepts it, and so also even when he receives a humbler thing. 
And why is that ? This is what he thinks. * Those envious 
creatures, covetous, possessed with greed, miserly, therefore, for 
that cause, for that reason, dip up and down in the ocean of 
transient existence as though they were floating in a great 
water. [150] This will happen to them during a long period 
for good, for benefit, for happiness : what he accepts he never 
makes his own. He does not encourage the thought of greed ; 
only along with all beings he praises the Buddha, the Law, 

1 There are circles of earth, gold, water, space, one below another, 
* Used for torturing criminals to death by impalement or embracing. 



PRIDE TO BE ESCHEWED 149 

and the Order, just as he does service to all unhappy beings. 
And the generous giver he encourages and gladdens.'* 

So in the same place it is said : " And by this gift he is not 
uphfted." Again in the same place he says : " But if therefore 
and for this cause and reason, there is praise, fame, or talk 
nothing is caused in the nature of exaltation or pride or intoxi- 
cation ; and this is what occurs to his mind : ' Before very 
long he for whom is this praise, fame, or talk, and they who 
made it, and the praise, fame, or talk itself, all three will no 
longer exist at all. What wise man then would crave or would 
be uplifted or proud of a thing impermanent, not enduring, not 
lasting, unsatisfying ? ' Thus then the Bodhisatva lives ever 
carefully mindful in the matter of gain and glory, fame, praise, 
and talk." 

Again he says : " They dwell in the world hke young 
Candalas, with mind wholly debased ; they are filled with 
pride, intoxication, and arrogance, by the continual mani- 
festation of the signs of malice." 

And again it is said : ** In this world, sir, when a Bodhisatva 
has left his house and become a hermit, he keeps down his 
pride by thinking, ' I am hke a dead man amongst my friends 
and counsellors, kith and kin. UgHness has come over me, I 
am clothed in discoloured garments and a different garb is upon 
me. Shaven, bowl in hand, I go from family to family, for the 
sake of begging and of alms. With lowly and humble heart 
like a young Candala's I walk for alms. I Hve on charity, 
aloof ; my hf e depends on others ; I receive what is despised 
or cast away ; I have to pay respect to teachers and preceptors 
and those worthy of offerings ; 1 I have to please my fellow- 
students, that is to say, by appropriate conduct, objects, or 
offerings ; [151] I shall obtain the quahties of the Buddha 
which I do not possess ; 2 J shall dwell full of patience in the 
midst of persons cruel and of corrupt mind.' These thoughts 
keep down his pride." 

In the holy Sdgaramati Siltra it is said : " He has a pure 

* See Mahdvastu, Index, and Pali dakkhineyyo. 
Place virama after 9frT 



156 CARE OF ENJOYMENTS 

body,i his limbs all decorated with lucky marks, hands and 
feet tender and delicate, his symmetrical limbs are pervaded with 
merit, his senses unimpaired, perfect in every limb and member ; 
yet he is not intoxicated with pride of form, nor devoted to the 
use of bodily ornaments ; yet he bows and shows respect to 
beings however low, even if devoid of beauty, having perceived 
that they are capable of apprehending righteousness." 

Again it is said in the same place : " Just as it might be. 
Blessed One, when a great water collects, it collects in a sunken 
place of the earth ; and because it is sunken, all the rivers and 
all the streams run easily into it ; just so, Blessed One, in a 
Bodhisatva without pride, a teacher, one worthy of gifts, one 
reverend, all those deep doctrines 2 of righteousness come to 
manifestation streaming into the ear and settle in the 
memory. Therefore in that case. Blessed One, the Bodhisatva 
who is uplifted and puffed up with pride, who does not bow and 
do reverence before teachers and those worthy of gifts, it must 
be understood, Blessed One, that this Bodhisatva is pierced by 
the hook of Mara." 

In the holy LokoUaraparivarta it is said : " These are the 
ten deeds of Mara ^ in the Bodhisatvas, O Jinaputra, to wdt : 
Lack of respect to teachers, those worthy of gifts, preceptors, 
mother and father, ascetics, brahmans, holy persons and 
those who do well, is a deed of Mara. He shows no respect to 
preachers, those who have studied the excellent Law, those who 
discourse on the exalted Law, those who have mounted in the 
Great Vehicle, those who know the rules of the path to Nirvana, 
those who understand the chiefest charms and scriptures. 
He is proud and arrogant. He shows no honour to the preacher, 
he gives him neither attention nor regard. This is a deed of 
Mara. When seated at a hearing or discussion of the Law, 
when the influence of the Sublime Law is felt, [152] he does 
not applaud the preacher lest some one should praise him for 

Tib. de lus, etc.='^ oirn? and i| for ;^ in line 4. 

2 Tib. read JT^lf^. 

The Tib. has all through this passage na-rgyal, pride, i.e. in"^ for ?nT- 



THE DEEDS OF MARA 151 

it : this is a deed of Mara. He encourages self-conceit and 
approves himself but not others ; he does not attain to self- 
knowledge ; he does not cultivate philosophical reflection : 
this is a deed of Mara. With a high conceit, not knowing, not 
awake, he conceals the praise of men worthy of praise, and 
speaks dispraise. He is not transported with the praise of 
another's quaUty. This is a deed of Mara. He knows that 
this is the Law, this is the Disciphne and the very word of 
Buddha, yet by disUke of persons he shows dislike of the Law, 
and casts away the Good Law, and makes others quarrel with 
it. This is a deed of Mara. He desires a high seat 1 ; he seeks 
for contradiction 2 ; he is subservient to others, and applauds 
them. When men are old and ancient or old in the practice of 
virtue he does not wait on them or welcome them. This is a 
deed of Mara. Aye, and he has a frowning face and smiles 
not ; nor is he sweet of voice ; always hard-hearted and fault- 
finding, seeking for weak points. This is a deed of Mara. 
Falling into self-conceit he does not approach the wise, nor 
wait upon them, nor resort to them, nor attend them, nor 
question them, nor ask them what is good and what bad, what 
is to be done, what if done makes for lasting good, profit, 
happiness ; or what if not done makes for the contrary ; he is 
senseless and more than senseless ; deluded in reasoning, 
sulky, knowing not salvation. This is a deed of Mara. Full 
of pride, he does not wish for the appearance of a Buddha ; 
he throws away the root of former good, and does not cultivate 
a new one ; he gives instructions that are nought ; he begins 
quarrels, is full of disputes ; this is the way 3 for one vainly to 
fall with a mighty fall who abides in such conduct. But then 
again, if it happens that he does obtain sovereignty owing ^ 
the power of the thought of enlightenment, in that case through 
hundreds of thousands of ages he does not meet the apparition of 

1 Tib. Stan mthon-po, i.e. 4MH \ HA - 

2 So pariharam karoti in Jat. i. i86. But Tib. has las su mi bsko bahi 
chos tsol, " seeks activities to which he has not been appointed.'* 

' See Childers, p. 503&, s.v. thanam. 

Tib. stobs skyed-pas, i.e. "^TirrT. 



152 CARE OF ENJOYMENTS 

a Buddha, how much less the hearing of the Law ? This is the 
tenth work of Mara. These, Jinaputra, are the ten works of Mara ; 
which avoiding, the Bodhisatvas attain the ten Deeds of the 
higher knowledge, and then in these deeds is ripened freedom 
from pride towards all beings." 

[153] In the holy Rdshtrapdla Sutra it is said : " Opportunity 
for destruction, the path amid misfortunes, ^ poverty, birth in a 
low family, blindness and weakness of nature, lack of power : 
these are what they get, deluded by the powers of pride." 

And in the Dharmasanglii Sutra it is said : " ' The whole 
world of creation is the Buddha's field for the Bodhisatva ; 
and I ought not to sin against these creatures, since from this 
Buddha's field comes the opportunity for me to become a 
Buddha.' And this is what he thinks. ' Every good or evil 
act concerns Uving creatures. In consequence of doing ill 
calamities result ; in consequence of doing well they become 
gods or men.' " 

Therefore it is said also in the holy Ratnolkddhdram : 
** Here, O Jinaputras, the Bodhisatva who first cultivates his 
mind, cultivates it from the very beginning in ten ways towards 
living creatures. And what are these ten ways ? To wit : 
A mind of friendship, of happiness, of pity, of affection, of 
kindness, of help, of protection, of justice, the teacher's mind, 
the instructor's mind. These are the ten ways in which he 
cultivates his mind." 

And in the Sraddhdhalddhdndvatdramudrd Sutra it is said : 
*' * I am fixed in the purpose to instruct all beings ; I will lead 
others to the purpose of instructing all beings : ' this thought 
gives him confidence. ..." And so on to ** I am firmly fixed in 
showing respect and courtesy to all beings," as before. 

Here in the showing of respect and courtesy to all beings 
is the absence of pride. 

Then in the holy Vimalakirtinirdesa : " For the production 
of the pure field of a Buddha, affection is prescribed towards 
all beings as if they were the teacher. But to safeguard the 
serenity of the world, even in washing of mouth or feet the 

^ See above, p. [147], note [i]. 



KINDLINESS TO ALL CREATURES 153 

Bodhisatva must use affection and respect in mind towards 
women or those in misfortune or calamity." 

[154] For it is said in the Gandavyuha, that " as soon as 
he was seated among the Samantaras on that throne, all the 
assemblage stood looking towards him in a respectful attitude, 
doing obeisance to the king. . . . And the king Sarvadharma- 
nirnadacchatramandalanirghosha was more transported with 
the sight of these suitors, than by the king's having received the 
rule of three thousand empires as far as the Hmit of infinite ages. 
..." And so on to ". . . than the happy Ufe in tranquillity 
and salvation of gods that dwell in a pure region of the sky, 
dweUing there for unnumbered ages. In fact, young sir, in 
a man whose life is all full of craving, who has been long 
separated from mother, father, brother, sister, friend, counsellor, 
kith and kin, son, daughter, wife, when he has been lost in 
forest and wilderness, who desires to see their sight ; at meeting 
with these great love would arise because he cannot have enough 
of that sight. Just so, young sir, in that King Sarvadharma- 
nirnadacchatramandalanirghosha at the sight of these suitors 
impulses of great love arose. Joy and happiness of mind 
descended upon him, a great impulse of heart-upUfting was 
made manifest, until towards all these suitors he should feel as 
to an only son, or to father and mother, or those who are 
worthy of gifts, or the Good Friend, persons highly esteemed 
or bestowing highest success, a great help, a supporter of others, 
teachers of the way of wisdom, a teacher or preceptor." 

So if there is not another way, when people show him respect 
and serve him in various ways, he must remember that he has 
wholly given himself to others. " This my body belongs to 
them : therefore let them do as they Uke with it for their own 
benefit, as in the cleaning or smearing of the ground." Or 
through fear of the Master's displeasure and a desire to please 
him, they must resolve to accomplish his commands. For a 
Brother being ill once accepted even the service of the Blessed 
One, when there was no other way. 

As it is said in the Bhikshupraklmaka : " The Blessed One 



154 CARE OF ENJOYMENTS 

said : ' Fear not, Brother, fear not, Brother ; I will serve you, 
Brother. Give me your robes while I wash them.' When he 
had thus spoken, the Elder Ananda said to the Blessed One, 
' Let not the Blessed One wash the dirt-smeared robes of this 
sick man ; I will wash them, Blessed One.' The Blessed One 
said, ' Well, Ananda, ypu wash the robes of this Brother ; the 
Tathagata will pour the water.' Then [155] indeed Elder 
Ananda washed the robes of that sick man, and the Blessed 
One poured the water. . . . Then indeed Elder Ananda would 
take the sick Brother outside with all care, and wash him, and 
the Blessed One poured the water. And he said : ' Is it not 
usual to gratify, even at the cost of one's life, those from whom 
one receives advancement if they are pleased, and if displeased, 
terrible misfortune ? And indeed those beings by pleasing 
whom many have come to happiness there is no other 
sphere of happiness for creatures in the world. These are 
magic jewels, lucky bowls, wishing-cows, and therefore they 
are to be propitiated like a teacher or a deity. Moreover, what 
better repayment could there be for sincere friends and in- 
comparable helpers if you reUnquish the propitiation of 
creatures ? Of old the lord bore on his head, as they desired, 
the people fixed in his hair, having become a mountain by his 
effort : for their sake the Buddhas break their bodies, and 
enter hell ; acting for these we should really act for the Buddha ; 
therefore we must do all good, even to those who do great harm. 
How can I show pride to just those my masters, and not be 
their servant, for whose sake the Masters are heedless of their 
own selves ? 1 

[156] "Those in whose happiness great sages take joy, 
at whose pain they fall into distress by pleasing of them comes 
the pleasure of all great sages, in harming them harm is done 
to the sages. As there is no satisfaction, even by fulfilling all 
desires, for one whose body is all ablaze, just so when living 
creatures are in pain there is no means of pleasure for men of 
great pity. Therefore I declare this day this sin, that harm 
done to the world is done to those of great mercy, with which 
1 See Barnett, Path of Life, p. 71. 



PROPITIATE ALL CREATURES WITH KINDNESS 155 

afflicted let the sages have compassion. This day for the 
propitiation of the Tathagatas, I undertake service to the 
world with my whole being. Let the multitudes put their foot 
on my head, or let them kill me ; let the lord of the world be 
pleased. They have identified themselves with all the world, 
these beings of mercy, there is no doubt of that ; indeed, they 
are seen in the form of beings : these are the only lords : why 
show disrespect to them ? Just this is the propitiation of the 
Tathagatas, just this is the accomplishment of one's own good, 
just this is the removal of the world's trouble ; therefore let 
me do just this. As one King's man handles a great multitude 
roughly, but the multitude seeing afar dares not show hostile 
feeling,! because he is not alone, the King's strength is his : 
so one should not contemn one who does wrong because he is 
weak, since the guardians of hell and the men of pity are his 
strong army. Therefore one should propitiate living beings, as 
a servant does a cruel king. What could an angry king do to 
cause such pain as hell can cause, which is attained by unkind- 
ness done to living creatures ? [157] What could a gratified king 
give that should be equal to Buddhahood, which is attained 
by kindness done to Hving creatures? Without mentioning 
Buddhahood, which should be produced from propitiation of 
living beings, do you not see that even in this hfe there is 
happiness, glory, and comfort ? Amiability, health, glad- 
someness, long Hfe, the bhss of imperial rule, prosperity, these 
the merciful man gets in his transmigrations. To be a venerable 
refuge for friends is the dignity of hving creatures ; the merit 
that comes from pleasing the Buddhas is the Buddha's dignity." 

For this reason in the Candrapradipa Sutra the fruit of 
friendhness is made clear. ** All the various and infinite 
worship 2 in a thousand milHons of universes, if all this worship 
be done to the incomparable lords, it is not equal to a merciful 
heart." 

Therefore one should always eschew pride towards such 
persons, worthy of the greatest gifts : and that pride arises 
from inaccurate thinking. 

* Reading as in note. * Read tlfT i^ ^^^ io 



156 CARE OF ENJOYMENTS 

Effort must be made to avoid the occurrence of this. As 
it is said in the Ratnamegha : " And how, young sir, does a 
Bodhisatva avoid inaccurate thinking ? In this case it never 
even comes into the mind of the Bodhisatva when alone, in 
secret, in solitude, to think, * I am not in a crowd, I am 
in solitude, I live in conformity with the Tathagata's 
Discipline of the Law ; but other ascetics or brahmans all live 
in a crowd ; they mix with many people, and they are without 
the DiscipUne of the Tathagata's Law.' [158] Thus the 
Bodhisatva avoids inaccurate thinking." 

Again in the same place it is said : "In this case the 
Bodhisatva while attaining strength does not take relish in 
that mighty strength, and does not uplift himself by that 
strength, nor treat others injuriously. And this is his thought : 
* Who would blame others, being wise of nature and devoted 
to his own business ? ' Thus the Bodhisatva is not uplifted by 
his strength." 

The essence of the Preservation of Merit is the appUcation 
of merit to Enlightenment. 

For thus it is said in the holy Akshayamati Sutra : " When 
merit has been applied to enlightenment, there is no 
interruption in the root of good till he be seated under the 
Bo-tree : that is to say, friend Saradvatiputra, when the 
water-drop has fallen into the mighty ocean, there is nothing 
in the way to hinder it before the end of the age." 



CHAPTER VIII 

PURIFICATION FROM SIN 

So much for the protection of the person and what follows : i 
our subject is now Purification, for this reason : 

" When once the frame is purified 
It will be wholesome to enjoy 
For beings, if 'tis fully good. 
Like rice without or speck or taint/' 2 

As it is said in the holy Tathdgataguhya Sutra : " The great 
cemeteries that are found in large cities, filled with many 
hundreds of thousands of Hving creatures even there the 
Bodhisatva, the Great Being, shows his mighty person when 
dead and his day done. [159] There those who are born as 
animals, after eating his fiesh as long as it suited them, at the 
end of their lives dead and gone, enter into happiness in heaven 
amongst the gods. And he alone is the cause of this to them, 
even unto Nirvana : that is, by the purification coming from 
his former devotion. He who for long time should pray for 
those who should eat his flesh after death, he would be to 
them a cause of being born in heaven until the Nirvana of this 
virtuous person. His intention is accompHshed, his petition 
is fulfilled, his prayer is heard." 

Again it is said in the same : " When he is penetrated by 
the Law-Body, 3 just by showing it he works good to Hving 
beings, just by hearing and touch he works their good ; just as, 
O Santamati, when Vaidyaraja was ahve after perfecting all 

' Aimabhdva, ch. 6 ; bhoga and puriya, cb. 7. Karika 17, 

One of the three bodies of the Buddha. 

57 



158 PURIFICATION FROM SIN 

medicines, he made the shape of a girl i composed of a collection 
of all medicinal trees, pleasant, beautiful, well made and put 
together, well completed ; she went to and fro, stood, sat 
down, slept. All sick persons who came, mighty kings or those 
in authority, men of rank, householders, courtiers, feudal 
princes, Vaidyaraja when aUve used to unite with this medicine- 
girl : and no sooner was their union consummated with her, 
than all their infirmities oozed out of them, and they became 
whole and happy and without blemish. See, Santamati, how 
Vaidyaraja in Hfe had knowledge to cure all the ills of the world, 
and see if other physicians have the like. Just so, Santamati, 
when the Bodhisatva has the Law-Body, all beings women, 
men, boys, girls distressed by passions, faults, delusion, who 
touch his body, no sooner do they touch it than all their 
passions are calmed and they feel that the distress has left 
their bodies ; that is, by the purity that comes from this 
Bodhisatva's former devotion. For this reason the person 
must be purified." 

Moreover, he described the fault that is in impurity. 

" Even as a crop that's choked by weeds, 
Perishes, never flourishing, 
So choked by sin, to increase due 
A Buddha-scion reaches not.*' 2 

[160] The sense is, by the removal of what is antagonistic 
for the sake of improvement. 

" What means, to purify the frame ? 
The purging it from ill and sin, 
Following aU Buddha's word impHes, 
Strenuously, else to hell we go." ^ 

Here the purging from sin is set forth in the Caturdharmaka 
Sutra : " There are four practices, Maitreya, which the Bodhi- 
satva, the Great Being, must use to overcome the accumulation 

^ This is the opposite of the poison girl familiar in Sanskrit literature. 
2 Karika i8. Karika 19. 



THE PURGING FROM SIN 159 

of sin. And what are these four ? To wit : The practice of 
self-reproach, 1 the practice of the opposite, the power of 
amendment, the power of a refuge. Here he who practises 
self-reproach does an evil deed and at once is full of penitence. 
He who practises the opposite 2 even after doing an evil deed 
is exceedingly persevering in good. The power of amendment : 
by a resolve to abstain he succeeds in abstaining. The power 
of a refuge : the taking refuge with Buddha, the Law, and the 
Order, not neglecting the thought of enlightenment ; through 
this very strong support he cannot be overcome by sin. These, 
Maitreya, are the four practices which the Bodhisatva must 
have, that Great Being, to overcome the accumulation of sin." 
Now how is the practice of self-reproach to be cultivated ? 
As it is said in the SuvarnaprahhdsoUama Sutra : " May the 
Buddhas take notice of me, their hearts full of pity and com- 
passion, and all the best of men that stand in the ten regions 
of the earth. [161] Whatever deeds I have done before, sinful 
and cruel, all I will now disclose standing in the presence of the 
Dasabala : whatever sin I have done through not knowing my 
parents, through not knowing the Buddhas, 3 through not 
knowing the Good ; all the sins I have done mad and intoxicate 
with superhuman power, mad with family and wealth, mad 
and intoxicate with youth ; all the sins I have done by evil 
thought and evil word, by evil acts accompHshed, by not seeing 
the calamities that follow ; all the sin I have done by a fool's 
inteUigence, with mind void of knowledge, with mind confused 
by passion through the power of the Bad Friend, by reason of 
vexation and trouble, by reason of dalliance or lust, by offences 
due to inordinate wealth ; all the sins I have done, by the 
deceitful offences of poverty caused by envy and jealousy 
through association with worthless men ; all the sins I have 
done at the approach of calamity when weak because of fear 
for my desires ; all the sins I have done when tormented with 
hunger and thirst by reason of. fickle mind or love and anger ; 
[162] all the sins I have done for drink or food or clothes, for 

^ Or detestation of sin. ' Tib. has gnen-po, " antidote." 

Confirmed by Tib., but the syntax remains obscure. 



i6o PURIFICATION FROM SIN 

women's sake, with manifold fires of wickedness ; all the sins, 
the accumulated evil doing, in the three ways of body, word, 
and thought, in these fashions, I now declare ; any disrespect I 
may have shown to Buddhas, laws, ascetics, in the same way, 
all this I now declare ; again, any disrespect shovv^n to Pratyeka 
Buddhas and Bodhisatvas, all this I now declare ; any disrespect 
shown to those who uttered the Good Law and to other virtuous 
persons, all this I now declare ; the Good Law rejected, and 
therefore ignorance always mine,i disrespect shown to parents, 
all this I now declare ; all done in stupidity and folly, in 
pride and insolence, in passion and hatred, all this I now 
declare ; let the Buddhas behold me with attentive minds, let 
them understand my vice, their minds pierced with pity. 
[163] For all the sins that I have done in hundreds of ages, I 
am heartily sorry, I am to be pitied, I am troubled with fear ; 
I am always distressed in mind for my evil deeds, wherever I 
go I am weak as water. May all the pitiful Buddhas, who take 
away fear in the world, understand my fault and free me from 
fear. May the Tathagatas annul the fruit of my evil deeds for 
me ; may the Buddhas wash me clean in the flowing waters of 
mercy. I now declare all the sins I have done before, and all 
the sin I have now, I now declare. For the future I undertake 
to cease all my evil deeds ; I do not conceal the sin that I may 
have done. Threefold are the deeds of the body, fourfold of 
speech, with mind of three kinds : I declare all. What is' done 
with body or voice and thought with the mind, ten kinds in aU, 
I now declare it ; [164] and all the sin I have done, that brings 
undesired fruit, I will now declare standing in the presence of 
the Buddhas. 

'' The terrible sins I have done in my foolishness in the 
series of my existences, all these I declare standing before the 
Dasabala ; and I declare the sins accumulated in the series of 
my births, with my various embodiments, in the series of 
existences, the evils done through fickleness of mind and 
all kinds of folly or unwisdom : by association with the Bad 
Friend, in fear or in passion, by fault, delusion, or darkness, 

^ " Owing to my always ignorance," Tib. bdag-gis rtag-tu mi bes pas. 



CONFESSION OF SIN i6i 

by chance of opportunity or of time, in the acquiring of merit, 
in every possible situation : all this sin I do declare." 

Especially the exposition of the Bodhisatva's offences, great 
and small, is to be found in the holy Updli-pariprcchd. But 
what is a great root-sin ? In general it is there stated : "If, 
UpaH, the Bodhisatva, the Great Being, standing in the Great 
Vehicle, fall into sins of passion many as the sands of the river 
Ganges, and if once he should fall into a sin of hatred, by the 
standard of the Bodhisatva's Vehicle, . . . that sin which is 
connected with hate is more serious than these. And why so ? 
Since hatred, UpaU, makes for the abandonment of people, but 
passion makes for their winning, therefore, UpaU, there is no 
wickedness or danger for the Bodhisatva in that sin which makes 
for the winning of people. . . . Therefore I tell thee, Upah, 
that the errors due to passion are no errors. And what is the 
meaning of this ? As the excellence of the winning of people 
has already been pointed out, this text refers to one whose 
inchnations are merciful." Wherefore he says immediately : 
** In this case, UpaU, the Bodhisatvas who are not fertile in 
resource are afraid of the sins of passion : but those who are 
fertile in resource, [165] they fear sins of hatred, not sins of 
passion." 

And who are those fertile in resource ? Those who are 
held back from deserting people by knowledge and pity both. 
For this desertion comes in either way : by knowledge alone, 
through the perception of pain and void ; and by pity alone, 
through the power of passion : ere long comes the loss of pity. 

As it is said in the Updyakatisalya Sutra : " For example, 
young sir, suppose a man who has the science of charms to be 
bound in fivefold fetters by the king ; whenever he should wish 
to come forth, at once by force of the knowledge of one charm 
he could burst all his bonds and come forth : just so, young sir, 
if a Bodhisatva who is fertile in resource takes pleasure in the 
five kinds of desire and abides iiUed with these ; whenever he 
wishes, by a single thought of omniscience based on the 
strength of knowledge after having enjoyed aU the kinds of 
desire he is born in Brahma's world." 



i62 PURIFICATION FROM SIN 

And why is not the same said of hatred ? because of its most 
blameworthy nature, and because if pity is lacking resource is 
also absent. 

Confident that to attain other's good is more important than 
one's o\\Ti good, if he be moved by wrath even in admonishing 
another, he checks this for the future in consequence of repent- 
ance. What is the fault in not putting a check upon wrath ? 
The fault is the loss of pity from the fault of cherishing the 
wrath. We shall explain later that the cutting off of this is a 
fault of cutting that goes to the root. Even if this is good for 
that being, nevertheless by the loss of the Bodhisatva's pity 
would come the loss of a great chain of good to the world. 

In the Aryasatyaka Parivarta also the type of the son is to 
be understood as chosen, because of tenderness. And the 
prohibition of excessive pity is due to the knowledge of the 
world's ^ good for the sake of winning the world. And being 
hindered if a benevolent [i66] Bodhisatva 2 should receive 
an obstacle that Bodhisatva would be worthless to both. 

The fault in passion is now also explained. " A man who 
follows lusts is a blind man : he will slay his parents. A man 
who follows lusts will kill the virtuous. Therefore let him always 
eschew them.'* 

It is seen that one who is attached to his own welfare 
disregards the pain of others. That is true, it is seen. So 
also one who does not consider the suffering of others as his 
own ; but he who does, lacks both faults. 

As it is said in the Candrapradipa Sutra : ** As for instance, 
Ananda, if any man should be burning from the sole of his 
foot right up to the crown of his head, all aflame, one great 
blazing : and if some one should go up to him and say, ' Come, 
my good man, when your body is not extinguished, dally, 
love, gratify yourself, fully pervaded with the five pleasures : 
what think you then, Ananda ? Would he indeed, when his 
body was not extinguished, dally, love, gratify himself with 

1 So Tib. der ha can snin rje : read ITTTfTT^ in line 17. 

2 Reading Oo|n*r> ^fv^fli^^. 



FEELING FOR OTHERS 163 

the five pleasures ? ' Ananda said : ' No indeed, sir/ The 
Blessed One said : ' It is more Hkely that that man would dally, 
love, gratify himself (to put an imaginary case) and be fully 
pervaded with the five pleasures, when his body is not ex- 
tinguished, than that the Tathagata when formerly Hving as 
a Bodhisatva, and seeing people afflicted with the three kinds 
of calamity, in need, felt satisfaction, or peace of mind/' and 
so on. And in the world when a son is impaled in view of 
mother and father, they do not think of attachment to their 
own welfare by reason of their natural pity. Secret relations 
with wives or maids who are protected by the family or religion 
or the royal standard, 1 would not be forbidden love. If there 
is here good for people, or no detriment to them, there is no sin 
when one understands the motive. But in the case of women 
devoted to chastity, as they reaUse their aim, one must avoid 
them and revere them as mother or sister, with no other kind of 
good hving, from doing good to people. Then would that hold 
also for a Brother ? Not so ; 2 because he achieves the welfare 
of beings by means of continence. 

[167] So it is said in the holy Akshayamati Sutra : *' But he 
has not to care whether it be in season and out of season/' Then 
if he sees the greater advantage for beings let him transgress 
the rule. 

In the Updyakausalya Sutra, about the student Jyotis who 
has lived chaste for 42,000 years, it is shown that pity might 
arise in one who stands on the seventh step. 3 " ' If I were to 
break this vow I should go to hell. Nevertheless I can endure 
the misery of hell, provided this woman be happy. Let her 
not die.' So, young sir, Jyotis turned and took the woman by 
the right hand and said, * Rise, sister, do with me what you 
will.' . . . And so I myself, young sir, by an impulse of pity, 
though vile, and full of desire, was set back for ten thousand 
ages. See, young sir, the deed which in the case of others 

1 Page i66i^ read ^ ^^0 according to Tib. For the protectors see 
M. Vyut. 281. 

* Read Tf ff^, omitting with Tib, ^"qXTJlT- 

* That is, at the height of attainment of charity. 



i64 PURIFICATION FROM SIN 

would lead to hell, turns to birth in Brahma's world in the 
case of a Bodhisatva who is fertile in resource." 

Again in the same place he says : '' If the Bodhisatva should 
produce a root of good in one being, and should fall into such 
a sin as would cause him to fry in hell for a hundred thousand 
ages, he must endure to fall into that sin and bear that hellish 
pain rather than to omit the good of that one being." 

Again in the same place he says : *' Here, young sir, when- 
ever the Bodhisatva fertile in resource falls into any sin by the 
power of the Bad Friend, from this he learns a fresh lesson. * I 
must not enter Nirvana with these elements ; but I must 
make up my mind to this : a crore of deaths must be passed 
through for the sake of bringing people to maturity. I must 
not have heartburnings ; however my course may be, I will 
bring people to maturity. But yet I will atone for this sin as 
is right. For the future I undertake to cease.' If, young sir, 
the Bodhisatva who has left the world, to put an imaginary 
case, should overcome all the four root sins, and by that 
fertility in resource should dispel them, I call that sinlessness 
in the Bodhisatva." 

[i68] In the holy Ratnamegha the slaying of a man who was 
intending to commit a deadly i sin, is allowed. 

And in the ^rdvaka-Vinaya, in the passage about root sins, 
there is said to be no sin in the releasing of animals for pity's 
sake. 

And in passion there is this quaUty, that when the Bodhi- 
satva has allowed passion to arise a happy new birth is 
obtained ; but not by wrath. 

As it is said in the Updyakaualya Sutra, concerning the 
love of the girl Sridakshinottara 2 for the Bodhisatva Priya- 
mkara, ** By the vow of Priyamkara the woman who should look 
on him with passionate mind would put off her womanhood 
and become a man, an exalted being. Behold, Ananda, such 

1 There are five anantarya sins, " that bring immediate retribution," see 
Childers, p. 327, pancdnantariyakammam. 

2 Tib. dpal yon can-gyi mchog. This Bodhisatva had made a vow that 
any girl who should be enamoured of himself should be sacred. 







WHEN A SIN OF PASSION IS NO SIN 165 

are his qualities : by whom some beings go to heU, by the same 
when he has brought them to birth amongst heroes, they fall 
into passion, they go to heaven, they become men. . . . Who 
would feel hatred towards Bodhisatvas great and glorious like 
Bhaishajyaraja, whose very sin gives happiness ? How much 
more he that should honour them ! " 

Thus when there is this opportunity for the good of creatures, 
a sin arising from passion is declared to be no sin. 

And in the Updyakamalya Sutra it is fully explained how 
that Uke a courtezan the Bodhisatva who has succeeded in his 
good efforts leaves the creature with indifference. 

But this is the reflection of one who has not attained a stage 
of meditation, but has walked in the six Transcendent Virtues, * 
not of any other, so we may dismiss the topic. 

Therefore no place must be given to hate, for it is said in 
the Updli-pariprcchd : " For Bodhisatvas, ^ariputra, there are 
two most heinous sins. And what are these two ? One 
connected with hate, one connected with delusion. Of these, 
Sariputra, the first [169] sin is to be pubHshed directly in a 
Chapter of Ten Brethren. The sin of the hand is to be pub- 
lished as serious in a chapter of five, the touching of a woman 
with the hand and looking at her with the eye. The sin of 
evil thought, Sariputra, he should publish as serious to one man 
or two. The five unpardonable sins, 2 sin as regards women, 
girls, the hand, the shrine, the order, and such-Hke sins, these 
the Bodhisatva must pubhsh by day and night in the presence 
of the Thirty-five Blessed Buddhas." 

In this case, here is the formula of confession. '' I, N or M, 
take refuge with the Buddha, I take refuge with the Law, I 
take refuge with the Order. Glory to Sakyamuni the Tatha- 
gata, the Saint, omniscient. Glory to Vajrapramardi. Glory 
to Ratnarsis. Glory to Nagesvararaja. Glory to Virasena. 
Glory to Viranandi. Glory to Ratna^ri. Glory to Ratna- 
candraprabha. Glory to Amoghadarsi. Glory to Ratnacandra. 

* Dh.S. xvii. Charity, morality, patience, energy, meditation, wisdom. 

* Dh.S. Ix. Matricide, parricide, slaying an arhat or a Buddha, causing 
divisions amongst the priesthood. 

M 



i66 PURIFICATION FROM SIN 

Glory to Nirmala. Glory to Vimala. Glory to Suradatta. 
Glory to Brahma. Glory to Brahmadatta. Glory to 
Varuna. Glory to Varunadeva. Glory to Bhadrasri. 
Glory to Candanasri. Glory to Anantaujas. Glory to 
Prabhasasri. Glory to Asokasri. Glory to Narayana. Glory 
to Kusumasri. Glory to Brahmajyotirvikriditabhijna the 
Tathagata. Glory to Dhanasri. Glory to Smrtisri. Glory to 
Suparikirtitanamagheyasri. Glory to Indraketudhvajaraja. 
Glory to Suvikrantasri. Glory to Vicitrasaihkrama. Glory 
to Vikrantagami. Glory to Samantavabhasavyuhasri. Glory 
to RatnapadmavikramT. Glory to Ratnapadmasupratisthita- 
Sailendraraja, Tathagata Saint Omniscient." So [170] they 
pray and supplicate all the chiefest Tathagatas Saints Om- 
niscient that are in all the universes. " Let them take heed of 
me, the Blessed Buddhas ; all that in this birth or in other 
births in the succession of births mthout beginning or ending 
has been easily done or caused to be done or consented to by 
me ; whether something that belonged to a shrine or to the 
Order has been taken or caused to be taken or was consented 
to being taken ; if the five unpardonable sins have been done, 
or caused to be done, or consented to being done ; if I have 
kept closely to the ten wicked courses of action 1 or taught 
others to do so, or consented to the doing, by which hindrance 
of merit I might go to hell or enter an animal or Yama's realm, 
or be bom in bordering countries of foreigners, or come into 
being amongst long-lived deities, or become crippled in my 
organs, or embrace false doctrine, be indifferent to the arising 
of Buddha ; all those hindrances in the presence of these 
blessed Buddhas full of knowledge and vision, witnesses and 
judges knowing and seeing, I publish, I reveal, I do not hide, 
in future I forgo. May these blessed Buddhas behold me, 
whatever in this birth or in others or in the course of the endless 
succession of births as it runs, I have given in alms, even so 
much as a morsel to an animal, what virtue I have kept, the 
root of good in chaste hving, the root of good in bringing 
creatures to maturity, the root of good in the thought of en- 

Childers, 25b. Dh.S. Ivi. 



CONFESSION OF SIN 167 

lightenment or in the transcendent wisdom, let all this be put 
together in one lump and weighed and compressed in the 
transcendent supreme wisdom with ever-increasing applications 
of merit ; as it was applied by the former blessed Buddhas, 
as future blessed Buddhas shall apply it, as the blessed Buddhas 
who are now present in the ten regions are applying it, so also 
I do apply it. All merit I delight in, all the Buddhas I suppHcate : 
May I have the supreme wisdom. All these who have passed 
away and also those to come and those who now are noblest of 
men, conquerors : with all these, beings of infinite praise, like 
oceans of virtue, I take refuge in an attitude of adoration. 
May the Bodhisatvas endowed with the powers of mercy that 
walk the earth for the good of all creatures, mighty, protect 
me, always a sinner. 1 I take refuge with the many Bodhi- 
satvas. 

[171] '* Thus, Sariputra, the Bodhisatva must purge his 
sins, putting first 2 those thirty-five Buddhas, with earnest 
attention paid to all the Tathagatas : and to him thus purged 
of all his sins then and there the blessed Buddhas show their 
faces for the emancipation of all beings. The}^ show manifold 
manifestations of themselves, that they may bring to maturity 
confused and foolish men still unconverted. ... It is not 
possible for all -the multitudes of ascetics and Pratyeka Buddhas 
to purify the state of sin and wickedness from which the Bodhi- 
satva is freed by calling upon the names of those blessed 
Buddhas day and night by engaging in the recitation of the 
Triskandhadharma, and entering into meditation." 

The practice of self-reproach has been described ; and the 
practice of the opposite s is to be described. Here from 
acquaintance with the profound sacred books sin is annulled. 

As it is said in the Vajracchedikd : " Whoever, Subhiiti, 
young men or young women, shall learn doctrinal books such 
as these . . . shall study these, they shall be despised, utterly 
despised ; and why so ? All the deeds that in former births 
they have done leading up to harm, these by that state of 

* The Tib. confirms the sense of " a sinner." s So Tib. 

8 Page 159. 



i68 PURIFICATION FROM SIN 

contempt as soon as the law is seen they shall cast aside and 
shall obtain a Buddha's wisdom." 

By faith in the Void also there comes purging from sin 
according to what is said in the Tathdgatakosha Sutra ; i " He, 
Kasyapa, that is a father and a Pratyeka Buddha, even he 
would be uprooted from Hfe by that chiefest of murders, that 
chiefest of thefts, that is to say, the taking away of things 
belonging to the Three Jewels : that chiefest of lustful and 
deceitful deeds, that is, if it be a mother or a friend saint that 
he would violate 2 : that chiefest of lies, that is false accusing 
of the Tathagata : that chiefest of calumny, that is [172] dis- 
paraging of the holy Order : that chiefest of harshnesses, that 
is, revihng of the holy ; that chiefest of idle talk, that is, 
distraction of those who love the right ; that chiefest evil 
intent, that is, meditating unpardonable sins : that chiefest 
covetousness, that is, the thought of taking the gains of those 
who walk aright : that chiefest of all false doctrine, that is, 
the heresy of chnging to the world. These ten paths of evil, 
Kasyapa, are heinous. If, Kasyapa, a being should be involved 
in these ten paths of evil so heinous, and if he should accept 
the Tathagata's teaching about causation, if he recognizes that 
there is no such thing in the world as self or a being or hfe or a 
man who eats or enjoys the fruit of them, if he accepts that all 
is really and essentially illusion, also without impurity and 
naturally clear, and beheves that all things are originally pure, 
for such a being I declare no coming to misery." 

And it is said in the Karmdvaranaiuddhi Sutra : ** Again, 
moreover, Mafijusri, the Bodhisatva who sees what is sin and 
what is no sin, what is discipHne and no discipline, what is 
impurity and puri^ -^ation, what is the region of mundane 
existence and what Nirvana ; he receives purification that 
stops the effect of action." 

And in the Trisamayardja is described how to apply the 
antidote for sin. " Closing his eyes, meditating on Buddhas and 

* =Tathagatagarbha S. See Add. Note on text, p. 171. 

* Insert 1. 16 after ca : tarn cddhydpatyet. The sense " violate " is re- 
quired, but has no authority in Skrt. ; the Tibetan has it, however. 



SINS AND THEIR ANTIDOTES 169 

Bodhisatvas, [173] he should recite the Hundred Syllables 8000 
times ; as soon as he shuts his eyes he beholds the Buddhas 
and Bodhisatvas, and his sin passes away : or he should pass 
round a shrine from left to right, and recite this 8000 times, 
placing in front of the shrine-image one of the books of the 
Good Law. That is the process." 

Or let him recite the Cundddhdram until he sees in sleep the 
tokens of the destruction of sin : namely, when he dreams of 
uttering various cries, 1 or partaking of milk and whey and so 
forth, vomiting, staring at sun and. moon, passing through 
the air, overcoming a black man, a bull, or blazing fire, 
beholding a congregation of Brethren and Sisters, climbing 
upon milk-trees, elephants, bulls, mountains, thrones, palaces, 
boats, by hearing the Law, the annulUng of sin is to be 
indicated. 

In the Tathdgatahimha-parivarta also is described how to 
apply the antidote for sin. " As a man smeared with urine 
would take a good wash and perfume himself, and that evil 
smell would be dispersed and gone ; so disperses the sin of 
one who has done the five unpardonable sins. And he who is 
versed in the ten paths of evil, resting his faith on the Tathagata, 
would present the image of the Tathagata, and that sin also 
is not discerned, especially when he is possessed of the thought 
of enlightenment, especially if he has left the worldly Ufe and 
lives in virtue." 

In the Pushpakutadhdram also it is said : " Now again, O 
Sirhhakridita, whoso attends upon the Tathagata for a year, 
or a thousand years, or a hundred thousand : and whoso at the 
shrine of the Tathagata who has entered Nirvana having 
achieved the thought of enlightenment should lay down one 
flower for the worship of the Tathagata, and should offer water 
in the palms 2 of his hands, or sprinkle with water, or present 
a brush and remove yesterday's leavings, or should make the 
gift of ointment or flower or light with mind transported, and 
once repeat the formula, * Glory to this Buddha, the Blessed 
Such-and-such,' then a doubt or imcertainty or mistake, O 

* The text is obscure, and differs from Tib. ' Reading if^. 



170 PURIFICATION FROM SIN 

Simhakridita, lest the man should go into a state of misery 
for one age or a hundred or a thousand that is impossible." 

[174] And in the Bhaishajyaguruvaiduryaprahhardja Sutra 
also it is said : " They who keep the Five Precepts of in- 
struction, they who keep the Ten Precepts of instruction, and 
they who keep the Bodhisatva's ordinance the 400 Precepts of 
instruction, and the Brethren who have retired from the world 
and keep the 250 Precepts of instruction, and the Sisters who 
keep the 500 Precepts of instruction, and those who are fallen 
from the system of rules which they originally accepted, that is 
from some precept of instruction ; if they are afraid of misery, 
they shall use the name of the Blessed Tathagata Bhaishajya- 
guruvaiduryaprabharaja, and do worship according to their 
means. They need fear no more falling into misery. 

" Then the Blessed One addressed the Elder Ananda. ' Do 
you beUeve, Ananda, do you credit, what I say in praise of the 
virtues of the blessed Tathagata Bhaishajyaguruvaidurya- 
prabharaja ? Have you doubt or uncertainty or misgiving in 
this profound range of the Buddha ? ' Then Elder Ananda 
said to the Blessed One : * I have not, blessed sir, doubt, 
uncertainty, or ni^sgiving as to the doctrines set forth by the 
Tathagata ; and why so ? The Tathagatas are not wont to 
use speech or mind save when the body is cleansed. Yonder 
sun and moon, blessed One, so mighty and strong, might fall 
to earth ; Sumeru king of mountains might move from his 
place ; but the Word of the Buddhas could not fail. But, 
blessed sir, there are beings, their senses without the faculty of 
faith,! who hearing the range of a Buddha do not believe. This 
is what they think : " How can the name of Tathagata, by just 
remembering it, give so many advantages ? " They do not 
believe or credit ; they reject it. It shall cause them long time 
evil, mischief, unhappiness, calamity.' The Blessed One said : 
' If his name, Ananda, shall fall on the ear of any out of place 
and out of season, they would go to a life of misery and 
misfortune. Hard it is, Ananda, to believe a Buddha's range. 
That you, Ananda, believe and credit, [175] that is to be 

^ See Childers, Diet. p. 139. 



ANTIDOTES FOR EVIL 171 

regarded as the Tathagata's power. There is no scope here 
for disciples and Pratyeka Buddhas, except the great beings 
the Bodhisatvas, who are bound to one birth only.' " 

In the same place it is said : " Whoever else of the faithful, 
young men or young women, that take upon them the eightfold 
vows of virtue, or keep the precepts of instruction for one year 
or for three years, who have this purpose and this intent : 'By 
this root of good we would arrive at the blessed paradise in the 
western region where is the Tathagata Amitabha : ' who shall 
have heard the name of the Blessed Tathagata Bhaishajyaguru- 
vaiduryaprabharaja : 1 when they die the eight Bodhisatvas 
by their magical power show the way ; they appear without 
birth in lotuses of various colours ; 2 and some again arrive in 
the world of gods. When they have arrived there the former 
root of good does not dwindle. For them there will be no fear 
of a life of misery or calamity. When they are born thence they 
become kings in this world, lords inspired of the four continents. 
They establish many thousands of miUions of beings in the 
eight good paths of action. Others again come into great 
kshatriya famiUes, or great Brahman famihes, great house- 
holders' famiUes with much wealth and riches laid up in their 
storehouses and treasure chambers. They become handsome 
and have many dependents." 

In the same place it is said : " Again, whatever woman 
shall have heard or understood the name of the Blessed Tatha- 
gata Bhaishajyaguruvaiduryaprabharaja, that may be expected 
to be her last embodiment as a woman." 

And it is said in the Manjusnbuddhakshetragunavyuhdlam^ 
kdra Sutra : "I reverence in order Jfianottaraprabhaketu, 
Pranidhanamati, Santendriya, and Maiijughosha. [176] The 
woman who should bear in mind the name of these Bodhisatvas 
will not become a woman." 

Now we have briefly discussed the use of the Antidote. 
Expiation now follows. 

As it is said in the noble Kshitigavhha Sutra : "By abstaining 

* MS. "prabhavajasya. * Sec Childers, s.v. opapdtiko. 



172 PURIFICATION FROM SIN 

from the taking of life one becomes a Bodhisatva, a Great 
Being, giving security to all beings: causing no fear, no 
agitation, no excitement, by reason of that root of good when 
its action is ripe. Whatever he has done or caused to be done 
or consented to, body, voice or mind, from his first entering 
the cycle of the five forms of existence or coming into the river 
of transmigration, hindrance in action, hindrance by sin, 
hindrance in conduct caused by taking life ; by abstinence 
from taking Hfe he annuls all that mischief." . . . And so on to 
" he makes all to have no effect. In the thronged assembly 
of gods and men he becomes beloved, free from disquietude, 
long-Uved." 

So on again, until : *' Young sir, the Bodhisatva who all 
his life long abstains from taking what is not given, gives 
security to all beings ; only he Hves satisfied with his own 
gains, without contending with rivals, and without pride : 

[177] not desirous of unlawful takings by reason of that root 
of good." . . . And so on to " he annuls and stamps out the 
hindrance in action caused by taking what is not given . . . 
all this he makes of none effect. ..." 

Thus also the ten paths of good are thus described which 

destroy evil that is their enemy. 

Moreover, in the Candrapmdipa Sutra the destruction of all 

sin by abstinence from malice is set forth. As he says : ** I 

shall endure the false speaking of fools, and their revihng, I 

will bear with their threatening, O my reader. 1 I shall atone 

for the sinful actions done by me formerly, malice done by me 

to other Bodhisatvas." 

So much for the power of Expiation ; we now come to the 

power of Taking Refuge. 

Here the Sukarikdvaddna must be cited. 

" They who take refuge with the Buddha do not come to 

a life of misery. When they put off their human bodies they 

receive divine bodies." 

Just so there is destruction of sin with reference to the Law 

and the Order. 

* Tib. has vocative here. 



OPPOSITE ACTION IS ANTIDOTE FOR SIN 173 

But in the holy Metraiyavimoksha is described the cleansing 
of sin by the thought of enlightenment. " This is Hke the fire at 
the final conflagration of a cycle of time, because thereby all bad 
deeds are burnt up ; it is like a hell for the extinction of all 
wicked actions. . . . For instance, young sir, quicksilver is 
resplendent hke gold : one measure of this gilds a thousand 
measures of copper ; but this measure cannot be absorbed by 
those thousand measures of copper, nor made into copper. 
Just so one drop of the quicksilver of the production of the 
thought of omniscience, accompanied by the knowledge of the 
apphcation of a root of good, working upon all the hindrances 
in acts and passions hke the copper, [178] makes all things the 
colour of omniscience. And this quicksilver, the production of 
the thought of omniscience, cannot be soiled or absorbed by the 
copper of all sinful deeds. For instance, young sir, just as one 
lamp in whatever house or room it enters, as soon as it enters, 
dispels the bhnding darkness even of a thousand years, and 
makes it light : even so one lamp coming from the thought of 
omniscience, in whatever creature's thoughts it enters the 
indwelUng gloom and bhnd darkness of ignorance, as soon as it 
enters, it dispels the bhnding darkness of the hindrances in 
sinful acts even when accumulated throughout countless ages 
of time, and makes a blaze of knowledge. Just as, young sir, 
great Naga kings with the magic jewels in their royal tiaras 
fear no enemy's approach, so also the Bodhisatvas, with those 
magic jewels the thought of enlightenment and great com- 
passion, fastened in their royal tiaras, have no fear of the 
hostile approach of misery and unhappiness." 

In the holy Updli-pariprcchd also it is said : " Here, UpSli, 
if a Bodhisatva who has taken his stand in the Great Vehicle, 
fall into sin in the forenoon ; at mid-day if he lose not the 
thought of omniscience the quantity of the Bodhisatva's virtue 
would remain infinite. If he should fall into sin at mid-day, 
at eventide if he lose not the thought of omniscience, the 
quantity of the Bodhisatva's virtue would be still infinite. 
Thus watch by watch the rule goes. So, UpaU, the instruction 
of the Bodhisatvas standing in the Great Vehicle is full of 



174 PURIFICATION FROM SIN 

watchful care. And so the Bodhisatva should not repent 
excessively for wrong-doing, nor be excessively regretful. But 
if a man of the Pupils' Vehicle should fall again and again into 
sin, it must be understood that the mass of the pupil's virtue 
is destroyed." 



CHAPTER IX 

THE PERFECTION OF PATIENCE 

[179] Thus guarding against the uninterrupted upgrowth of 
wickedness full of pain,i and shaking off the bond of hindrances 
in action, he should busy himself with the purification of 
passion. 

Here at the very outset he should Be Patient.^ For without 
patience at the beginning of the hearing strength is exhausted 
through not being able to bear the weariness ; and one who 
hears not, knows not the way to tranquiUity, or the way to 
cleansing from passion. Therefore without weariness Seek to 
hear the Word.^ TranquiUity is difficult even for one who 
knows, 3 when he is living in company. Then to the forest-cell 
repair A Even there if one be not able to calm his perplexity 
his mind is not tranquil ; this is what is meant by Centre thy 
mind on thought intense. And of this condition of thought 
there is no fruit otherwise than by purification from passion ; 
this is what is meant by Fix it on the Impurities A Such is the 
meaning of these maxims of purification from passion. 

Now comes the exposition. Here patience is said to be three- 
fold in the DharmasangUi SUtra : Patience in the acceptance 
of unhappiness ; patience in reflecting upon the Law ; Patience 
in supporting the injuries of others. Here the enemy of patience 
in accepting unhappiness is the dread of actual unhappiness 
in the approach of things undesirable. He that has lost 
what he desires, and he that is bent on happiness, both these 
have melancholy, and hence comes enmity and despondency. 

Hence he says in the Candrapradtpa SUtra : " Not bent on 
happiness ; not downcast in adversity." 

1 So Tib., but MS. " full of happiness." ^ Karika 20. 

' Reading jnanavato. * Karika 20. 

175 



176 THE PERFECTION OF PATIENCE 

And it is said in the Ratnamegha Sutra : " Those personal 
pains, lamentations, unhappiness, despondencies, and anguish 
of mind he endures and bears with." 

[i8o] In the holy Agradattapariprcchd also it is said : 
*' Moreover, householder, the Bodhisatva who Hves in a house- 
hold must eschew partiaUty and hostility, unspotted by the eight 
worldly conditions, i If he has property, if he has wife and son, 
if he has wealth, riches, goods, he must not be puffed up, he 
must not be excited. In no adversity must he be cast down ; 
he must not be despondent, and thus he must regard them : 
' All that is composite is made of illusion, its mark is that it is 
in a state of fiux.^ These indeed come from the ripening of 
my deeds ; to wit : mother, father, son, wife, maid-servant, 
manservant, attendant, hireling, friend, courtier, kith and kin, 
these are not my own, and I am not theirs.' " 

Moreover : '* If there is a remedy, what is the use of 
despondency ? If there is no remedy, what is the use of 
despondency ? ^ Even in the remedy one might fail if 
despondent and dazed by anger. From despair one's power 
goes, and one is caught in a worse trouble ; by thinking of 
this in vain they pass a short Hfe again and again. Therefore 
by practice one should renounce that useless thing Uke some- 
thing worthless." 

And how is the rejection of despondency practised ? By 
casting away weakness and softness of mind. As it is said in 
the Ugradattapariprcchd : *'. In one whose mind is free from the 
likeness of cotton- wool." 

And in the holy Gandavyuha it is said : " Girl, you must 
cultivate a mind unconquerable for the destruction of all 
passion ; a mind invincible for the clearing away of all infatua- 
tion ; a mind not to be shaken in the precipice and the whirl- 
pools of the ocean of evil dispositions." 

By practice nothing is difficult. For here even with the 

* Gain, loss, fame, ill-fame, praise, blame, happiness, unhappiness. 

^ Tib. mam-par bsgrabs-pas. The translation is a conjecture from the 
general sense of the two first elements, 

Restored from Bodhic. vi. lo : see note ad he. 



AVOID WEAKNESS AND DESPONDENCY 177 

more ignorant classes, [181] just porters, fishermen, plough- 
men and suchlike, by the habit of pain even in a thing of 
smaller fruit the mind becomes callous with healed scars and 
is not overcome by faintness ; much more in a matter whose 
fruit is to attain the incomparable lot of all the world's joys 
and all the joys of the Bodhisatva. So the vulgar attack those 
who injure them, and who are struck by their own bad actions, 
and are to die by natural death ; how much more should there 
not be effort and endurance of pain to attack the enemies, that 
injure for the longest time, pilferers of the good gotten by pain, 
kilHng the condemned in hell,i jailors of the prison of existence, 
destroying the region of the door of exit, who cause more 
deadly hurts even to those well-disposed towards them, un- 
provoked enemies, foes firmly fixed through endless ages, sins 
that are our enemies ; especially of one whose loins are girt, 
fighting for the emancipation of the world caught prisoner 
by Mara's demons. There by practice of small 2 pains the 
practice becomes more and more severe. As the perception 
of happiness and unhappiness comes from the power of 
habit ; so in all cases of unhappiness arising, the habit of 
associating the feeling of happiness causes that feeling to be 
present. This resulting fruit receives a spirit of contemplation 
that feels happiness in all things. 

It is said indeed in the Pitdputra-samdgama : ** There is, 
O Blessed One, a spirit of contemplation called that which finds 
happiness in all things ; by the acquiring of which spirit the 
Bodhisatva feels in all things pain as pleasant, not painful, s nor 
indifferent. Even when he is undergoing hellish treatment the 
feehng of pleasure is present. Even when he is suffering a torment 
in human life, his hands being cut off, and feet, and ears, and 
nose, the feeling of pleasure is present. Even when he is being 
beaten with rods, or with spUt rods, or with whips, [182] there 
is the feehng of pleasure as he Ues in prison. . . . When he is 

1 Tib. dmyal-ba iiid-gyi gsad-sar gsad-byahi, " in the place of slaughter 
which is hell," perhaps r|^4mHm^^- 

' In line 8, read tairdlpa (with Tib.) and Kashiak*. See Bodhic. vi. 14. 
Bt. with Tib. inserts na du^khdm. 



178 THE PERFECTION OF PATIENCE 

being fried in oil, pounded like sugar-cane, crushed like reeds, 
burnt with blazing oil or butter or ghee, the feeling of pleasure 
is present. When thrown into the mouth of fire, into the 
mouth of the lion, rolled and scorched, i . . . chopped up in 
penny-bits, roasted in a baking-pan, trampled by elephants, 
there is the feehng of pleasure. When his eye is being torn 
out, when he is being roasted aUve on a spit, or haled off to 
the execution ground, and thrown down headlong, there is the 
feeling of pleasure, not the feeling of pain, nor of indifference. 2 
And why is this ? For as the Great Being the Bodhisatva 
long time behaved thus, this prayer formed itself : * May those 
who entertain me, obtain the joy of calm and tranquillity ; 
may those who protect me, who maintain me, respect me, 
honour me, revere me, all receive the bhss of tranquillity ; and 
may they who curse me, who afflict me, who torment me, tear 
me with knives until they utterly uproot me from life, all 
partake of the joy of full enlightenment ; may they awaken 
the incomparable and supreme enhghtenment.' With these 
thoughts and actions and these aspirations he seeks and 
ensures, he cherishes and multipHes the feehng of joy in rela- 
tion to all beings ; and by the ripening of this course of 
action, he receives the spirit of contemplation that finds 
happiness in all things. At the time when the Bodhisatva has 
obtained the spirit that finds happiness in all things, at that 
time he becomes imperturbable, not to be caught bj' all the 
deeds of Mara." That is the sum of the matter. 

Such practice fills with all self-sacrifice, accomplishes the 
hardest penance in all doings, makes steadfast in all patience, 
confirms in all strength, gathers all the elements of wisdom in 
ecstatic meditation ; therefore let it always be preached. 

[183] As he says in the Candrapradtpa Sutra : " With 
dignity let him always be kindly ; let him always be bent on 
gentle consideration." 3 

It is also said in the Akshayamati Sutra : " Here what joy 

^ Tib. skam rim hya-ha Ita dril tarn, some obscure torture. 
* Bt. with Tib. inserts na duhkhdm. 
Tib. zhi-bahi Ita-ba-la, " peace." 



PATIENCE AND ENDURANCE OF PAIN 179 

is meant ? From perpetual meditation on the Law, kindness, 
serenity, gladness, a mind not despondent, not crushed, not 
craving. Sweeping away of all desire for lusts, establishing of 
a desire for all righteousness. Gladness of heart, cheerful- 
ness 1 of body, stimulation of intelligence, exaltation of mind, 
delight and pleasure in the body of a Tathagata, proficiency 
in detecting beauties, that is, primary and secondary marks ; 
no weariness in hearing good law, kindness, serenity, gladness 
in the attainment of confidence in the true law, the righteous 
exaltation of one content ; a wisdom never hostile towards all 
beings ; strength of will ; no slackness in the search for the 
Buddha's doctrine and in the desire to hear it ; confidence in 
the lofty teachings of the Buddha ; emancipation and the 
fostering of thought that has left the Vehicle of partial know- 
ledge ; the cultivation of thought that is not cramped with 
jealousy ; desire to give to him that asks ; in and after giving, 
the decency of the Three Circles 2 and delight in giving ; 
always pleasure in the virtuous ; pleasure in helping those 
whose conduct is evil ; with cleanHness of personal conduct 
giving confidence in passing beyond all dangers of a bad 
destiny ; ^ application of Tathagata's merit ; firm impenetra- 
bility ; no hostiUty of mind when others' ways of speech are 
unkindly and bad ; tenderness and patience ; humihty ; 
respect, reverence, and regard towards teachers ; always a 
smiling face, no frowns ; a habit of first greeting, no insincerity, 
no cheating, 4 pureness of conscience, no abusiveness, no guile ; 
a habit of always praising, and looking to one's own stumbles ; 
firmness in calamities, graciousness in things delightful ; he 
must love the Bodhisatva as a teacher, the Law as himself, the 
Tathagata as life, [184] preceptors as parents, all beings as 
sons, preceptors and instructors as the Buddha, good conduct 

^ See now M.V. i. 577. It is a synonym of priti. 

* Probably alludes to decent dress ; see Childers, timaxLdala. But it may 
be : " let the joy be pure in three respects," i.e. when the giver does not 
believe in the existence of giver, receiver, or gift. 

* See Tib. 114 a. 4. 

* See Childers, nippesiko, read Oi^o ; Mahavyut. 127, 54. 



i8o THE PERFECTION OF PATIENCE 

as the head, that chiefest part of the body, the Perfections as 
his hands and feet, preachers as all precious things, directors 
as all delightful pleasaunce, contentment as health, inquiring 
into the Law as medicine, those who exhort and remind as 
physicians. This alertness in all the senses is what is called 
gladness.*' 

And here when Bodhisatvas are taught, that saying adorns 
them which is said in the noble Mahdmegha :^ " Their thoughts 
are always meditating on existence in hell, they take pleasure 
in this, they are traffickers to the town of hell, they long for 
hell, they are fond of its praises, they are familiar with its 
fire." 

Here ends the patience concerned with enduring pain. 

In the holy Sdgaramati Sutra, moreover, patience is given 
as threefold : " Here, Sagaramati, the Bodhisatva the Great 
Being, although by ignoble and wicked beings, by Maras or 
by deities mightier than Mara, by Mara's servants or messengers, 
he be hurt, impelled, disquieted, threatened, tormented, is not 
therefore broken in the Jewel - of the production of omniscience ; 
the intent of his mind is not broken away from its strong 
purpose of deUverance and great compassion towards all beings ; 
not broken away from the effort towards perpetuating the Three 
Jewels ; not broken away from the practice of good for the 
accomplishment of all righteousness ; not broken away from 
the collection of a heap of merit causing the perfection of 
primary and secondary marks ; nor from the zeal caused by 
aspiration for the purifying of Buddha's field ; nor from the 
producing of a body and a Ufe that involve the renouncing of 
all things ; nor from the perseverance in not seeking one's own 
felicity so as to bring about the ripening of all beings. He 
thus resolved [185] endures scoffing, contempt, contumely in 
the face of all beings ; he endures the despiteful speech of all 
beings, and their ways of speaking abusive and wicked ; he 
endures the injury of aU beings, he bears the burdens of all 

1 That is, they give themselves as substitutes to save others. 
* Tib, sems bskyed-pa rin-po-che de-ltar bskyed-nas:'=cittotpadaratDara 
evam utpadya, " having produced the jewel of thought." 



( 



PATIENCE AND MEEKNESS i8i 

beings, or carries them, and is not broken down or despondent 
or despairing or crushed : he shows strength, he produces 
power, he uses strength, he makes the effort, he strives, he 
restrains the thought of infatuation. He being reviled revileth 
not again, tormented he torments not again, annoyed he annoys 
not again, he meets not anger with anger. Thus he makes up 
his mind. . . .1 

" But if those beings, as many as in multiplying multiply 
over the ten regions, each with a pair of swords or spears or 
javelins or spikes, should chase me behind, saying : ' On 
whatsoever place in the earth that man, standing or sitting or 
walking up and down or l5^ng, shall cause to arise the thought 
of enlightenment or of almsgiving ... or of insight, or of the 
root of good in hearing the word, on that spot of the earth we 
shall tear his body asunder into a hundred pieces Hke a leaf of 
the jujube, annihilate and destroy it.' If all those beings should 
revile me and blame me, upbraid me, dishonour me, address me 
with lying and harsh words, bent upon doing wickedness ; if 
they should tear up and cut up and destroy and annihilate my 
body in a hundred pieces hke a jujube leaf ; even so I must not 
conceive an angry thought against any being. And why is this ? 
There have been innumerable myriads of transmigrations, 
when I have been in hell or in an animal or in Yama's world, 
or as a man ; when this self, all full of craving for love and food, 
without the hearing of the Law, getting a Uvelihood by evil 
means, living wickedly, has been chopped limb from limb in 
a hundred pieces, cut up, minced, tormented with all manner 
of torments, and yet from that cause I have done no good to 
myself or to others. But if, in the infinite future, all these 
beings should tear up my body, 2 cut me up, chop me in pieces, 
even then my omniscience is not renounced, nor are all beings, 
nor the good will of righteousness. And why is this ? Because 
all this bodily annoyance is a transformation of the body ; 
[187] it does not approach the hundredth part of the pains of 

1 See the text for the continuation, taken from the Tibetan version. 

2 Add oFT^. 

N 



i82 THE PERFECTION OF PATIENCE 

hell, it is quite out of comparison. I can endure even to live 
in hell, but I must not give up the laws of Buddha nor the 
great compassion I have undertaken towards all creatures. . . . 
But the conduct which causes destruction, that conduct 
we renounce. And what is that ? It is love of the body, 
dwelling in the body, clinging to the body ; abandon the body 
and you abandon destruction. With this view of conduct, 
Sagaramati, the Bodhisatva endures the ill-treatment of all 
beings. . . . This rejection and renouncing of the body, this 
indifference to the body, this for him is the Perfection of Giving. 
In that when the body is being torn to pieces he diffuses good- 
will amongst all beings and is not crushed with the pangs, this 
for him is the Perfection of Conduct. In that when the body 
is being torn he is patient, for the sake of the dehverance of 
those even who tear it, and is not injured in thought, and 
manifests the power of patience, this for him is the Perfection 
of Patience. The strength by which he refuses to give up the 
will of omniscience, and holds fast to it by force of thought, 
and just follows the course of transmigration, and holds to the 
root of good : this for him is the Perfection of Strength. In 
that when the body is being dissolved he is not bewildered in 
preserving that jewel of omniscience which he has gained, and 
has regard only to wisdom, and takes care only of peace and 
tranquillity, this for him is the Perfection of Meditation. In 
that while the body is being torn he regards the body as like a 
herb or a stick or a wall, and understands that the body is 
illusion, and considers that the body is naturally impermanent, 
unhappy, without personaHty, at rest, this for him is the 
Perfection of Wisdom." Such is the description.! . . . 

Yet again he thinks after the following fashion : 2 " That 
being is lazy, without virtue ; he reviles me and censures me. 
Come ! we will take strength, we will be eager, seeking for the 
root of good. Now this very being must be first seated by me 
in the Buddha's circle ; s afterwards I must awaken the incom- 
parable supreme wisdom [188]. . . . We must gird up our 

1 See Mahavyut. 54. * From i87i<-i885 wanting in Tib. 

' The holy spot under the Bo-tree, 



THE PERFECTIONS 183 

loins for the good of such beings, untamed, unprotected, not 
tranquil. . . . Come, let us take refuge in the nature of things. 
Who injures or is injured here ? He though he seek finds not 
a thing that injures or is injured. He does not find the 
notion of self or other, and being freed from the wrong idea,i 
he is patient." 

In the Bhagavati also it is written : " This is the thought 
he cherishes. * I whose duty it is to appease the quarrels of 
all beings, I myself quarrel. My gains are hard gained, if I 
answer as I am spoken to. I whose duty it is to be the means 
of progress for all beings, I myself say to another, The same to 
you, or return a harsh answer. This I ought not to say ; I 
should be as without speech, I should be as a dumb sheep in 
quarrels and bickerings. When I hear others' ways of speech 
ugly, unkind, abusive, I ought not to make my thoughts angry. 
In the presence of others this is not meet or proper, that I 
recognize the faults in another's heart. This is not proper, 
that I think even the faults of another's heart worth listening 
to. Why is that ? My purpose must not be weakened by 
me, whose duty it is to make all beings happy by providing all 
happiness, and completely to emancipate them, by awakening 
in them the incomparable supreme wisdom ; in that case I 
perish ; nor must I be angry for the great offences of others ; 
in that case I go into delusion and agitation. This is my 
duty to do ; with firm energy I must exert myself ; I must not 
be agitated, even if my Hfe is being taken : I must not show 
a frown on my face.' " 2 

And in the Bodhisatva-prdtimoksha it is said : " Those who 
are angry he consoles and calms, he soothes and comforts 
them." 

* Read <i q^^cft ifto. 2 Reading j?^. 



tl 



CHAPTER X 

THE PERFECTION OF STRENGTH 

[189] When thus established in patience, he should apply 
strength in hearing the word. Otherwise the very hearing 
makes for his destruction. As it is said in the Candrapradipa 
Sutra : " If he goes never so deep into the Law, and should 
not observe virtue, being intoxicated by his learning, 1 not 
even by his deep learning could he be saved from going into 
states of misery by his evil conduct." 

But the praises of hearing the word are given in the 
N drdyana-pariprcchd. " Thus, young sirs, wisdom comes to 
him that hears, cessation of passion to him that is wise ; in 
whom passion has ceased, for him Mara does not appear." 

Here he recites in full a Birth of the great sage Uttara and 
says : *' O Vimalatejas, to the Bodhisatvas who love the Law, 
great Beings, reverend, respectful, even the blessed Buddhas 
dwelling in other worlds, show their faces and preach the Law 
to them. For the Bodhisatvas, O Vimalatejas, who love the 
Law, the Great Beings, in the midst of mountains and caves 
and trees the treasures of the Law are laid up. Countless 
pictures of the Law are in books and the palm of the hand. 
O Vimalatejas, for the Bodhisatvas who love the law, the deities 
that have seen the former Buddhas convey to them the teaching 
of the Buddhas. . . . When their Hfe is exhausted the blessed 
Buddhas and the deities bring them the power of hfe. By 
protection of the Buddhas and the deities, if they wish they 
are established for a thousand years. . . . Unto an age or the 
remainder of an age or as long as they wish, the Blessed Buddhas 

* Reading O^^^jjO and ^nff^T T?r with Tib. thos-pas rgyags-nas 117, I. 4. 

184 



EIGHTY WAYS OF HEARING THE WORD 185 

take away even old age and disease from the Bodhisatvas who 
revere the Law, they bring them memory, [190] bring them a 
great existence and inteUigence. . . . They dispel heretical 
views, and bring them true insight. By respect for the Law, 
Vimalatejas, all fear of attack is taken away from the Bodhi- 
satvas, the Great Beings. Therefore now, O Vimalatejas, the 
Bodhisatva must be devoted to skilfulness in the task of hearing 
the word." 

What kind of learning is described in the Bodhisatva- 
vinaya ? As it is said in the holy Kshayamati Sutra : " There 
are eighty ways of entering on the hearing of the word ; to 
wit : The way of will, of resolve, of intention, of endeavour, of 
infinitude, of the Good Friend, of reverence, of formal respect, 
of good speech, of attention, of applying the ear, of thought, 
of not being distracted, of being intent, of considering it as a 
jewel, of considering it as remedy, of calming all diseases, of 
conferring memory, of illuminating destinies, of brightness in 
mind, of the approach to knowledge, of eagerly hearing the Law 
of Buddha, of fostering renunciation, of noble self-control, of 
the pursuit of great learning, of cherishing respect and affection, 
of bodily cheerfulness, of a joyful heart, of unwearied study, 
of studying the law, of studying religious duty, of studying the 
preaching of others, of learning what he has not learnt, of 
learning transcendental knowledge, of not striving for other 
vehicles, of studying the Perfection of Knowledge, of study- 
ing the Bodhisatva-pitaka, of studying the Samgraha-vastu, 
of studying the Updyakausalya, of studying pious conduct, of 
studying the full consciousness of memory, of reverence, of 
stud5dng skill in production and skill in non-production, of 
impurities, of studying mercy, of studying dependent origina- 
tion, of impermanence, of pain, of non-self, of calm, of void, 
sinlessness, absence of intention, the way of not accumulating 
Karma, of accumulation of good, of the protection of beings, 
of actions continuing through their fruits, of self-dependence, 
of preserving one's own thoughts, of not rekxing strength, of 
reflexion on the Law, of the ripening of sin, drawing to us 
what helps, and of assailing the sins that are our adversaries, 



i86 THE PERFECTION OF STRENGTH 

of protecting the seven treasures, of taking away all poverty, 
of praising those who know all, of pleasing the wise, of agreeing 
with the noble, of conciliating the ignoble, of seeing truth, of 
avoiding the faults of the elements of being, [191] of weighing 
the faults of the composite, of guarding the good, of avoiding 
all sins, of what is useful to self and others, of not repenting 
good actions, of specific attainment,! of acquiring all the 
Buddha's ways." 

Again in the same place he says : " He who is devoted to 
the accompHshment of righteousness, to him alone accompHsh- 
ment of knowledge comes. Then what is this accompUshment 
of righteousness ? It is that having little business, doing 
httle, saying little, busying little, but pondering the meaning 
of the word in wakefulness during the earlier and later parts 
of the night ; 2 seeking ever more and more ; no turbidity of 
thought ; obstructing the depravities of the mind ; knowledge 
of defencelessness in sins ; absence of wickedness ; not excessive 
repentance ; confidence in rehgious duties ; profundity in the 
law, devotion to the law, intentness upon the law ; fulness of 
energy, being like to a blazing headcloth in the search for 
wisdom ; 3 being absorbed in that ; no languidness in conduct ; 
no laying down of one's yoke ; specific attainment-; avoiding 
society ; keeping to one monastery ; pleasure in the forest 
life ; pleasure in holy customs, no fickleness in ascetic practices, 
delight in the precincts of religion ; not remembering worldly 
speech ; seeking transcendental things ; not letting the 
memory be stolen away ; following up the course of the 
meaning ; orderly succession of thought ; restraints drawn 
from constancy * ; ensuring wisdom by the requisites thereof ; 
[192] adorning oneself with shame and modesty ; earnestness in 
following wisdom ; extinguishing unwisdom ; cleansing of the 
eye of wisdom of one who is covered with ignorance, delusion, 

1 See Ch. 584b. When in meditation a specific thought has been grasped 
and jhana attained, 

' i.e. giving only a small time to sleep. 

Tib. ye-ses tshol-ba-la mgo dan gos-la me hbar-ba Ita-ba dan de-la ma 
chags-par gnas-pa dan. I do not understand the simile. 

* So Tib. 



ACCOMPLISHMENT OF RIGHTEOUSNESS 187 

darkness and gloom ; perfect purity of intelligence ; amplitude 
of intelligence ; constancy of intelligence ; full-blown intelli- 
gence ; directness of intelligence ; independence of character ; 
not thinking much of one's own qualities ; proclaiming the 
qualities of others ; doing good actions ; no putting off the 
yoke of the ripening of actions ; knowledge of the purification 
of actions." 

What is to be heard ? This is said by the Blessed One in 
the Jndna-vaipulya Sutra : " Profitable writings are to be 
learnt, those without profit are to be eschewed. That is to 
say, those concerned with casuistry and penal law, charms for 
procuring death, the science of controversy, with youthful 
sports, with demonology. . . . also any other writings that 
are opposed to dehverance and make for delusion, all these 
must be eschewed by him who is estabhshed in the Bodhisatva's 
Vehicle." 

To cleanse the thought by thus hearing, he must resort to 
the forest. But how is the household hfe allowed in the 
Ugradattapariprcchd even to him who has the true disposition ? 
Because even one who is strenuous may be unable. Then there 
would be no sin if he had to do with another's wife, and so forth ? 
Not so,i because even if he is imable, it is wicked by nature ; 
whereas the household Hfe is culpable by convention. 

1 The Tib. shows that 7f is a separate sentence. 



CHAPTER XI 

PRAISE OF THE FOREST SECLUSION 

This stands fast by the rule of the Ugrapariprcchd ; when the 
rehgious man has fallen into the faults of the householder's Hfe, 
to purify his soul he must resort to the forest. So also it 
is said in the Candrapradipa Sutra : " Never indeed shall 
one obtain the supreme and highest wisdom if he follows his 
lusts, with attachment to sons and wife, and follows the house- 
hold life which he ought to loathe. They who avoid lust like 
a fire of cow-dung, without ^ attachment to sons and wife, and 
terrified flee from the household life ; not hard to g&i for them 
is that highest wisdom. There never was a Buddha aforetime, 
nor shall be in future, nor is there now, who could attain 
that highest wisdom whilst he remained in the household 
life. Renouncing kingship like a snot of phlegm, one should 
live in the woodland in love with solitude ; renouncing passions, 
rejecting pride, they awaken wisdom unsoiled, incomposite. . . . 
With food and drink, with clothes, flowers, and ointments, the 
incomparable Conquerors are not so much honoured as by 
those who have renounced the world and practise the ways of 
the ascetic hfe. And he who, longing for wisdom for the sake 
of all beings, disgusted with all bad things, should make the 
seven steps towards the forest, from that he becomes excellent 
in merit." 

But if one, from the courteous invitation of different beings, 
through love of social hfe or of gain and the hke, hesitate on 
the threshold of seclusion, this case is also there described. 

[194] " The wise do not quarrel with fools ; they entertain 
fools and dismiss them : nor do they become intimate with 

* The Tib. uses an expression which suggests the reading ajanitva. 

188 



VIRTUES OF THE FOREST LIFE 189 

fools, for they think that men of wicked minds are there present. 
The wise do not pay court to fools ; for they know that fools 
are always themselves. If they pay court to fools for some time, 
again they become like no friends to them. The wise put no 
trust in fools in this world, aware that fools are always them- 
selves. Fools are naturally alien to them in character : where 
could one get a friend amongst the worldly ? When admon- 
ished by a fellow in the faith, those foolish persons show anger 
and hatred and distrust ; knowing this the wise do not put 
trust in them. Fools flock to fools, as foul with foul ; but the 
wise congregate with the wise, as butter mingles with cream." 

Thus it is also said in the same place : 

" Full happy are always they on earth for whom everything 
is indifferent ; and they who dwell in caves 1 enjoy the ascetic's 
happiness ; and they who own nothing, and those who have 
no belongings, they walk the world lonely as a rhinoceros, they 
go like the wind in the sky. [195] They would be full happy in 
the world whose mind does not cling to the world : their mind 
is always Hke the wind here, and attachment is indifferent to 
them. To live with the hated makes one unhappy, to separate 
from the dear is also a cause of suffering ; but those who have 
abandoned both, they are happy, who have pleasure in the Law. 

Again in the same place it is said : "He has always few 
duties, he has eschewed the faults of the worldly, he never 
quarrels, he is devoted to what is right ; such are the qualities 
of him who Hves in the forest. He is always weary of the 
world, 2 he has no delight in the world, for him there is no 
increase of afflictions ; as he lives in the woodland great praises 
are his. No question arises for him to dispute ; he is always 
delighted with peace, and walks in soHtude. Restrained in 
voice, mind and body, many are his virtues as he dwells in 
the forest. Deliverance comes to him ; easily he learns 
serenitude of purpose. As he follows the purpose of the 
forest life these qualities are all his, dwelling in the forest." 

Again he says : "In the forest seek alway solitude, leaving 

* Tib. nags, i.e. 'Sfrf for ^(^' ^ * So Tib. 



igo PRAISE OF THE FOREST SECLUSION 

the delight in village and town. Be always Hke the soHtary 
rhinoceros : soon ye will obtain the boon of tranquillity." 

And in the holy Rdshtrapdla Siltra he says : 

[196] " Who leave the household Ufe, with its innumerable 
faults, be always free from anxiety ; they have delight in the 
forest, virtuous, their passions calmed, compassionate. The 
society of women is not with them, nor have they ever inter- 
course with men ; soUtary they Hve like the rhinoceros, pure of 
incUnation, innocent. They take no pleasure in getting, they 
are not depressed if they get not ; of modest desires, content 
with anything they get, free from delusion and hypocrisy." 

And in the Ugradatta-pariprcchd .* " I must not frequent 
the society of the world, for it is not mine to cultivate the roots 
of good in a single being." But if having heard the word 
and finding so splendid an opportunity, he should not cleanse 
his thought, being devoted to gain and the like, that same 
single being would go astray in this world and in the world 
of gods. 

For in the holy Ratnakuta it is said : "As some man, 
Kasyapa, who should perish of thirst although carried along 
by a flood of water, so in this world some ascetics and brahmans 
who have learnt and studied many scriptures, do not dispel the 
thirst of passion, the thirst of hatred, the thirst of infatuation ; 
these, although carried along by the great flood of the Law, 
perish by the thirst that is sin, and fall into the pit of misery." 

Therefore certainly one should resort to the forest. 

" These are the places he should resort to. Where the 
distance is not over-great for his seeking alms, [197] and not 
too near ; where is water, clear, pure, not turbid, easy to get 
with httle trouble ; places overshadowed with trees, with 
flowers, fruit, and leaves, with no danger from rabid dogs, 
where caves are and mountain slopes, easy to traverse, peaceful, 
incomparable ; these are the places he should resort to. Once 
settled in these places, he recites what he has read before 
thrice in the night and thrice in the day in a tone not too high 
and not too low, not with senses agitated, not with wandering 
thought, in all tranquillity, reflecting on the Book, apprehending 



BEHAVIOUR OF THE RECLUSE 191 

the causes, putting away indolence. And if the king should 
visit the Brother in that forest, or one of royal authority, or 
others, brahmans or kshatriyas, townsfolk or countryfolk, he 
must welcome them with respect ; and thus he must say : 'Be 
seated, great king, in the seat prepared for you/ If he sits down, 
both should sit ; if he does not sit down, both must remain 
standing. If the king is not to be depended upon, the Brother 
should admonish him. ' It is great gain to you, O King, if in 
your realms there are dwelling moral and virtuous men and 
learned ascetics and brahmans, not persecuted by robbers and 
miscreants.' If he is steadfast and of good conduct, with senses 
under control, a good man, capable of instruction, then the 
Brother should deHver a general 1 discourse. If the king does 
not take this kindly, he must address his discourse to influencing 
the king's feelings. If the king does not take this kindly, he 
must declare the loftiest dignities of the Tathagata. Let him 
approach brahmans and ksatriyas, townsfolk and countryfolk, 
behaving as befits each. He only who is learned is able to win 
the heart of those that hear the word ; and those beings receive 
satisfaction in his presence and serenity and delight." 

[198] And in the Ugradatta-pariprcchd he says : ** More- 
over, householder, thus must the Bodhisatva examine himself 
who has left the world and dwells in the forest : ' To what end 
do I Hve in the forest ? Not only by the forest hfe does one 
become an ascetic. Many live there who are untamed, un- 
controlled, not devoted, not diligent. Thus beasts and monkeys 
in troops, flocks of birds, robbers and candalas live there, and 
they are not possessed of the ascetic's qualities. I must do more 
to fulfil that purpose for which I dwell in the forest, that is the 
ascetic's purpose.' . . . Again, householder, the Bodhisatva 
must thus examine himself who has left the world and dwells 
in the forest : ' To what end have I come into the forest ? ' 
Thus he must diligently ponder. * It was fear that brought me 
to the forest. Fear of what ? The fear of worldly society, the 

* Vicitra is a technical term in Skrt. and Pali, but it is not clearly explained ; 
but it is contrasted here with a direct appeal to the emotions, through the fear 
of death, etc. 



192 PRAISE OF THE FOREST SECLUSION 

fear of company ; the fear of passion, hatred, delusion ; the 
fear of pride, intoxication, hypocrisy, pain ; the fear of praise, 
envy, and jealousy ; the fear of form, sound, smell, taste, 
touch ; I was afraid of the ideas of individuahty and possession, 
afraid of arrogance and of doubt, afraid of the Mara of the 
elements of being, the Mara of sin, the Mara of death, the Mara 
of the gods ; i I feared the mistake of thinking the imper- 
manent to be permanent, the impersonal to be personal, the 
impure to be pure, unhappiness to be happiness ; I feared 
thought, mind and consciousness ; I feared the arising of 
obstacles and hindrances ; and feared the false view of in- 
dividuality ; I feared the bad friend ; I feared gain and honour, 
unseasonable talk, the error that the unseen is seen, the unheard 
is heard, the unthought is thought, the unperceived perceived, 
the delusion that one who is not an ascetic is an ascetic ; I 
feared mutual hatred ; I feared the element of desire, the 
element of form, the element of no form ; I feared to fall into 
the several ways of existence ; I feared birth in hell, as an 
animal, as a preta : in a word, I was in fear of all evil ideas. 
It was the fear of all such terrible things that led me to go into 
the forest. . . .2 Moreover, householder, when the Bodhisatva 
has left the world and settled in the forest, if he feel fear or 
terror, this is how he must school himself : * Whatever fears 
may arise, they all arise from self-seeking. . . . But if when 
dweUing in the forest I should not renounce all cHnging to self, 
nor belief in self, the notion of self, the feeling of a self, nor thirst 
for self, nor idea of self, nor the assertion of individuality, nor 
the heresy of self, [199] nor resting on a self, nor imagination 
of a self, nor protecting the self ; useless would be my forest 
life. Moreover indeed, householder, hfe in the forest is not for 
him who has the idea of self or of others. 3 . . . Dwelling in the 
forest, householder, is a dwelHng apart from all things, without 
the company of all things.'* ... As, householder, the herbs 

^ For the different Maras see Dh.S. 80, Childers, p. 2416. 

* See Childers 121b, and M. Vyut. 155. 

^ He believfts neither in " self " nor in " others," but in void (^unyata). 

* Mrs. Rhys Davids, Buddhist Norm, 205. 



THE ILLUSION OF SELF 193 

and bushes, the plants and trees growing in the forest fear not 
nor are afraid or terrified, and fall not into panic ; so, house- 
holder, the Bodhisatva dweUing in the forest must regard his 
body as like to the herbs and bushes, plants and trees, Hke 
wood, hke plaster on a wall, hke an apparition ; 1 he must 
reaHze that all is illusion. Who fears hell ? who is afraid ? If 
he fears or is afraid, he must thus thoroughly meditate on his 
body : * In the body is no self, no being, no hving one, no man, 
or person, or human being, or human creature, fear is an 
illusion of what is not. I must not yield to this illusion of 
what is not. Therefore as herbs and bushes, plants and trees 
grow in the forest without sense of self or possession, so I must 
dwell in the forest without a sense of self, without a sense of 
possession, recognizing and reaHzing that all things are hke 
the forest. 2 

" And why so ? The forest hfe is without pleasure, without 
sense of self or possession.' . . . Moreover, householder, the 
Bodhisatva who has left the world must reflect that the forest 
life was ordained by the Buddha, and therefore he must hve 
in the forest ; for thus there is the fulfilment of the pure Law. 
* When the root of good is estabhshed, I will descend into 
village and town and market-town, kingdom and capital, and 
preach the Law.' . . . But if, householder, the Bodhisatva 
who has left the world goes amongst the multitude for the 
purpose of preaching or recitation, he must be respectful and 
courteous to teachers and preceptors, he must show respect to 
Brethren old and young and middle-aged, he must be dihgent, 
self-helping, doing no hurt to others, and he must not be 
exacting in service ; and thus he must reflect : ' The Tathagata 
also, the saintly and supreme Buddha, [200] was worshipped of 
the universe, including all the worlds of the gods, Maras and 
Brahma, of all creation with ascetics and brahmans, was to be 
revered of all beings ; yet even he did not claim observance 
from any one ; how much more we unlearned, but only eager 

^ A pseudo-self ? atmapratibhasavat is quite obscuie. 

2 Mrs. Rhys Davids, Buddhist Norm (Williams & Norgate, 19 13), p. 205, 
on Pali aranna sanni. 



194 PRAISE OF|THE^^FOREST SECLUSION 

to learn ! nay, shall we not be the servants of all beings ? shall 
not we also be busy about the service of others, and not claim 
observance from any one ? ' And why so ? If, householder, a 
Brother is exacting in service, his acquisition of virtuous 
quahties is hindered ; and those whom he wins to himself 
think thus of him : * This man wins us to get our service.' '* 

Again in the same work he says : *' But, householder, if the 
Bodhisatva who dwells in the forest, desirous of hearing the 
Law, desirous of the preaching of teachers and preceptors, or 
to visit the sick, should go to a place of sitting or sleeping ^ near 
a village, he must make up his mind to return back again in the 
evening. If, again, the preaching or recitation depends on 
others, he must keep a cave-and-forest mind, as when he 
dwells in his hermitage. That is true forest Hfe when in every- 
thing is the idea of the forest, meditation on the Law, ardour.'* 

In the holy Ratnardsi Stltra it is written : " And if again, 
as he dwells in his place in the forest when yet a worldling that 
has not attained fruition, noisome beasts should appear, he 
should feel no fear, no terror, but this should be his thought : 
' I have already renounced the Hfe of the body and come into 
the forest ; I must not fear here, nor be terrified ; nay, I will 
have pity and put away hatred, and keep fear away. And if 
even so these noisome beasts should deprive me of life and 
devour me, I must reflect : It will be great gain to me if sub- 
stance shall be taken from my unsubstantial body ; but these 
noisome beasts, since I cannot find meat to please them with, 
will eat my flesh and enjoy themselves. . . .' If again while he 
dwells in that forest place demons shall approach, of good 
colour or of bad colour, he is neither to conciliate them nor to 
attack them. If the deities who have seen the former Buddhas 
visit this forest Brother, [201] and ask him a question, then 
that forest Brother is to preach the Law to those deities ac- 
cording to his strength and ability so that they may understand 
it. If again they should put profound questions, which that 
forest Brother should not be able to solve, he must not be 
proud, but he must say, ' I am not learned ; I will meditate, I 

1 Tib. omits " to a place of sitting or sleeping." 



THOUGHTS OF THE RECLUSE 195 

will strive in the Buddha's salvation ; a time and a season shall 
come when I shall have heard and learnt all the Law, and shall 
solve every question.' They say : * Well, may it become 
clear to you ; we are eager to hear the Law.' . . . Then as he 
dwells in his forest place he must take the image of the herbs 
and bushes, plants and great trees : ' How do these come to 
be ? As these, without being or sense of ownership, without 
sense of self, or possession, not moving, without business, 
spring up and decay, and there is none that makes them spring 
up, or destroys them ; so this body, that resembles a herb or 
wood or plaster, with no sense of ownership, no sense of self, or 
possession, not moving, without business, by a chain of causa- 
tion springs up, by the defect of this chain of causation is 
destroyed ; and yet there is nothing that really arises or is 
decayed.' " 

And again it is said : " Settled there in the forest thus he 
must reflect : * Even if I have come into the forest, alone, 
without a fellow, if I have no companion to do well or ill by me, 
yet there are the gods, nagas, rakshas, and the Blessed Buddhas, 
who know the intent of my heart. They are my witnesses : 
shall I dwelling here in this forest place pass into the power of 
evil thought PHI who have come so far alone, with no 
fellow, without support, without sense of ownership or possession, 
should I think about lust, ruin, or mischief, or any other evil 
imagination, I should be indistinguishable from the beings who 
are involved in the world and in society ; then these gods, 
nagas, and rakshas will be disappointed, and the Blessed 
Buddhas will be offended.* '* 



CHAPTER XII 

PREPARATION OF THE THOUGHT 

While thus dwelling in the forest he applies his mind to con- 
templationA 

For it is said in the Bhagavatl : "He walking in the Perfec- 
tion of Contemplation for the good of those beings avoids 
distraction of thought. And why so ? Because this is his 
reflexion. ' Even worldly meditation is hard to accomplish 
with a distracted thought ; how much more the incomparable 
supreme wisdom ! Therefore I must not be distracted in 
thought until I shall attain the incomparable supreme 
wisdom.' " 

Again it is said therein : " Moreover, Subhuti, the great 
Being, the Bodhisatva, when first he has begun to think, walking 
in the Perfection of Contemplation, falls into the ecstasy by 
thoughts connected with omniscience. Seeing forms with the 
eye, he is not affected by them ; wherefore whatever covetous- 
ness and despondency or other sinful and evil conditions 
would take possession of his thoughts if he did not restrain 
the organ of sight, to restrain these he appHes himself, and 
watches the organ of sight. So when he hears sounds with the 
ear, or perceives smells with the nose, or tastes savours with 
the tongue, or feels touch with the body, or recognizes con- 
ditions with the mind, he is not affected by them. Wherefore, 
whatever states would take possession of his thoughts if he 
does not keep his organ of thought in control, to restrain these 
he applies himself, and watches the organ of mind. Going 
or standing, sitting or lying or speaking, he does not leave his 
condition of tranquiUity.2 He does not fidget with hands or 

^ Karika 20. * Omit asam"^. 

196 



I 



CONTROL OF THE THOUGHTS 197 

feet or twitch his face, he is not incoherent of speech, his 
senses are not confused, he is not exalted or uplifted, not fickle 
or idle, not agitated in body or mind ; tranquil is his body, 
tranquil his voice, his mind is tranquil ; in secret and in public 
his demeanour is contented. . . . Frugal, easy to feed, easy 
to serve, of good life and habits ; even in a crowd dwelling 
apart ; his mind unchanged whether he get or not : [203] not 
uplifted, not cast down. Thus in good or in evil, in praise or 
blame, in good or evil report, in Ufe or in death, he is the same 
unchanged, not upKfted and not cast down. Thus with foe or 
friend, with helper [or hurter], with noble and ignoble, with 
sounds confused and not confused, with shapes pleasant or 
unpleasant, his mind is unchanged, not uplifted and not cast 
down, without satisfaction or dissatisfaction. And why is this ? 
He regards all things as having the Void for their special 
characteristic, as not existing, as not created, as not produced " ; 
that is the matter in sum. 

There by encouraging benignity in the despondent mind 
he should stimulate it ; but in an exalted mind he procures 
tranquillity by thoughts of impermanence. 

He should remember the versicle given in the holy Rdsh- 
trapdla for the purpose of counteracting both despondency 
and exaltation. 

" In many millions of ages a Buddha sometimes arises, a 
friend of the world, a great sage. Now that chiefest oppor- 
tunity is come, to-day he must reject sloth if he desires 
emancipation." 

Thus, if I think, " All that is composite is unreal, like illusion, 
like a dream, soon there must be parting from all that is dear ; 
no one is here permanently ; strive and make effort always for 
the Perfections, the spiritual Stages, the Powers ; never let 
slip your strength until you awaken the most excellent wisdom.'' 

And it is said in the holy Lalita-Vistara : " The three 
worlds are ablaze with old age, disease, and pain ; all is burning 
with the fire of death, helpless ; in fleeing from existence all 
the world wanders perplext, Hke a bumble-bee in a jug. 
[204] Unstable are the three worlds, hke the autumn clouds ; 

o 



198 PREPARATION OF THE THOUGHT 

like the scene of a play is the course of birth ; Uke mountain 
torrents Ught and swift in speed, hfe in the world is gone as 
lightning in the cloud. In the earth, the gods' place, the path 
of the three states of unhappiness, people are under the power 
of ignorance and the thirst for existence, fooHsh, as the five 
modes of existence go round, hke the turning of a potter's 
wheel. This world, with all its beloved shapes and deHghtful 
sounds, delicious tastes, agreeable sensations, is entangled in 
the net of sin as an ape in the net of a hunter. The pleasures 
of sense always involve fear and strife ; they cause anger, they 
bring much pain and distress ; like a sword blade, like a 
poisonous plant, thrown away by holy souls like a pot of 
excrement, robbing the memory, causing darkness, producing 
the causes of fear, always rooted in pain, causing thirst for 
existence to grow hke a creeper, ever full of fear and strife are 
the sensual pleasures. Dangerous like fire-pits ablaze these 
lusts are considered by the holy ; like deep bogs, like a sword- 
point, hke a razor-edge smeared with honey ; as a serpent's 
head, as a pot of excrement, so are those lusts known to be by 
those who know them ; so like a spike, like a lump of bird's 
flesh, a httle quarrel of dogs, hke moon in the water, those 
lusts, hke a mirrored image, hke an echo in the hills, hke an 
apparition, like a scene on the stage, like a dream, they are 
known by the holy. [205] Those sensual pleasures remain 
but for a moment, like illusion and mirage, hke the empty 
bubbles and foam on water, false, imaginary, so are they 
known by the wise. In the first stage of life one has a beautiful 
shape, one is dear, desired, esteemed, walks the way of fools ; 
but when the beauty of form is lost by old age, disease, and 
pain, they leave it as the beasts leave a dry river. One that 
has wealth and riches, that is mighty with much treasure, is 
dear, desired, esteemed, and walks the way of fools ; but when 
wealth is wasted and poverty comes men leave him as an empty 
desert. Like trees covered with flowers and fruit is a man who 
takes pleasure in gifts, a giver of joy ; when wealth is wasted 
and old age appears, a suitor then is like an unlovely vulture. 
One strong in influence and wealth, with beauteous form, 



j 



SIMILITUDES OF LIFE 199 

causes delight to senses in the company of friends ; but when 
oppressed by old age, disease and pain, his wealth wasted, then he 
is unlovely like death. Decayed by old age, his youth all past, 
he is like a tree struck by lightning ; like a house worn out with 
old age, full of fear ; quickl}^ tell of the escape from old age, 
O sage ! Old age withers men and women as a creeper kills a 
grove of sal trees : old age steals strength, energy and force ; 
in old age a man sinks as in a bog ; old age makes beautiful 
things ugly, old age steals brightness and takes away the power 
of strength ; it always steals happiness and brings contempt ; 
old age causes death and takes away the sap of life. Full of 
hundreds of diseases, ruinous evils, unhappiness, it is hke the 
beasts in a conflagration of the jungle. Considering that the 
world is full of old age and disease, quickly tell of the escape 
from pain ! [206] As the quality of cold in the winter season 
steals the sap from herbs and bushes, trees and plants, so 
disease steals the sap of youth in the world, while feeling, 
form and force decay. Disease in the world always makes 
an end of wealth, riches and all blessings, and causes con- 
tempt ; it causes repulsion and resentment, and burns as the 
sun in the sky. Death, departure, new birth, dissolution, sepa- 
ration from things beloved, never to come again or to meet 
again, Hke the leaves and fruits of the forests, hke the stream 
of a river. Death brings all under its power and dominion, 
death carries off all as a river carries a tree. Without com- 
panion or fellow a man wanders about, attended by the fruits 
of his own deeds, helpless ; death devours the hundreds of 
breathing beings, as the sea-monster swallows swarms of 
creatures, as the Garuda swallows the serpent, as the lion 
devours the elephant, as fire destroys the herbs and plants." 

And in the Rdjdvavddaka Sutra he says : "If, great King, 
in the four regions four great mountains should move together, 
firm, strong, unbroken, uncleft, not hollow, compact, one 
solid whole, touching the sky and tearing up the earth, grinding 
under them all the herbs, trees, branches, leaves and fohage, 
with all the living and breathing creatures, it would not be 
easy to escape by speed or strength, or to turn them aside by 



200 PREPARATION OF THE THOUGHT 

drugs or charms or spells ; just so, great King, those four great 
terrors move together, which it is not easy to escape by 
speed or strength, [207] or to turn aside by drugs or charms or 
spells. What four ? Old age, disease, death, misery. Old 
age approaches, great King, grinding out youth, disease grinding 
out health, death grinding out hfe, misery grinding out all 
good fortune. And why so ? As, great King, the lion, king of 
beasts, full of beauty and swiftness, terrible with splendid 
claws and teeth, chases the herds of animals, and seizing one 
deals with it as he will, and that animal is helpless within the 
mighty ravening jaws ; even so, great King, a man wounded 
with death's arrow, life's fever over, without support, his 
vitals being torn, his joints being rent asunder, flesh and blood 
being dried up, with face burnt, parched, distracted, hands and 
feet shaking, helpless, incapable, smeared with spittle, nose- 
droppings, stinking urine and ordure, with only a breath of 
life left in him, taking a new existence from the actions of this, 
terrified by Yama's satellites, plunged in black night, choking 
in his last gasp, alone, without compassion or comrade, leaving 
this world, entering the next world, travelUng by the great 
path, entering the great wilderness, plunging into the great 
abyss, coming into the great darkness, overwhelmed with the 
great flood, whirled away by the wind of past actions, going to a 
place where the marks of this world are not : 1 for him there is 
no other defence, no other refuge, nor other support except the 
Law. For the Law, great King, at that time is a defence and 
resting-place, a refuge and support. As for one who is starved 
with cold, the heat of fire ; for one without fire, w^armth ; 
for one who is oppressed with heat, coolness ; for one who is 
on the road, a cool and shady grove ; for the thirsty, cool 
water ; for the hungry, good food ; for the sick, those versed 
in healing simples ; for the terrified, powerful companions ; 
all these are excellent protections : even so, great King, when 
one is pierced with death's arrow, life's fever gone, helpless, 
without refuge, without support, there is no other defence, no 
other support than the Law. Therefore now, great King, you 

1 That is, without the three nimittani, rdga dosha moha. 



1 



RESPICE FINEM 201 

must keep before your mind impermanency, change and decay, 
when in fear of death ; righteously, great king, you must rule, 
not unrighteously ; [208] and why so ? Even if all goes well 
with your person, if it is well guarded, for a long time regaled 
and served with clean and pleasant food to eat, to drink, to 
relish, yet you will be encompassed by hunger and thirst 
when death shall come. Now clad in goodly garments of 
fine cloth and silk, cotton or Unen, reclining on a splendid 
couch, when death shall come you shall be wrapped in 
clothes soiled with sweat. Thus, great King, if your person 
has perfumes for the bath, or for anointing, with flowers 
and fragrant scents and perfumes, ere long it will have a 
bad smell. Although now you are surrounded by troops 
of women in the women's apartments, with music of song 
and many instruments, happy and dehghted, taking your 
pleasure all about, soon you will be very much afraid of death, 
and death will bring dejection and pain. Although now, great 
King, you dwell in houses anointed with ointments, well 
guarded with bolts, with windows carefully closed, many a 
sweet savour burning of scents and flowers, oils and cosmetics, 
hung with strings of ribbons and wreaths, covered with pearls 
and flowers, perfumed with vases of scent, you rest your feet 
on stools, and recHne upon couches strewn with rugs and 
woollens, with quilts of down, covered with musHn and woven 
pillows on either side ; but soon your vigour will be gone, and 
your body will be left on the earth in a loathsome charnel- 
ground, full of jackals, crows, and vultures, the flesh, bones 
and blood and grease of corpses. Although now, great King, 
you ride on elephants and horses and drive in chariots, with the 
noise of conchs and kettledmms, the sunshade spread above, 
fanned by chowries, attended by many elephants, horses, 
chariots and footmen, reverenced with myriads of salutations : 
yet when you perceive that your departure is at hand, your 
vigour gone, laid upon a bier, upheld by four men, carried out 
by the south gate of the city, with mother and father, brother 
and sister, wife, son and daughter, companions, menservants 
and maidservants, workmen and hirehngs, their hearts grieving. 



202 PREPARATION OF THE THOUGHT 

hanging heads, hands uplifted, beating of breasts and loud 
lamentation, while ' O my son, O my lord, O my dearest, O 
my master,' the townsfolk and countryfolk continually do cry, 
you will be looked on with contempt, and brought to the 
charnel-ground, then devoured by crows and jackals and 
vultures, and those bones burnt in fire or left lying upon the 
ground, [209] or drenched with water, or mouldering in wind 
and heat and rain, scattered in all directions, and then they 
shall rot. Thus all conditions are impermanent, fleeting." 
That is the sum of the matter. 

Thus sin is mainly passion, hate, and delusion ; each of 
which ought to be nipped in the bud, and their causes eschewed. 

In this connexion he speaks precisely in the holy Ratna- 
megha : "He uses the antidote for passion, and he shuns the 
causes whereby passion arises. What is this antidote for 
passion ? what are these causes of its arising ? Contemplation 
of impurity is the antidote to passion ; a beauty of the district 
is a cause whereby passion arises. And what is contempla- 
tion of impurity ? In this body there are hair, down, nails, 
teeth, dirt, filth, skin, flesh, bones, sinews, nerves, kidneys, 
heart, spleen, lungs, entrails, mesentery, upper and lower 
stomach, bladder, liver, excrement, tears, sweat, phlegm, snot, 
fat, humours, lard, marrow, bile, spittle, pus, blood, head, 
brain, piss. These things the Bodhisatva naturally considers, 
and as he considers them he thinks, * Even he w^ho should be 
foolish, deluded, incapable, bad, if he understood these things, 
[210] would not feel passion towards them ; how much less 
would one who has wisdom ! ' Thus the Bodhisatva is full of 
the contemplation of impurity." 

And in the Bhagavati it is said : " Furthermore, Subhiiti, 
the Bodhisatva, the great Being, walking in the Perfection of 
Wisdom, recognizes how this body is composed. As a butcher 
or a butcher's man kills a cow, and with sharp knife cuts it 
into four quarters, and examines it as he stands or sits ; even 
so, Subhuti, the Bodhisatva walking in the Perfection of 
Wisdom, recognizes how this body is composed in its elements : 
' In this body are the elements earth, water, fire, and air.' . . ." 



CONTEMPLATION OF IMPURITY 203 

Again he says, " If, Subhuti, a fanner has a sack fuU of all 
sorts of grain, rice, paddy, sesamum, and husked rice, vetch 
and beans, barley and wheat, lentils and mustard ; a man of 
intelligence examining these would say, ' This is rice of such a 
sort, this is paddy, this is sesamum, this is husked rice, this is 
vetch, these are beans, this is barley, this is wheat, these are 
lentils, this is mustard.' Just so the Bodhisatva, the Great 
Being, walking in the Perfection of Wisdom, considers the body 
as it really is upwards from the soles of the feet, and downwards, 
the hair and head, nails, down, skin, how it is covered with 
down and full of all manner of impurities : ' In this body there 
are hairs, down, nails,' and so on to 'the head, brain, the 
oozings of eye and ear.' . . . Moreover, Subhiiti, the Bodhi- 
satva entering a charnel-place sees all sorts of dead bodies 
thrown down in the charnel-place, left in the place of corpses, 
one day dead, or two days dead, or three, four, [211] five days 
dead, swollen, livid, putrid, eaten of worms ; and thus he 
compares his body : * This body also is of such a nature and of 
such composition ; it not exempt from this condition.' Thus, 
Subhiiti, the Bodhisatva, the Great Being, walking in the 
Perfection of Wisdom, continues contemplating the body from 
without. . . . Moreover, when he sees dead bodies cast out 
in the charnel-place six nights dead, being devoured by crows, 
eagles, or vultures, dogs or jackals, or worms of various kinds, 
he compares his own body : * This body also is of the same kind 
and nature ; it cannot escape this condition.' Moreover, 
when he sees dead bodies cast forth in the charnel-place, already 
being devoured, foul, stinking, he compares his own body as be- 
fore. . . . Moreover, when he sees dead bodies lying in a 
charnel-house, a skeleton smeared with flesh and blood and the 
tendons attached, he compares his body, as before. Moreover, 
when he sees corpses in a charnel-house, all skeletons, flesh, 
blood and tendons all gone, he compares his own body as 
before. Moreover, when he sees in a charnel-house bones thrown 
about anyhow ; here foot-bones, there shin-bones, there again 
the large flat bones, yonder hips and pelvis, [212] there the 
Spinal column, here the neck or arm-bones, he compares his 



204 PREPARATION OF THE THOUGHT 

own body as before. . . . Moreover, when he sees in a charnel- 
house bones several years old, dried up in the winds Hke conch- 
shells, he compares his own body as before : * This body also 
is of the same kind and character, and cannot escape this 
condition/ Moreover, Subhiiti, the Bodhisatva, the Great 
Being, walking in the Perfection of Widsom, when he sees in 
the charnel-house bones several years old, crumbling away, 
black, gray, rotten, powdered into the likeness of dust, upon 
the ground, he compares his body : * This body is of the same 
kind and character ; it cannot escape this condition.' " 

This is briefly the method of counteracting passion. For 
hatred, benevolence is the antidote, and not to see those that 
are disagreeable ; or by encouraging the pleasure that comes 
from association in such matters as meals. There benevolence 
is a desire for another's welfare, prayer a desire for another's 
sake. Affection is unsullied by the two causes, the passion of 
lust or gratitude. That is the meaning. 

Benevolence is threefold i in the holy Akshayamati Sutra : 
*' When Bodhisatvas first conceive the thought of becoming 
Buddhas, their benevolence is directed towards all creatures ; 
when they have begun their religious practices, it is directed 
towards the suffering ; it is without any object at all when 
they are patiently preparing for a future state." 

Again, benevolence has the Buddhas as its object of thought, 
the Bodhisatvas, the disciples, all creatures as its objects of 
thought. Here when it has all beings as its object of thought, 
first it comes by accumulating benefit and blessing upon a 
beloved being with meditation. Upon such an one he should 
accumulate benevolence : then upon acquaintances ; then upon 
strangers ; then upon neighbours ; then upon fellow- villagers ; 
[213] and so with another village ; and so on until he continues 
devoted to one region, spread over it, covering it. So with 
the ten regions. But this procedure does not apply to the 
benevolence towards the Buddhas and the rest. 

This is described in the V ajradhvaja-parindmand. " As 
he walks in the practices of the Bodhisatva, whatever forms 

1 So Dh. S. cxxx. 



BENEVOLENCE THE ANTIDOTE TO HATRED 205 

are seen are either pleasant or the opposite. So with sounds, 
scents, tastes, touch, or mental objects, they are either pleasant 
or the opposite. The faultless and pure cause what is good, 
noble and bright, from which contentment results ; and 
pleasure emerges, dehght is produced, satisfaction comes, 
happiness is caused, rapture becomes manifest ; dejection is 
repelled, vigour of thought is manifested and thought becomes 
active, the disposition becomes gentle, the senses are comforted ; 
enjoying this happiness 1 he transfers it to others: ' With this 
transference of merit by all the Buddhas may those blessed 
Buddhas be endowed in greater measure with the incon- 
ceivable bHss of a Buddha's life, may they be possessed by the 
incomparable bUss of a Buddha's tranquillity, may they be 
estabhshed in greater measure with endless bhss, may they be 
endowed with the immeasurable bliss of a Buddha's emancipa- 
tion, may they be possessed by the ilhmitable bliss of a Buddha's 
magic, may they be possessed by the inconceivable bhss of a 
Buddha's Hfe in the Order, [214] may they be enveloped in 
the unequalled bhss of a Buddha's deeds of might, may they be 
exceedingly blessed with the bliss of a Buddha's strength, may 
they have unchanging 2 bhss by the pleasure of non-production 
in which all sensations are appeased, may they have undisturbed 
bhss in the incomparable course of a Tathagata's bhss always 
united with the detached life. Thus the Bodhisatva, applying 
this root of good to the Tathagatas, appHes it to the Bodhi- 
satvas ; that is, he applies it for the fulfilling of unfulfilled 
prayers, for the purifying of those unpurified whose aspiration 
is perfect wisdom, for the consummation of all Perfections 
unconsummated, for estabhshing the thought of enlightenment 
like adamant, to prevent the loss of the unconquerable prepara- 
tion for omniscience, for seeking the roots of good of the 
Bodhisatvas, for fulfilUng the great resolution which is fixed 
in impartiality for all the world, for entering all the Bodhisatva's 
ways of hfe, for the clear knowledge of all the Bodhisatva's 

1 Tib. implies ;ff TTr^^. 

Tib. implies Of^cirf^o. For amitp the Tib. is mi skye bahi bde. 



2o6 PREPARATION OF THE THOUGHT 

powers, for acquiring omniscience in all the Bodhisatvas' roots 
of good. He then having applied this root of good for the 
welfare of the Bodhisatvas, thus applies the same root of good 
to those who abide in the Buddha's commands, disciples and 
Pratyeka Buddhas. Whatsoever beings hear the Buddha's 
voice even for the time of one finger-snap, or the sound of the 
Law, or who show respect to the holy Order, to them he applies 
the root of good for the incomparable and perfect wisdom, and 
for the fulfilling of the Buddha's remembrance, for the practice 
of remembering the Law, for respect to the holy Order, for the 
speedily seeing the welcome sight of the Buddha, for purifica- 
tion of thought, for penetrating the Law of Buddha, for 
acquiring ilUmitable virtues, for the purification of all super- 
natural faculties, for extinguishing all doubts in the Law. As 
he appUes it to those who abide in the Buddha's commands, 
and to disciples and Pratyeka Buddhas, so this Bodhisatva 
[215] applies this root of good to all beings ; that is, he 
applies it to turn them away from the road to hell, to keep 
them from birth as animals, for the happiness of avoiding 
Yama's world, to avoid all the ways of misery without 
exception, and to foster in all these beings the will to obtain 
the incomparable wisdom, that they may attain thought that 
aspires to omniscience, nor lose any of the Buddha's quaUties, 
to induce that stage in which is the bliss of boundless omni- 
science, for the boundless purification of all beings, that all beings 
may attain boundless knowledge, ... In him, whatever acts are 
concerned with robes, alms-bowl, lying or sitting, the needs of 
sickness, medicine, going to and fro, standing or sitting by the 
body and so forth, in the sphere of daily life, steadiness in 
deportment and inexcitability, acts of feehng, voice, and mind, 
good conduct, closure of the six senses, acts of clothing, 
rubbing, and bathing one's person, eating, drinking, and chewing, 
service of one's body in stretching out or drawing in, looking 
and watching, sleeping and waking, in all this there is no act 
that is not applied to acquisition of omniscience for the Bodhi- 
satva whose thought is busy with the good and profit of all 
beings, . . . whose mind is bent on the rescue of all the world, 



APPLICATION OF THE ROOT OF GOOD 207 

who strives ever after the root of good, avoiding infatuation and 
sloth, ... his face turned away from all sin, his heart following 
all the instruction of the Bodhisatvas, with no obstruction 
in the road to omniscience, ensuring the stages of knowledge, 
loving the company of wise men . . . like a bee, gathering 
the root of good, his soul detached from the whole world, 1 
not involved in the conditions of existence" ... to the^vords 
** and even to dogs and other animals he throws a sop or a bite. 
He appUes all this for the profit in happy births and dehverance 
of the same from this animal birth, from this flood of unhap- 
piness, from this clinging to unhappiness, from these wretched 
elements of existence, from this wretched suffering, from this 
accumulation of unhappiness, from this wretched gathering of 
action, [216] from this source of unhappiness, from this root 
of unhappiness, from this abode of unhappiness ; he applies 
it for the release of these beings, and by making them his object 
of thought he makes all beings the object of his thought and 
keeps them in mind. Then he makes the root of good sub- 
servient, that is, he appHes it to omniscience, he enwTaps it in 
the idea of wisdom. Then he guides the root of good, keeps 
it back from the thorny path of new birth, pushes it forwards 
by the Buddha's bliss without hindrance, draws it forth from 
the sea of existence, pervades it with benevolence that leads 
to the quahties of a Buddha." 

And the following verses from the Siwarnabhdsa, on the 
subject of benevolence and mercy, should be observed with 
respect, and rehearsed even with the voice. 

" By the drum of the SuvamabhdsoUajna Sutra let pains 
be assuaged in the three thousand worlds, pains of ruin, pains 
of Yama's world, and the pains of poverty here in the three 
worlds ; and by this as it sounds the drum let vice in the world 
be ended, and let all beings be unhurt by fear, even as the 
great sages are without fear, their fears allayed ; even as those 
are endowed with all holy virtues, oceans of omniscience as 
regards existence, so may people be seas of virtue endowed 
with all the constituents of tranquiUity and wisdom. By this 
* This sense is clear in Tib. 



2o8 PREPARATION OF THE THOUGHT 

as it sounds the drum let all beings have the voice of Brahma, 
let them reach the highest summit of wisdom in Buddhahood, 
let them turn the wheel of the pure Law. [217] Let them 
stand for ages beyond imagination, let them preach the Law 
for the welfare of the world, let them destroy sin, let them 
conquer pain, let them extinguish passion with hatred and 
delusion. Let those beings who stand in a state of ruin, their 
bones and limbs burning in a blaze, hear the sound of the 
drum, and let them cry, Glory to the Buddha. Let all beings 
remember their births, a hundred births, millions of births, let 
them remember always the great sages, and let them hear their 
lofty words. By this when it sounds the drum let them 
always gain access to the Buddhas ; let them verily eschew the 
deed of sin, let them do good and pure deeds. In all the 
regions of all things that have breath let all pains be done 
away in the world. Let all creatures that are maimed in their 
organs or docked of a Hmb be whole as they should be. Let those 
who are diseased, weak, without Hmbs, lying helpless in all places, 
all be set free from their disease quickly and be made whole in 
the organs of strength. They who are frightened by kings, 
robbers, and bravos, condemned to death, threatened with 
misery by hundreds of different fears, let aU those in misery 
and pain be set free from those hundreds of fears great and 
awful. [218] Those who are tormented and oppressed by 
prison bonds, who are in all manner of misery, overwhelmed 
with many thousands of troubles full of pain and dread from 
many a danger, let them all be set free here from their bonds, 
the tortured be freed from their torments. Let the condemned 
have Hfe, let those in misery all be made secure. Let the 
hungry, parched, or thirsty receive food and drink in plenty. 
Let the bhnd see beautiful shapes, let the deaf hear pleasant 
sounds, let the naked receive fine raiment, the poor a treasure. 
Let all beings be happy with plenty of wealth and riches and 
goodly jewels. May no one have pain or misery, may all beings 
be full of happiness, beautiful, pleasant, deHghtful ; may all 
happiness be accumulated for them always. Let them by 
the mere thought be provided with food and drink to their 



THE ASPIRATIONS OF BENEVOLENCE 209 

mind, abounding in merit ; let them have lute, drum, cymbal 
of sweet sound, running brooks, ponds full of lotus ; just by a 
thought, let them have lakes of lotus golden and lilac, scents 
and garlands, ointment and perfume, aromatic powder, and 
flowers of all colours. Let them have rain for the trees thrice 
in the season, let them take them, let them be happy, let them 
do infinite worship in the ten regions to all the Tathagatas, 
to Bodhisatvas and disciples, and the Law pure, spotless, and 
firm.i [219] Let all beings avoid the low course, and keep 
clear of the eight unlucky moments. Let them approach the 
supreme king conqueror, let them always have access to the 
Buddhas. Let all women always become men, and heroes, 
bold, intelligent and wise. Let them all walk towards wisdom, 
let them walk in the Six Perfections. Let them see the 
Buddhas in the ten regions, amidst the coral bowers, happily 
seated upon thrones set with jewels, and let them hear the 
Law revealed.'' 

That is benevolence, in sum ; the conduct that is antidote 
for hatred. For one that is subject to confusion, the mani- 
festation of the Chain of Causation is antidote. 

Now the Chain of Causation is described in the Sdlistamha 
Sutra. [220] Here what is the linking of cause to cause in 
the Chain of Causation internally ? This : " The PotentiaUties 
are caused by ignorance," and so on to " old age and death 
are caused by birth. But for ignorance there would not be 
the potentialities,'' and so on to " but for birth neither would 
there be old age and death. Here if there be ignorance, the 
potentialities are the result," and so on to " if there is birth, 
old age and death are the result. Here ignorance never 
thinks : ' I cause the potentialities.' And the potentiaUties 
do not think : * We are caused by ignorance.' " And so on 
to ** Birth does not think : ' I cause old age and death,' nor 
do old age and death think : ' I am caused by birth.' Here 
it becomes clear that if there be ignorance, the potentialities 
are the result," and so on to " thus if there be birth, it becomes 
clear that old age and death result. Thus one must reflect 

1 Tib. read V^f^iff'T^QS^fOTT (see note in text also). 



210 PREPARATION OF THE THOUGHT 

upon the linking of cause to cause in the Chain of Causation 
internally. How is the linking of secondary causes to be 
regarded in the Chain of Causation internally ? As from the 
union of the six elements. Of what six elements ? They are 
earth, water, fire, air, space, intelHgence ; as from their union we 
must regard the Unking of secondary causes in the Chain of 
Causation internally. Now in the links of this chain, what is 
the element earth ? That element is called earth which causes 
the hardness that keeps the body together. That element is 
called water which achieves the task of aggregating the parts 
of the body. That element is called fire which assimilates the 
food and drink that are taken. [221] That element is called 
air which causes breathing in and out. That is called space 
which causes the porosity in the body. That element is called 
intelHgence which causes name and form to keep together 
like a bundle of reeds, and the impure consciousness which is 
connected with the group of five organs of consciousness. If 
the secondary causes are not present, there is no body. When 
the internal earth element is unimpaired, then the other 
elements are unimpaired, water, fire, air, space, intelHgence ; 
then by the union of all, the body comes into being. Here 
the earth element does not think : * I cause the hardness of 
the body.' Nor does the water element think : * I do what is 
necessary for aggregating the parts of the body.' The fire 
element does not think : ' I digest the food and drink that the 
body takes.' The air element does not think : * I cause the 
breathing in and breathing out.' The space element does not 
think : * I cause the body to be porous.' The intelligence does 
not think : ' I am begotten by these causes.' Then where 
these secondary causes are, the body comes into being. Therein 
the earth element is not self, not a being, not a living thing, 
not a creature, not a human being, not a man, not a woman, 
not a male, not a neuter ; and not I, not mine, nor any one 
else's. So with the elements water, fire, air, space, intelHgence ; 
none is a being, a Hving thing, a creature, a human being, a 
man, a woman, a male, a neuter, nor I, or mine, or any one's 
else. Here what is ignorance ? The recognition in these 



HOW THE BODY COMES INTO BEING 211 

six elements of the notion of one, of material, of permanence, 
of firmness, of perpetuity, of happiness, of self, of being, living, 
humanity, manhood, of individuality or possession ; [222] these 
and the like examples of false knowledge are called ignorance. 
Thus when ignorance is present, passion, hatred, and delusion 
exist as regards objects of sense ; and these, passion, hatred, 
and delusion as regards objects of sense, are called the mental 
conformations. The recognition of things is cognition. The 
four elements of being springing from attachment which are 
immaterial and produced with cognition, are Name ; the four 
great elements and the form derived therefrom, is Form ; 
putting these together we get Name and Form.i The senses 
connected with name and form are the six organs of sense. The 
union of the three things is touch ; by touch comes sensation ; 
close to sensation comes thirst ; the development of thirst is 
the clinging to existence ; from this cUnging springs the action 
that leads to rebirth, existence ; the manifestation of the 
elements caused by this is birth ; the ripening of the elements 
is old age, decay, death ; when one dies or becomes deluded or 
is deeply attached to himself the inner burning is pain, the 
crying out is lamentation ; the arising of joylessness connected 
with the five kinds of consciousness is misery ; the mental 
unhappiness connected with memory is despondency ; and 
all the other hke unhappinesses are the kinds of despair. . . . 

" Moreover, not perceiving reahty is false perception, 
unintelHgence ignorance. Thus where ignorance is, [223] three 
kinds of mental conformations are produced. These are 
called the mental conformations caused by ignorance leading 
to merit, leading to demerit, and leading to immobihty.2 
The understanding of conformations leading to merit, also 
leads to merit ; the understanding of conformations leading 
to demerit, leads also to demerit ; the understanding of those 

1 See Dh.S. xlvii. 341. 

* This is explained as what leads to the Fourth Dhyana, and it is so called 
since the effects of the act cannot be cancelled. See Warren, Buddhism in 
Translations, p. 492, Index s.v. Karma, and Points of Controversy, Pali Text 
Soc. Transl., p. 359. 



212 PREPARATION OF THE THOUGHT 

that lead to immobility, leads also to immobility. This is 
called the understanding caused by the mental conformations. 
So with name and form. By the growth of name and form, 
things happen ^ by the six doors of sense. That is what is 
called the six organs of sense depending on name and form. 
From these six organs of sense six classes of contact arise ; 
this is called the contact depending on the six organs of sense. 
Whatever be the kind of contact, such is the sensation. This 
is called the sensation depending upon contact. When one 
feels this, especially enjoys it, is delighted, seeks it and practises 
it, this is called thirst depending on sensation ; a cHnging to 
deUght and enjoyment, that cries, * May I never be separated 
from dear forms and joyful forms ! ' The more one prays, the 
less one is ready to renounce. This is called the attachment 
depending on thirst. Thus praying he produces action that 
causes existence by body, by voice, by mind. That is called 
the existence depending upon attachment. The production of 
the elements that appear in existence is called birth depending 
upon existence. The decay that comes from the assembling 
and ripening of the elements resulting from birth, [224] is 
called old age and death depending on birth. . . . Thus this 
chain of causation with twelve links caused each by another 
comes from interdependence. It is not impermanent nor 
permanent, not composite or incomposite, not feeling, not 
subject to destruction or annihilation, not a matter of detach- 
ment, proceeding from a time without beginning,^ uninter- 
rupted ; it runs along Hke a river. And of this twelve-Hnked 
chain of causation, four links make for concentration by their 
causaUty. What are these four ? Why, ignorance, thirst, 
action, consciousness. Here consciousness is a cause by being 
hke a seed, action because it is hke the ground, ignorance and 
thirst because they are naturally sin. Action and passion 
produce the seed consciousness ; then action cultivates the 
seed consciousness, and thirst lubricates it, ignorance waters it. 

^ This is obscure in both Sk. and Tib; 

See this text with slightly different readings in Mulamadhyamaka' 
kdvikas. p. 566 (St. Petersburg). 



CONSCIOUSNESS 213 

Without these causes the seed does not exist. Here action 
does not think : ' I cultivate the seed consciousness ' ; thirst 
does not think : * I lubricate the seed consciousness ' ; ignorance 
does not think : * I water the seed consciousness ' ; nor does 
the seed consciousness think : ' I am produced by these causes.' 
Moreover, when the seed consciousness Ues in the field of 
action, lubricated by thirst, watered by ignorance, it grows up 
in the mother's womb in such and such a place of rebirth ; 1 
[225] a sprout of name and form appears ; and this sprout 
is not self-made, not made by another, nor made by both, not 
fashioned by a lord, not matured by time, not dependent on 
one cause, yet not arisen without cause. And then by union 
of mother and father, in the woman's courses after the other 
contributory causes have acted, the seed consciousness being 
full of affection, produces in the mother's womb the sprout 
name and form, although things are without master or owner, 
without possessor, without claimant, Hke space, having the 
marks of illusion, the causes primary and secondary being 
not lacking. For instance, by five effective causes the sight- 
consciousness is produced. What are these ? The sight- 
consciousness is produced as a consequence of eye, form, 
looking, space, and the idea that springs from these. Here 
the eye plays the part of the recipient of the visual knowledge, 
form plays the part of the object, light causes the manifestation, 
space provides that there is no obstacle, the resulting idea 
gives the impression. These causes absent, there is no sight- 
consciousness. When the organ belonging to the eye is un- 
impaired, so also are form, look, space and the resultant idea. 
Therefore by the union of all there is sight-consciousness. 
Here the eye does not think : ' I do for sight-consciousness that 
which depends on the eye ' ; form does not think : * I play the 
part of the object ' ; look does not think : ' I cause the appear- 
ance ' ; space does not think : ' I provide that there is no 
obstacle to sight-consciousness ' ; the resultant idea does not 
think : * I give the impression to sight-consciousness ' ; sight- 
consciousness does not think : * I am produced by these causes.' 

' Reading pratisandhau as in 226^. 

P 



214 PREPARATION OF THE THOUGHT 

Here again it is manifest that when these causes are present, 
sight-consciousness arises. So one must do with the other 
senses, according to each. In these cases there is nothing that 
passes from our world to the next w^orld ; [226] but the 
fruit of action appears, because the primary and secondary 
causes fail not. As in the lack of fuel there is no fire, even so 
the seed-consciousness produced by the action and passion, 
arising in this place or that, produces the sprout of name and 
form in the mother's womb, although things are without 
master or owner, with no possessor, no claimant, like space, 
having the marks of illusion, the causes primary and secondary 
being not lacking. There ^ the internal chain of causation is 
due to five causes ; but what are these five ? Not permanence, 
not destruction, not transition, but small causes and large 
results, and a succession of similar events. How is it not due 
to permanence ? Because some elements of being are ended 
by death, those that appear at the conception are others ; but 
those elements which are the first are not also the second. 
Moreover, when the first class of elements are being held in 
check, the others appear. Therefore it springs not from per- 
manence. And how not from destruction ? When the second 
elements appear, it cannot be said that the first elements have 
been held in check nor that they have not been held in check ; 
but while the elements that are ended by death are being 
checked the others appear, as when the pole of a balance rises 
or falls. Therefore it is not by destruction. 

" How is it not by transition ? Because the component 
elements arise within the one birth from a different class of 
being. Therefore not from transition. How is it from small 
causes and the consequent large results ? A small act is done ; 
[227] a great result follows. Therefore it is from small causes 
and their great results. How is it from appropriate succession 
of events ? Whatever description of act is done, that descrip- 
tion of result follows. That is why it is from appropriate 
succession of events. Whoever, reverend Sariputra, regards 
this chain of causation even as it is, truly described by the 

1 Reading as before with Tib. If^. 



H 



THE CHAIN OF CAUSATION 215 

Blessed One in his true wisdom, always without a living 
principle, bereft of living principle, true, not erroneous, not 
born, not produced, not made, not composite, making neither 
resistance nor obstacle, propitious, without danger, indivisible, 
imperishable, without cessation, who considers it as not 
existing, void, . . . sapless, suffering, impermanent, miserable, 
empty, non-individual, he does not go back to the be- 
ginning : What was I long ago, prithee, or what was I not ? 
Who was I in my past course ? Nor does he go on to the 
future : What shall I be in my future course, prithee, or what 
shall I not be ? or who shall I be ? Nor does he refer to the 
present : What is this, or how is this ? What are we, what 
shall we be ? " 

And it is said in the holy Da^ahhumaka : " Here ignorance, 
thirst, and chnging are the description of the way of passion ; 
the conformations and existence are the description of the 
way of action ; the rest is the description of the way of suffering. 
Moreover [228] what is said of the ' conformations depending 
on ignorance ' refers to the past ; from * consciousness ' to 
' feeling,' refers to the present ; from * think ' * to action ' refers 
to the future, and so it goes on again. . . . Thus he thinks : 
Combination makes composite, dissolution makes the contrary, 
agglomeration makes composite, dispersion makes the 
contrary. Very well, it is we who know the composite to be 
very evil and bad, that will get rid of this combination and 
agglomeration, yet for the ripening of all beings we will not 
enter the eternal peace." This in brief is the purification of 
delusion. 

1 See the Wheel of Life in Mrs. Rhys David's Compendium, p. 263. 



CHAPTER XIII 

SUBJECTS OF INTENT CONTEMPLATION 

Thus the man diligent in thought would undertake the intent 
contemplations. Here the Intent Contemplation of the Body 
is concerned with impurity. 

This is explained by minute analysis in the Dharmasangiti 
Sutra. " Moreover, young sir, the Bodhisatva thus contem- 
plates the body : ' This body is just a collection of feet and 
toes, legs, chest, loins, belly, navel, backbone, heart, ribs and 
flanks, hands, forearms, upper-arms, shoulders, neck, jaw, 
forehead, head, skull, accumulated by the action that causes 
existence, [229] the abode of sundry passions, ideas and 
fancies, in hundreds of thousands. Many other ingredients 
are brought together therein, such as : hair of the head, down, 
nails, teeth, bones, skin, flesh, fatty secretion, sinews, fat, 
marrow, oil, Uver, urine, excrement, mesentery, blood, phlegm, 
bile, pus, snot, membrane of the brain. Thus it is a collection 
of many things.' Then what is this body ? As he regards it 
he thinks : ' This body is like space.' Thus he contemplates 
the body like space. * That is all space,' he thinks. For the 
full understanding of the body his intellect does not direct 
itself to anything else, does not divert itself thither or fix itself 
there." 

Again it is said : " This body has not come from earlier 
time, nor passes into another time, nor dwelleth in past and 
future, except as far as it is so suggested by inexact supposi- 
tions ; not a doer nor one that feels ; not rooted in beginning, 
end, or middle; without master or ownership or possession. 
It is called by extraneous names, body, or shape, or enjoyment, 

216 



CONTEMPLATION OF THE BODY 217 

or abode, or frame, or corpse, or organ of sense. Unsubstantial 
is this body sprung from the parents' blood and seed, in nature 
impure, putrid, and ill-smelHng, disturbed by passion, hatred, 
delusion, fear, despair, thieves, always liable to felUng, falling, 
breaking, scattering, crumbling, full of a hundred thousand 
different diseases." 

And in the holy Ratnacuda it is said : *' Impermanent 
indeed is this, body, abiding no long time, and death its end ; 
he who knows this Hves not untranquil for the body's sake. 
He even gains vigour. He gains threefold vigour, to wit : 
[230] vigour of body, of enjoyment, of Hfe. Knowing that the 
body is impermanent, he enters a state of slavery and pupilage 
to all creatures, and busies himself for their service. Knowing 
that the body is impermanent, he avoids doing any of the 
body's faults, crooked or wicked or hypocritical acts. Knowing 
that the body is impermanent he takes comfort by his hfe, 
but does not commit sin for Hfe's sake. Knowing that the 
body is impermanent, he does not cHng to enjoyments with 
thirst ; he becomes Hke one who sacrifices himself wholly. 
Moreover, young sir, the Bodhisatva meditating upon the 
body attaches the bodies of all to his own, and thus he thinks : 
' The bodies of all creatures must be established by me in the 
estabUshment of the Buddha-body ; and as the Tathagata's 
body is incorruptible, 1 just so he regards the nature of his own 
body. He being acquainted with the nature of the incorruptible, 
regards the bodies of all as of the same character.' " 

And as it is said in the VnadaUa-pariprccha : "To wit : 
this body grows by regular stages and decays by regular stages, 
an upheaping of infinitesimal atoms, hollow inside, flexible, dis- 
tilling through the nine crevices and the hair-holes, as an 
anthill in which serpents dwell, like the ape of Ajatasatru,^ 
treacherous to his friends, like a bad friend naturally false, 
like a clot of foam naturally weak, Hke a bubble of water 
arising, bursting, melting, naturally deceitful Hke a mirage, 
Hke a plantain tree sapless when it is broken, 3 unreal by 

1 Reading, with the MS. : ^'SfiJ^ StffO . 
" So Tib. ; a legend not identified. Tib. bsig-na as if Hi^^* 



2i8 SUBJECTS OF INTENT CONTEMPLATION 

nature like illusion, imperious like a king, seeking opportunities 
like an enemy, like a thief not to be trusted, like an executioner 
void of feeling, eager for mischief Hke a foe, like a murderer 
attacking the life of wisdom, [231] without personaUty like an 
empty village, Hke a potter's vessel lasting until it breaks, like 
a bag full of all sorts of dirt, running with impurity Hke a dish 
of malt, . . . Hke a wound not able to endure a touch, piercing 
Hke a thorn, like an old house to be propped up by repairs, 
Hke an old boat to be patched up, Hke a jar of unburnt clay 
that needs careful keeping, . . . ever unstable like a tree on a 
river-bank, Hke the stream of a great river ending in the ocean 
of death, like a great house fuU of all unhappiness, like a poor- 
house for the destitute not fenced about, open to bribes like a 
jailor, . . . Hke a young child always to be watched." 

Again he says : " He who is proud of beauty, and thinks 
much of this body, this heap of impurities, he is seen to be 
fooHsh of wit : he goes carrying a pot of excrement all un- 
knowing. His nose carries a sort of pus, he always wears a 
stinking garment, there is gum Hke worms in the eyes of a man ; 
what passion can be felt for this, or what pride ? 

** As a child takes a Hve coal and thinks, Let it be rubbed 
and it will grow bright ; but it goes out instead of growing 
bright, since the child's idea is wrong : so when a clean-minded 
man thinks he will cleanse this body, though well perfumed 
and sprinkled with a hundred sacred waters, it is destroyed, 
impure from the power of death. 

'' [232] Thus comes dissolution. The Bodhisatva must 
regard the body as just running from the nine apertures. He 
must regard the body as a dwelHng-place for eighty thousand 
broods of worms. . . . The Bodhisatva must regard the body 
as the food of others, of wolves, jackals, horses, flesh-eating 
demons ; as an exceUent machine, a collection of tools fastened 
together by bones and sinews ; as not independent, but com- 
posed of food and drink." That is the substance of the matter 
which is developed in that book.^ 

FeeHng is a subject of intent contemplation, just as it is 

* Reg,ding gn; : and giving this phrase to line 5. 



CONTEMPLATION OF FEELING 219 

said in the holy Ratnacuda Sutra : " Here, young sir, the 
Bodhisatva, using the intent contemplation which realises the 
nature of feeling, conceives great compassion for beings who 
are attached to the pleasures of feeling. Thus he schools 
himself : That is happiness where is no feeling ; and so he 
develops the intent meditation upon feehngs in order to annul 
the feelings of all creatures ; and he girds up his loins for the 
restraint of their feehngs. For himself he does not aim at 
the destruction of feelings. Whatever feehng he has, it is 
permeated wdth great compassion. When he feels a pleasant 
feehng, he conceives great pity for all beings who indulge 
passion, and rejects all inclination to passion in himself. 
When he has an unpleasant feeling he conceives great pity for all 
beings who indulge hatred, and rejects all inchnation to hatred 
in himself. When his feehng is neither pleasant nor unpleasant, 
he conceives great pity for all beings who are subject to delu- 
sion, and rejects any inchnation to delusion in himself. In 
pleasant feehng he is not gratified ; he puts gratification away 
from him. In unpleasant feehng he is not displeased ; [233] he 
puts displeasure away from him. In indifferent feehng he is 
not a prey to ignorance ; he puts ignorance away from him. 
Whatever feeling he has, he understands that it is impermanent. 
If it be unpleasant feehng, he knows it is not himself. In 
pleasant feehng he knows it is impermanent ; in unpleasant 
feehng he knows that it is a thorn ; in feehngs indifferent he 
is calm. Thus what is pleasant is impermanent, what is 
painful is as pleasant, what is indifferent is unsubstantial," and 
so forth. 

And in the holy Akshayamati Sutra it is said : " Touched 
by painful feehng, he conceives great pity for all beings who 
are in any of the misfortunes of sin. . . . Thus moreover 
feehng is infatuation, feehng is acquisition, feehng is attach- 
ment, feehng is obtaining, feehng is error, feehng is wrong 
imagination," and so forth. 

In the Dharmasahgiti Sutra also it is said : " Sensation has 
been defined as experience ; but by whom is that sensation 
felt ? There is no experience other than sensation. Thus the 



220 SUBJECTS OF INTENT CONTEMPLATION 

intelligence and memory must be applied to sensation. As 
wisdom, so this sensation is calm, pure, bright." 

That briefly is the intent contemplation of feeling. 

But the intent contemplation of thought is as set forth in 
the holy Ratnacuda. " Thus he inquires into his thought. 
But what thought ? Thought is glad or sorry or deluded. 
What about past, present, or future ? Now what is past 
[234] is exhausted ; what is future is not yet come ; the 
present cannot stand still. Thought, Kasyapa, is to be found 
inside, not outside, not between the two. Thought, Kasyapa, 
is formless, unseen, not soHd, unknowable, unstable, homeless. 
Thought, Kasyapa, was never seen by any of the Buddhas. 
They do not see it, they will not see it ; and what has never 
been seen by the Buddhas, what they do not see and will 
never see, what kind of a process can that have, unless things 
exist by a false conception ? Thought, Kasyapa, is Hke illusion, 
and by forming what is not comprehends all sorts of events. . . . 
Thought, Kasyapa, is hke the stream of a river, unsettled, 
breaking and dissolving as soon as it is produced. Thought, 
Kasyapa, is hke the hght of a lamp, and is due to causes and 
secondary causes. Thought, Kasyapa, is hke hghtning, cut 
off in a moment and not abiding. Thought, Kasyapa, is hke 
space, disturbed by any chance passions. . . . Thought, 
Kasyapa, is like the bad friend because it produces all miseries. 
. . . Thought, Kasyapa, is hke a fish-hook, having the 
look of pleasantness 1 in unpleasantness. So it is hke a 
blue-bottle fly, because it has the look of purity in impurity. 
Thought, Kasyapa, is hke an enemy, because it causes many 
tortures. Thought, Kasyapa, is hke a strength-sucking 
gobhn, because it always searches for a weak point. It is also 
like a thief, because it steals all the root of good. Thought, 
Kasyapa, dehghts in form hke a fly's eye. Thought, Kasyapa,. 
delights in sound hke a battle-drum. Thought, Kasyapa, 
dehghts in smell hke a pig in the dirt. Thought, Kasyapa, 
delights in taste like a maid that enjoys the leavings of food. 2 

^ i.e. the bait looks pleasant to the fish. 
' Reading iT^ in 234' ; Tib. zas-kyi Ihag-ma^ 246, b. 6. 



CONTEMPLATION OF THOUGHT 221 

Thought, Kasyapa, delights in touch, Hke a fly in a dish of oil. 
And thought, Kasyapa, being sought all around is not found : 
what is not found is not gotten ; what is not gotten, is not past, 
present, or future ; what is not past, present, or future is 
beyond the three paths (heaven, earth, and the lower regions) ; 
what is beyond the three paths neither is nor is not/' and so 
forth. 

[235] Again, it is said in the holy Ratnacuda Sutra. " Ex- 
amining thought he does not see it as internal, he sees it not 
outside him, nor in the conformations, nor in the elements, nor 
in the organs of sense. Not seeing thought, he follows the 
course of thought, asking, * Whence does thought arise ? ' He 
thinks, ' When there is an object thought arises. Then what 
else can be its object ? Thus the object is the thought. Only 
if the object is different the thought is different ; then there 
will be a double thought. So the object is the thought. Then 
how does thought see thought ? Thought does not see thought. 
As the same sword-blade cannot cut the same sw^ord-blade, as 
the same fingertip cannot touch the same fingertip, so that the 
same thought cannot see the same thought. . . . Moreover, 
young sir, thought moves to and fro, never abiding, like a 
monkey or Hke the wind ... it goes far away, bodiless, 
Hghtly turning, sensual, moving amid the six objects of sense, 
Hnked to one thing after another ; such is thought : its stabihty, 
its intentness, its immobihty, its being fixed upon tranquillity, 
its concentration, this is what is called the stabihty of thought." 1 

[236] Again, it is said in the holy Kshayamati Sutra : " 1 
must make effort towards edification. The real nature of 
thought must not be lost sight of. What nature ? and what 
edification ? Thought is hke illusion, such is the nature of 
thought ; and by edification I mean renouncing all one's 
possessions and directing this renunciation towards the purifi- 
cation of the fields of all Buddhas." 

Now the intent contemplation of the elements of Existence. 2 

As it is said in the same place : " The Bodhisatva who 
considers the elements as elements, dwelling upon them, does 

^ So Tib. gnas-pa. ' Dharma. 



222 SUBJECTS OF INTENT CONTEMPLATION 

not see any elements from which a Buddha's element cannot 
come, or wisdom, or the path, or escape. He knowing that 
all the elements are escape, i attains to the calm of great pity 
unhindered. As to all elements and all passions, he takes the 
notion that they are not genuine. These elements are without 
passion, passion they have none. Why so ? There is no 
heaping up of passions, they are not accumulated, there is no 
natural lust, hate, or delusion in them. From the perception 
of these very passions comes wisdom. What passions are 
naturally, that wisdom is naturally. Such is the intent 
contemplation of the elements." 

It is also said in the holy Ratnacuda : " Now, young sir, 
when the Bodhisatva contemplates the elements and dwells 
upon them, thus he thinks : ' Nothing but the elements arises 
when they arise ; when they are checked, only the elements 
are checked. But in them there is no substance, ^ there is no 
being, or living thing, or creature, or human being, or man, or 
person, or member of mankind, who is born or grows old or 
comes to birth or arises. That is the condition of the elements. 
If they are brought about, they arise ; but if they are not 
brought about, they do not arise. Whatever kind they are 
when brought about, [237] of that kind they arise, good or 
bad or indifferent. There is none that can bring the elements 
about, nor can the elements arise at all without cause." 

In the same place he says : " Even when he considers the 
elements that have very httle profundity ^ he never loses 
remembrance of the thought of omniscient wisdom." 

Again, in the holy Lalitavistara Sutra : " The aggregations 
are impermanent, unstable, naturally brittle like an unbaked 
pot, hke a borrowed article, hke a city built in the dust, lasting 
for a time only. By nature those conditions are subject to 
destruction, plaster washed away by the rainy season, hke 
sand on a river's bank, dependent on secondary causes, naturally 
weak. They are like the flame of a lamp, their nature is to 
be destroyed as soon as they arise, unstable as the wind, sapless 
and weak hke a clot of foam. [238] The aggregations are 

1 So Tib. 2 Read 0)^]^ -^j with Tib. in line 15. So Tib. 



THE AGGREGATIONS 223 

without energy and void, like the stem of a plaintain tree, when 
one considers, Hke illusion, confusing the thought, Uke an 
empty fist used to coax a child. Everything that belongs to 
the aggregations is concerned with primary and secondary 
causes ; the generation of fools knows not that it is due to 
the interlinked chain of causation. As the grass rope arises 
from muiija-grass by twisting, or the well-buckets are turned 
by a wheel, but there is no turning in them one by one ; so 
the turning of all the components of existence is dependent 
upon the combination with each other, the turning is not in 
each of them from before, behind, or within. As the sprout 
springs from the seed and yet the sprout is not the same as 
the seed, not other than that and not that : so their nature is 
not to be destroyed and not eternal. [239] The aggregations 
are caused by ignorance, and they do not really exist. They 
are the same as ignorance, they are naturally empty and 
without energy. From the seal one sees the impression, and 
no transference of the impression is perceived, the impression 
is not in the seal and yet the impression comes from nowhere 
else : so the aggregations are not permanent nor are they 
destroyed. Visual knowledge is produced from form by reason 
of the eye, but not in the eye is that which comes from form, 
nor is the image of the form in the eye. These conditions are 
unsubstantial, impure ; yet they are imagined as being sub- 
stantial and pure : but the visual knowledge which is false 
and mistaken is born from that. The wise man sees the 
arising and decay of cognition, its arising and going away ; the 
ascetic sees that it is gone nowhere, not present, void, Uke 
illusion. [240] Like the lower and upper kindhng, the combina- 
tion of these with the hands forming a triad, thus from this 
cause fire is produced ; being produced and having done its 
task it is quickly destroyed. Then a wise man inquires whence 
it is come or whither it goes, he looks in every part or direction, 
but neither the going nor the coming is perceived. The causes 
of action are the conformations, the organs and objects of 
sense, the elements, thirst, ignorance ; because of the con- 
glomeration arises the being, and this is not perceived as really 



224 SUBJECTS OF INTENT CONTEMPLATION 

existing. Dependent on throat, lip, palate, tongue, the syllables 
are changed and uttered ; but they are not in the throat or 
made by the palate, but they are not perceived in every one of 
these. This arises by the power of voice, mind, and intelligence 
in combination ; mind and voice are invisible, are not perceived 
without or within. Wise men perceive the arising and the 
dying away of voice, sound, noise, or echo, so transient and 
empty ; all voice is Hke an echo. [241] As string and wood 
and hand form a triad, and the sound that arises therefrom 
comes by the flute or lute or other instrument : then a wise 
man inquires whence that has come and whither it goes ; he 
looks in every direction, but the coming and going of the sound 
is not perceived. So all the aggregations come about by 
primary and secondary causes ; but the ascetic by perceiving 
their nature sees that the aggregations are void and without 
energy. The elements of the aggregations and the objects of 
sense are void within and void without, creatures separate and 
homeless, things whose nature is like air." 

It is said in the Lokandthavydkarana : " Void are the con- 
ditions and nameless : why do you ask about name ? Empti- 
ness : nowhere are gods or nagas or rakshasas. Men or no 
men, all are known as that. By name is namehood, empty ; 
in name there is no name. Nameless are all the conditions, 
but illuminated by name ; but what is the nature of name 
has been neither seen nor heard, is neither arisen nor dis- 
appeared. Of what do you ask the name ? Name is a matter 
of habit, declarations are made by name. This one is Ratna- 
citra by name ; that other man is Ratnottama/' 



CHAPTER XIV 

SELF-PURIFICATION 

[242] The subjects of intent meditation have been described. 
Thus he whose thought is fit for religious meditation, 1 able 
with perfect wisdom to do away the ocean of pain for the rest 
of the world in the ten districts, should realize the emptiness of 
all elements of being so as to treat the power of all the conditions 
past, present, and future under the sky. Thus the emptiness of 
all individuahty is made clear ; and by cutting them off by the 
root, passions do not arise. 

As it is said in the holy Tathdgata-guhya Sutra : " Just as 
when a tree is cut at the root, Santamati, all the twigs and 
leaves wither away ; so, Santamati, all passions are extinguished 
by destroying the heresy of individual existence.'* 

The praises of realizing the Void are infinite. 

As in the Candrapradipa Sutra : "He that does not reject 
the teaching of the Sugatas, verily that hero does not fall into 
the power of women. [243] He gets dehght in the salvation of 
the Sugatas who knows that the very nature of the conditions 
is peace.2 He will ere long be here a lord of men, he will be a 
healing physician, giver of happiness, he utterly draws out the 
arrow from those in pain, who knows in tranquilUty the very 
nature of the conditions. He by the power of tranquilUty is 
a man towering among men. He buffeted with sticks and clods 
is not angry, torn limb from Umb he is not disturbed, who 
knows that the very nature of the conditions is peace. He 
will not fall into the ways of woe, he will always bear the 
marks and tokens of beauty. 3 His higher knowledge will be 

1 The rest of the sentence is very obscure, and it is not in the Tib. 
So Tib. quite clearly. * Perhaps the marks of a future Buddha. 

225 



226 SELF-PURIFICATION 

conspicuous always ; he shall stand in the presence of the 
Sugatas, he is a hero." 

And in the Bhagavati it is said : " Moreover, Sariputra, the 
Bodhisatva, the Great Being, who wishes to develop the 
Buddha-body, [244] and to acquire the 32 marks of the great 
man and the 80 subsidiary marks, and the remembrance of 
former births in every birth, and the continuance of the thought 
of enlightenment, and the persistence in the conduct of a 
Bodhisatva, who wishes to avoid all bad friends and com- 
panions, to give pleasure to all Buddhas and Bodhisatvas 
and good friends, to subdue all Maras and deities that' belong 
to Mara's troop, to clear away all mental blindness, to get rid 
of the obstacle caused by phenomena,* must learn the per- 
fection of wisdom. Moreover, Sariputra, the Bodhisatva, the 
Great Being, must learn this perfection by the wish, ' May 
those ten regions praise me in which the Blessed Buddhas 
appear.' Moreover, Sariputra, the Bodhisatva, the Great 
Being, absorbed in one thought, who in the eastern region 
desires to pass beyond the elements of the world, which are 
like the sands of the river Ganges for multitude, . . . and 
so with all ten regions, he must learn the perfection of 
wisdom." That is the substance ot it. 

On this topic, it is described in the Pitrpntrasamdgama 
how all phenomena are without substance, but it is not denied 
that they are connected with the fruit of action ; that they 
have no properties of their own, but it is not denied that they 
are connected with the world of appearance. 

" This man, great King, is composed of six elements, has 
six contacts with the world of sense, 2 eighteen processes of 
mind. When I say, ' The man is composed of six elements,' 
what is the meaning of that ? 3 There are six elements : 
Earth, water, fire, air, space, inteUigence ; these, great King, 
are the six elements." And so on to " These six contacts with 

1 Compare Dh.S. cxv., where this class is called jneya. 

2 Dh.S. 33. 

3 This seems to be the general sense, according to Tib., which oraits na 
khalu punar ekad yiiMam altogether. The text is corrupt. 



NATURE FOR PHENOMENA 227 

the world of sense. What six ? The eye is a contact with 
objects for the showing of forms. The ear, for hearing of 
sounds. The nose, for the perceiving of smells. The tongue, 
for distinguishing tastes. The body, for feeling sensations. 
The mind, for distinguishing things. These, great King, are 
the six contacts with the world of sense. . . . And the eighteen 
processes of the mind : what are these ? Here when the man 
has seen forms with the eye, he proceeds to consider all con- 
nected with the question of pleasure or displeasure. So with 
hearing and voice, etc. Thus with each of the six senses, 
[245] by distinction of three cases, pleasure, displeasure, and 
indifference, w^e get eighteen processes of the mind. . . . And 
what, great King, is the internal element of earth ? Whatever 
in the body is perceived as hard or sohd. But what is that ? 
Hair and down, nails, teeth, and so forth. That is called the 
internal element of earth. And what, great King, is the 
element of earth outside ? Whatever outside is perceived as 
hard or solid, that is the element of earth outside. Now% 
great King, when the element of earth is found within, it does 
not come from anywhere, when it is checked it is not stored up 
anyw^here. There comes a time when a woman thinks, 
concerning herself, * I am a woman ' ; having thought this 
concerning herself, she sees a man outside her, and thinks, 
' This is a man ' ; having thus thought she falls in love with 
the man, and desires union with the man outside herself. 
The man also thinks, concerning himself, ' I am a man,' and so 
as before. By their desire for union the union takes place : 
because of the union, an embryo is conceived. Here, great 
King, neither the thought nor the thinker exists. In the 
woman is no woman, in the man is no man ; thus the thought 
is produced without being or truly existing, and the thought 
does not exist in itself. 1 As the thought, so the union, and so 
the embryo, does not exist by any independent being. And if 
anything does not exist from independent being how shall it 
produce hardness ? So thus, great King, having understood 
the thought one must regard the hardness. Now that hard- 

* Tib. read O-qj ^^ ^- 



228 SELF-PURIFICATION 

ness when it arises does not come from anywhere, and being 
checked is not stored up an5Avhere. There comes a time, 
great King, when this body finds the end of its course in the 
cemetery. Then that hardness putrifying and being checked 
does not go to the east, nor to the south, nor the west, nor the 
north, nor up, nor down, nor to an intermediate point. So, 
great King, must be understood the internal element of earth. 
[246] There, comes a time, great King, when in a part of the 
world in space stands Brahma's palace made of precious 
stones. Its hardness, great King, does not come from any- 
where. The spheres and the great spheres 1 stand firm, strong, 
solid, adamant ; even their hardness when it arises does not 
come from an3rwhere. Mountains Uke Meru king of mountains, 
Yugandhara, Nimindhara, Isadhara, stand as long as the hills 
may last : all the universe of Trisahasramahasahasra stands 
fast, in height 84 thousand leagues, and in the midst stands 
the great earth, 68 hundred thousand leagues ; even that 
hardness, great King, when it comes does not come from any- 
where. 2 There is a time, great King, when this world comes 
together. Then this mighty earth is burnt by fire or is deluged 
with water or scattered by wind. As it is burnt by fire not 
even soot is produced, just as when ghee or oil is burnt by fire 
no soot nor ashes is produced ; so from this universe of 
Trisahasramahasahasra burning with fire not even a residue 
of soot or ashes is produced ; and as when salt is dissolved in 
water, or when birds are scattered by a hurricane, not a bit of 
the earth remains. So we are told. Here, great King, the 
arising of the element of earth is void, and its destruction is 
void, and when the element arises its nature is void. So, sir, 
the element of earth is not recognized as being this element 
except by convention ; and this conventional expression is 
not woman and is not man. Even so, sir, this must be regarded 
as it really is by exact knowledge. Now what is this element 
of water ? The water that is in the body of each separate 
person ; that which consists in water, the watery nature, is 

^ See Childers, s.v. cakkavdlam. 

The MS. has agacchan, and na must obviously have dropped out of the text. 



THE ELEMENTS OF EARTH AND WATER 229 

grease ; that which consists in grease, the greasy nature, is the 
liquidity accepted and received. But what is this ? tears, 
sweat, snot, [247] oil, serum, marrow, fat, bile, spittle, pus, 
blood, milk, piss, and so forth, all this is the internal element 
of water. ... A time comes, great King, when on seeking a 
thing beloved the tears flow ; or when one is smitten with 
pain, or by the action of heat, the tears flow^ ; or the eyes 
water in the wind ; . . . this watery element does not come 
from anywhere. A time comes, great King, when the internal 
watery element is dried up ; when it dries up and ceases it 
does not go anywhere. . . . Verily when the world comes into 
being two and thirty palls of cloud come up all round con- 
taining everything ; they overshadow the universe of Trisa- 
hasramahasahasra. From these the god Isadhara rains for 
a space of five intermediate ages, so for five ages rains the god 
Gajaprameha, for five ages Acchinnadhara, for five ages 
Sthulabinduka. After this the great earth extends up to 
Brahmaloka covered with water. But this element of water, 
sir, so vast, arising, does not come from anjrwhere. There 
comes a time, sir, when this world arises ; and as the world 
arises there is the appearance of a second sun, and from the 
appearance of this second sun lakes, ponds, and rivulets are 
dried up. So with a third sun the great lakes and rivers dry 
up. When a fourth sun appears, the great lake Anavatapta 
is utterly dried up. By the appearance of the fourth sun the 
water of the ocean is dried up and exhausted to the depth of 
a league ; so two leagues, three, four, five, ten, twenty, thirty, 
forty, fifty leagues, until 40,000 leagues are left . . . until a depth 
of two palm trees is left, till it is neck-deep, till the water is of 
the depth of a cow's hoof print. There comes a time, sir, when 
there are only scattered spots of water left in the great ocean. 
. . . There comes a time, sir, when not a drop of water is 
left in the ocean enough to wet the first joint of the finger. 
But all this watery element, sir, disappearing, does not go 
an5rwhere. . . . Verily, sir, the arising of this watery element 
is void, and its disappearing is void, and even when it is there, 
this watery element [248] is by nature void. So, sir, this 



230 SELF-PURIFICATION 

watery element is not i perceived as such by nature except by 
way of convention : and this conventional expression is neither 
woman nor man, as before. . . . What is the internal element 
of fire ? Whatever in this body is felt and received as fire, 
fiery, hot. But what is that ? Whatever makes that body 
warm or hot ; whatever causes it properly to digest what 
is eaten, drunk, chewed ; excess of which causes feverish- 
ness. . . . What is fire outside the person ? All without that 
is felt and received as fire, fiery, hot. But what is that ? 
Whatever men seek for from things connected with fire-sticks 
or grass by means of powdered cowdung or cotton or similar 
fluff, which arising burns even a village or even a district . . . 
or even a continent, or a thicket of grass or a forest or firewood 
until it bums out, and so forth. In this case, sir, the internal 
fire arises, but it does not come from anywhere, and when 
it ceases it does not go anywhere into store. Thus without 
being it is, and having been it goes deprived of its nature. . . . 
So whatever in this body is air, airy, lightness, buoyancy. 
But what is that ? These : rising and falHng airs, wind in 
the side, back, or belly, knife-Hke, razor-Hke, piercing, needle- 
like, wind-swelUngs, spleen, breathings in and out, rheumatism, 
and so forth. Without the body there are winds in front, to 
the right, behind, to the left, with dust and without dust 
small and big. There comes a time, sir, when a great hurricane 
arises, [249] which blows down the highest trees, even walls 
and mountains ; this done, unnoticed it is gone. And that 
which men excite with a corner of the robe, or the bellows, or 
a fan . . . This is called the outside air. And its arising is as 
before. . . . What is the internal element of space ? Whatever 
within this body and in each several body entering and pervading 
of the nature of space that can be described as within it, not 
occupied or penetrated by skin, flesh, or blood. But what is 
this ? What in the body is the aperture of the eye . . . the 
mouth, the door of the mouth, throat or gullet, by which one 
eats, into which it descends, through which what is eaten or 
drunk or consumed or swallowed oozes downwards ; all that 

* Reading Oy^^ ";f^0 as p. 2461*. 



i 



THE ELEMENTS OF FIRE, SPACE, INTELLIGENCE 231 

is called the internal element of space. So without also : 
what is not occupied or penetrated by form, not surrounded, 
hollow and empty ; that is meant by the element of space 
without the body. Comes a time, sir, when because of action 
the organs of sense appear and occupy the element of space ; 
then the term * internal element of space ' is used. But it 
does not come from anywhere. There comes a time when 
all that bears form becomes space. And why is that ? Be- 
cause the element of space is indestructible, firm, immovable. 
Just as the region of Nirvana is incomposite, so, sir, the element 
of space must be regarded as present everywhere. For in 
time a man, sir, might cause to be dug in some dry spot a well 
or a pond or a pit or pool, what think you, sir ? Has the space 
come from anywhere ? He said : ' No, Blessed One.' The 
Blessed One said : * For instance, the man, sir, might fill up 
again that well or pool or what not, what think you, sir ? has 
that space gone any whither ? ' He said : ' No, Blessed One. 
And why so ? ' [250] ' Because the element of space has nothing 
to do with going or coming, nor with manhood or womanhood.' 
The Blessed One said : * So, sir, the space without is immovable, 
unchanging ; and why so ? The element of space is void by 
its nature, negative by its nature, it has nothing to do with 
manhood or womanhood. Thus it must be truly regarded by 
perfect wisdom. Now what is the element of IntelHgence ? 
Recognition of objective form dependent upon the organ of 
sight ... So, sir, the recognition of any colour or shape is 
called the element of intelligence acted upon by the sense of 
eye. ... So, sir, the perception of the six objects of sense 
through the six senses is called the element of intelligence. 
But verily, sir, that element of intelligence is not dependent 
upon the senses, not drawn from the objects, not placed 
between them, not within, not without, not between both. 
Verily, sir, that element of intelligence, having recognized a 
thing, ceases ; when it rises it does not come from anywhere 
when it ceases it does not go anywhere. Its very arising is 
void, its disappearance is void ; when arisen also, by its nature 
it is void. So, sir, the element of intelligence is void by its 



232 SELF-PURIFICATION 

very nature ; it is not recognised except by convention. And 
this convention is neither man nor woman. Thus this must be 
truly regarded by perfect wisdom. Now, sir, what is the 
organ of sight ? The sensitive parts i of the four great elements ; 
that is to say, of the elements of earth, air, fire, and water. 
Thus the sensitive part of the earthy element is not 2 the 
organ of sight, the sensitive parts of the elements air, fire, 
water, are not the organ of sight. And why so ? Because the 
sensitive part of the earthy element is not the organ of any 
sense, nor has it arisen by any sense-perception. . . . The 
sensitive part of the airy element is not the organ of any 
sense or arisen by any sense-perception. And why so ? 
[251] These things are incapable of motion, perfect, hke Nirvana. 
Thus, sir, investigating each of these things one does not 
recognize the organ of sight except by convention. And 
why so ? Void is the sphere of the earthy element by its nature, 
. . . void is the sphere of the airy element by its nature. And 
when things are void by their own nature, what tranquillity 3 
or agitation of them can there be ? And when there is neither 
tranquillity nor agitation of things, how will they see form ? 
Thus the organ of sight is utterly void by its very nature and 
that from the beginning is not perceived, and in the future is 
not perceived ; because it neither comes nor goes, its very 
position is not perceived since it is essentially negative. And 
what by its nature does not exist, that is neither male nor 
female. What self-consciousness can this bring ? And self- 
consciousness, sir, is the province of Mara, lack of self-conscious- 
ness is the province of Buddha. And why so ? Because 
things are all void of self-consciousness. . . . And what, sir, is 
the sense of hearing ? The sentient organ derived from the 
four great phenomena. ... So, sir, all things are directed 
towards release, involved in the nature of things, * ending in 

1 See Dh-Si^i., pp. 173-4 {Buddhist Psychology, Mrs. Rhys Davids). 

* Insert tf as in the rest of the passage. 

3 Here prasdda (sphere) is used in another sense. 

* The meaning is that they are all void ; but the exact sense of these 
compounds escapes me. 



ORGANS OF SIGHT AND HEARING 233 

the airy element, powerless, incompetent, inexpressible, not 
to be expressed. When the senses are arrested, sir, these are 
called "matter." The sight is arrested in form, therefore the 
forms are called the matter of sight. So hearing is arrested in 
sounds, and so forth. When we say that the sight is arrested 
in form, we mean that there is a falHng upon it or an arresting 
upon it. So the sight falls on forms in three ways : upon 
agreeable forms with the idea of agreeableness, upon repellent 
forms with the idea of repulsion, upon forms indifferent with 
observation. So the mind upon things, and so forth. These 
matters are called the province of the mind, for here the mind 
moves and ranges ; therefore they are called the mind's 
province. When the mind, sir, moves pleasantly on forms not 
disagreeable, by that passion arises in it. When it moves with 
repulsion upon disagreeable forms, [252] by that hatred 
arises in it. Upon forms indifferent it moves bewildered ; by 
that arises bewilderment in it. So with sounds and the rest a 
threefold idea arises as before. Here, sir, the senses are like 
illusion, material objects are such stuff as dreams are made of. 
Take an example, sir. A man asleep might in his sleep have 
to do with some young woman ; awakened from sleep he 
might remember that young woman. What think you, sir ; 
does that woman exist in the dream ? ' He said : ' No, 
Blessed One.' The Blessed One said : ' What think you, sir ? 
Would that man be wise who would remember the young 
woman in his sleep or believe in the dalliance ? ' He said : 
' No, Blessed One. And why so ? Because the young woman 
in the dream does not exist at all nor is to be found ; then how 
could there be any deaUngs with her, except in so far that he 
who beheves in her existence really feels failure or fatigue ? ' 
The Blessed One said : ' Even so, sir, a fooHsh, untaught 
worldling when he sees agreeable forms beheves in them, and 
beUeving in them is pleased, and being pleased feels passion, 
and feeling passion develops the action that springs from 
passion, threefold by body, fourfold by voice, threefold by 
mind ; and that action, developed, from the very beginning is 
injured, hindered, distracted, changed, not going towards the 



234 SELF-PURIFICATION 

east, not south nor west nor north, not up nor down, nor to 
the intermediate points, not here nor across, nor betwixt both. 
But when at hfe's end the time of death comes, when the 
vitaUty is checked by the exhaustion of one's allotted span, 
by the dwindUng of the action that is his share, [253] the 
action becomes the object of the mind in its last consciousness 
as it disappears. As for instance when a man is awakened 
from sleep the idea occurs to his mind. This is a girl. So, sir, 
by the object a first consciousness belonging to rebirth arises 
from two causes, the last consciousness as its governing principle, 
and the action as its support : he is born either in hells or in 
the womb of beasts or in Yama's realm or in a demonic body, 
or amongst men or gods. And if this first conception belonging 
to the birth immediately after it has been destroyed, a new 
series of thoughts arises ; where the experience of the ripening 
of the act is to be felt. There the arresting of the last conscious- 
ness is known as " rebirth," the manifesting of first conscious- 
ness is known as " arising." So, sir, nothing goes from our 
world to another, but rebirth and arising take place. So, sir, 
the last consciousness when it arises does not come from any- 
where, when it ceases it does not go anywhere ; action arising 
does not come from anywhere, ceasing it does not go any- 
where ; first consciousness too arising does not come from 
anywhere, ceasing does not go anywhere. And why so ? 
Because it is naturally negative. The last consciousness 
is of itself void, action is of itself void, the first 
consciousness is of itself void, rebirth is of itself void, arising 
is of itself void. And the irresistibleness of action comes 
into play and the experience of ripening, and then is there no 
doer, no feeler, except by conventional name. [254] For 
example, sir, a sleeping man in a dream might fight with an 
enemy ; the same awakening might remember him. Now 
what think you, sir ? Does the enemy exist in the dream ? or 
is there any fight with an enemy ? ' He said : ' No, Blessed 
One.' The Blessed One said : ' Then what think you, sir ; 
would that be a wise man who should believe in the enemy in 
that dream ? or in the fight with the enemy ? ' He said * 



LIFE IS SUCH STUFF AS DREAMS ARE MADE OF 235 

* No, Blessed One. And why so ? In dreams an enemy does 
not exist at all, then how could there be a battle with him ? 
unless in so far that he who should beUeve in it really would 
feel failure or fatigue.' The Blessed One said : * Just so, sir, 
a foolish, ignorant worldling when he sees with his eyes forms 
that are disagreeable 1 believes in them, and believing is 
repelled, and being repelled he is angry ; angry he forms action 
born of sin, as before. 2 Another example, sir. Suppose a 
sleeping man, attacked in his dream by a demon and terrified 
falls into stupefaction ; awakened he remembers this demon 
and this stupefaction, what think you, sir, does this demon 
exist in the dream, or this stupefaction ? . . . Even so, sir, a 
foolish, ignorant worldling when he sees with his eye forms 
that ought to be despised believes in them, and believing is 
deluded, and deluded forms action born of delusion, as before. 
Another example, sir. Suppose a sleeping man should hear in 
a dream a young woman singing with a sweet voice and a 
sweet lute, and she should court him with that sweet song ; 
and he on awakening should remember that song : what 
think you, sir, a wise man should not beUeve in the song of 
the girl singing in his dream ? ' He said : ' He should not. 
Blessed One.' The Blessed One said : ' And why so ? ' * Be- 
cause, Blessed One, that girl in the dream neither exists at all 
nor is perceived ; then how could her song exist ? except in 
so far that he [255] who believes in its reahty would feel 
failure and fatigue.' The Blessed One said : ' Just so, sir, a 
foolish, ignorant worldling hearing with his ear sounds that 
are pleasing believes in them ; ' " and so on as before. So with 
smells, dividing always into three classes. 3 *" . . . Here, sir, 
the following must be my thought : Should I not hus be the 
eye of men and gods ; a torch, a brilliant lamp ; a bank, a 
ship, a quay ; a prince, a chieftain, a guide, a merchant ; I 
should run in front ; deUvered I should dehver, comforted I 
should comfort, emancipated I should emancipate. Sir, 
there has been in the past no limit to the sovereignty and 

^ ^Err^^ a misprint for ^H^BJ^O. > Reading 0^0 for 0||0. 

Pleasant, unpleasant, indifferent. 



236 SELF-PURIFICATION 

dominion that I had. So, sir, the senses are all illusion, 
unsatisfied and unsatisfying, things are such stuff as dreams 
are made of, unsatisfying, causing dissatisfaction.' 

" Here is a story of the emperor Anantayasas, and it is told 
when he fell from heaven surrounded by all his royal attendants. 
As ghee, sir, or cream, or fresh butter, dropped upon hot sand, 
sinks in and does not stand firm ; so, sir, King Anantayasas 
sank and did not stand firm. Then King Priyamkara came up 
to King Anantayasas as he sank, and thus he said : ' What 
declaration, sir, are we to give to the world ? What is the 
last good word of King Anantayasas ? ' He replied : ' You 
must say. King Anantayasas, having been lord over the four 
continents, all his wishes fulfilled, possessed of the fruit of all 
trees out of season, having rid himself of all misfortunes, his 
desires fulfilled in all beings, amidst showers of perfume and 
gold, of fine gold and of all blessings, inhabiting the four great 
continents, sharing the seat of Sakra, but not freed from his 
excessive desire, always unsatisfied by his lusts, has perished. 
This is the declaration, sir, that you must give.' Having thus 
said, King Anantayasas died. . . . 

" [256] Therefore now, sir, I tell you, the nature of water in 
a mirage neither was nor is now nor shall be. So, sir, the nature 
of form, of feeUng, of ideas, of the conformations, and of 
knowledge,! neither was nor is now nor shall be," and so forth. 

Again it is said : " Thus much must be understood : to 
wit, the covering and the essence, the kernel and the husk. 
And that by the Blessed One has been fully seen, fully spoken, 
made clear, as being void. Therefore he is called all-knowing. 
As concerns the covering, the Tathagata has seen this as being 
human experience ; but the essence is inexpressible, not to be 
perceived or discerned, unexplained, unrevealed, . . . not 
active, . . . not gain and not no gain, not pleasure and not 
pain, not glory or its lack, not form and not no form," and so 
forth. 

" There by the Conqueror for the sake of the world the 
covering was explained for people's good, that the world 

1 Reading 0^^' 



THE KERNEL AND THE HUSK 237 

might produce faith towards Sugata for happiness. Covering 
is dependent upon knowledge. ^ The man-lion told the crowds 
of men about the six states of existence ; hell, animals, also 
pretas, asuras, men, maruts, low families and high families, 
rich families and also poor families," and so forth. 

[257] And again it is said : " What is that thing which 
was prophesied by the Blessed One for the supreme wisdom ? 
Is it form or feeling or idea or conformations or consciousness 
that the Blessed One declared in his supreme wisdom ? 

" This thought came to them : It is not form, . . . not 
consciousness that the Blessed One prophesied in his supreme 
wisdom. And why so ? Neither form nor wisdom comes into 
being. Thus how can that which does not come into being 
know that which does not come into being ? " (And so on to 
"consciousness "). " . . . Then since nothing can be perceived, 
who is Buddha, what is wisdom, who is Bodhisatva, what is 
prophecy ? Void is form by its nature " (and so on to " con- 
sciousness "). '' . . . All this is just convention, just names, just 
compact, just covering, just agreement. Thus wise men should 
not believe in it," and so forth. 

In the same book again gods of the Fifth Heaven 2 said : 
" As we, O Blessed One, understand the meaning of what the 
Blessed One says, all things are the end of being, the infinite 
and the unveiled end, the independent end, and so forth. 3 AH 
things are wisdom, Blessed One ; they must be recognised as 
without essential nature, even the five mortal sins ^ are 
wisdom. And why so ? Wisdom has no essential character, 
nor have the five mortal sins ; that is why it is said, 
the five mortal sins are wisdom. Therefore those are 
laughed at who desire to be annihilated. And why so ? If 
any one should fall into the circuit of existence, he is seeking 
for nirvana." 

Again it is said : '* The cuhninating point of being, Blessed 

* I do not understand this line, which is lacking in Tib. 

* See Childers, 285a. They are dependent on themselves for happiness. 
I have altered the punctuation. 

* That is, the Void. 

* Sec Childers, 327. 



238 SELF-PURIFICATION 

One, is that which is said by the self-sufficing gods. Here we 
do not perceive even being, much less do we perceive an end. 
And why so ? Whoever, Blessed One, perceives being, he 
also perceives an end of being, and he moves in duality." ^ 

And in the same place the Master is praised by Sahampati 
Brahma. " As a man sleeps overcome with hunger, and 
dreams that he is satisfied with partaking of a hundred choice 
viands ; yet there is no hunger, no viand, no being to dream, 
and all things are like a dream. [258] A man utters an agree- 
able voice in reading ; he is pleasing to his hearers, and there 
is no passage of the voice, there is no voice, you do not apprehend 
it with pleasure, there is no doubt of it. As one hears the 
lovely sound of a lute, like honey, and there is really no sound : 
so a wise and understanding person, regarding the conforma- 
tions, does not perceive any being there in fact. ... As a 
man in this world hearing the sound of a conch reflects, and 
knowing whence it comes, does not regard the emptiness as 
having a nature of its own ; so you, King of men, regard all 
things. As a man in this world analyses food which is agree- 
able, good, but without nature of its own, and as is the flavour 
so are those parts, so its nature ; so you, great seer, regard all 
things. As in this world a man seeing a rainbow examines it 
bit by bit, as void, without qualities, and regards those parts as 
void like the rainbow ; so you, great sage, regard all things. 
As one analyses a great city, and perceives a city according to 
its nature not its name, as he sees that all its parts are void, 
so you, great King, regard all things. As a man is pleased and 
dehghted with a drum, and knows that the sounds are void, 
as he regards the nature of them one by one, so you, great sage, 
regard all things. [259] If one should strike that drum, it 
does not feel either repulsion or affection, as if the drum should 
reflect upon the constituent parts of the process, so you, great 
King, regard all things. If one should strike his drum, the 
sound does not think, ' I give pleasure to the people,' as if the 
sound should reflect upon the elements of that sound ; so you, 

* That is, he is perplexed by believing in being and in annihilation ; we 
believe in neither, and so we are calm. 



ALL IS VOID 239 

great King, regard all things. If one should strike the drum, 
that sound is not made up of parts, nor is it self-dependent, as 
if the sound should regard the elements of that sound ; so 
you, great sage, regard all things." 

And again it is said : " The excellent meditation ^ on Mercy 
has been preached by our Leader as having all creatures for its 
object ; and when he has examined beings he clearly sees 
the world to be void of beings. In this the Best of Men 
is without blemish, his mind is without doubt ; therefore 
let us worship thee the worshipful Sugata, thy mind 
perfect. Although you do not see pain and unhappiness, 
Sugata, scattered to the ten quarters, [260] yet you preach 
mercy amongst all beings, you the god above all gods. Thus, 
O conquering Bull, understanding the doctrine of the Conqueror 
in truth, therefore let us worship thee the worshipful chief 
and best of men. Sakyamuni gives no pain to beings, who 
takes their pain away. 2 All creatures are dehghted and pleased, 
and their distresses are taken from them. So understanding 
the Buddha's doctrine, his ineffable doctrine, and having 
honoured thee, best of men, let us enjoy the fruit attained. A 
body is not obtained by the sage free from the body when he 
seeks it ; 3 yet you have preached memory, and your memory 
has not been stolen away. It is said by the Sugata, Cultivate * 
those meditations which refer to the body. Having thus under- 
stood the Buddha's doctrine, excellent worship is done to the 
Protector. You should cultivate calm, the path of spiritual 
insight, for the suppression of pains. [261] O Blessed One, 
those impurities connected with desire are appeased, by which 
the earth is tormented, nevertheless that calm also, that spiritual 
insight and those impurities, all are void, O sage. Therefore 
let the gods in every place worship thee, the King, beyond 
all doubt," and so forth. 

* See Childers, s.v. bhavanS. 

' Tib. seems o mean : " O $., you do not see the existence of beings or of 
pain, but you are able to take away their distress." 

Reading mitJi:. 

* Reading MmqOqHT:. 



240 SELF-PURIFICATION 

Again it is said : ** Void is the eye by its nature : and the 
thing whose nature does not exist, that is not material ; what 
is not material that has no real existence ; that which has no 
real existence, that does not arise nor cease. . . . That which 
in three ways is not perceived, that is not eye, not sense : how 
should its use be understood ? as an empty fist it is delusive ; . . . 
only in name not in fact it is perceived as empty, not a fist. 
So eye and sense are empty, like the fist it is delusive, not 
existing, inane ; deceitful tricky things, fool's prattle, stupid 
infatuation ; . . . only a name." 

Again in the same place : *' You, great hero, have shown 
that the great flood of depravities is Hke a shower of rain in a 
dream ; and the destruction of depravities has been shown to 
all the inteUigent to be like a head cleft in a dream ; therefore 
honour be to thee, the all knowing." 

In the same place, the Blessed One, questioned by Druma, 
King of the fairies, said to him : " When you say I do not under- 
stand void and prophecy, if there were anything not void the 
Conqueror could not give any prophecy of that. Why ? 
Thus : It would be fixed in its own nature ; it would be firm 
and unchangeable. It has no growth, no dwindling, no act, no 
cause. As the image that is seen in a bright mirror, in essence 
void : [262] so, Druma, understand these things ; if reality 
is without change, you are perplexed about worship ; you 
analyse, and having looked at the worship analytically, you ask 
what parts of it are unchangeable. 

" And in that you do not understand inactivity and activity 
as I explained them. But consider how the waggon is put 
together part by part, and yet there is activity in it. And I 
have described action, yet no doer is to be found in the ten 
regions. As by the friction of the wind the blazing of a tree 
blazes up,i and neither maruts nor tree thinks, ' I produce the 
fire,' nevertheless there is the fire, 2 so are the doers of action. 
And when you say there is no heaping up of merit, and assem- 
blage of good doings ; be instructed in that also and hear the 
truth of the matter. As you say the measure of man's Ufe is a 
Reading f^fo. So Tib. 



THE VOID 241 

hundred years in living, and there is no heaping up of years, 
this heaping up is Hke that." 

And in the Bhagavati it is said : *' 'But, reverend Subhiiti, 
when a thing arises is it existent or not existent ?' Subhuti 
replied : ' Reverend Sariputra, I would not wish to speak of a 
thing arisen as either existent or not existent.' " 

[263] And in the Dharmasangtti also it is said : " ' The 
true nature of things is a way of describing the void. And that 
void condition neither arises nor ceases.* He said : * If things 
are thus said to be void by the Blessed One, then all things 
will neither arise nor cease. The Bodhisatva Nirarambha 
said : * Even so, young sir, as you fully perceive, all things 
neither arise nor cease.' He said : ' When it was said by the 
Blessed One : Composite things arise and cease, what is the 
meaning of this utterance of the Tathagata ? ' He said : 
* The belief of the whole world, young sir, is convinced of 
arising and ceasing. Then the Tathagata in his great com- 
passion to keep men free from fear, taking his stand upon 
experience, said that things arise and cease ; but in this he did 
not mean the existence or destruction of anything/ " 

Again in the same place it is said : " Thus, Blessed One, 
the eye does not make contact with the forms of sight, nor the 
ear with sounds, because the mind does not make contact with 
mental objects. That is the fact. Then why does the eye 
not make contact with forms ? Because there is no Hnk between 
them ; for the eye is not connected with a form, . . . the mind 
is not connected with mental objects, and where there is no 
connexion there is no contact. When there is only one isolated 
thing there can be no contact ; and all things, Blessed One, 
are isolated, they do not know or discern one another, they 
do not form or fashion one another, they do not spring up or 
influence each other, they do not dwindle or grow, they are not 
affected or altered, do not pass into each other or vanish away ; 
they do not belong to any one nor is any one theirs ; these 
things, Blessed One, do not feel agitation or passion nor are 
purified. Thus, Blessed One, I know, thus I understand. And 
when I say, Blessed One, that I know and I understand, that 



242 SELF-PURIFICATION 

means only a modification of the organs of sense ; ^ but they 
do not think, This is a modification of us. He that knows this 
is not in contradiction with any one ; and no-contradiction is 
characteristic of an ascetic. Thus from the seeing of things 
comes the vision of the Buddha, [264] from the Buddha's 
vision comes the vision of all things, from the vision of all 
things comes the vision of the primary and secondary causes, 
from this comes the vision of the void, and to see the void is 
not to see ; not to see all things, Blessed One, is to see all things, 
which is the true seeing." 2 

Experience 3 has no foundation. How is it supported, how 
not supported ? Like taking for a man a position that does 
not exist. And for one who believes in the void, how could 
there really be a position by reason of which that illusion which 
is a man could come into existence ? Thus all things are 
without root, because really no root exists. 

Thus it is said in the holy Vimalakirtinirde^a : " ' What 
root is there of a non-existent assumption ? ' He said : * The 
root is a false idea.* He said : * What is the root of the false 
idea?' 'The root is not relying upon anything.' He said: 
' What is the root of this ? ' He said : ' This not-relying, 
Manju^ri, has no root at all. So all things are supported on 
roots that have no support.' " 

In short, this perfection of wisdom must be cultivated by 
him who desires purity of thought ; this done, he must be 
clever at fighting passion, the enemy ; he must not play the 
hero in a dwelling-house. 

As it is said in the holy DharmasangUi Sutra : " One who 
believes in the void is not attracted by worldly things, because 
they are unsupported. He is not dehghted by gain, he is not 
cast down by not gaining. Glory does not dazzle him, lack of 
glory does not make him ashamed. Scorn does not make him 
hide, praise does not win him ; pleasure delights him not, 
pain does not trouble him. He that so is not attracted by the 

1 ayatana. 

* So Tib. dharmadarsandd Buddhadarsanam, Buddhadariandt, etc. 

* satpvrti, " the covering," p. 236 above. ^^ ' 



CLEANSING OF THOUGHT 243 

things of the world, he is said to know the void. So one who 
believes in the void has no likes or dislikes ; he knows that to 
be only void which he might like, and regards it as only void. 
He that hkes or dislikes anything does not know the void, and 
he who makes quarrel or dispute or debate with any one does 
not know this to be only void nor so regards it," and so forth. 

That in brief is the Cleansing of Thought. 

[265] " In this way there is the highest purification when 
there is the vision of things. Here when one is stained with 
the five depravities,^ or when the good friend is disheartened, 
how, in short, must one make effort so as to purify the thought 
quickly ? By putting away self-esteem and contempt for 
others ; the root of both those two is the view that there is 
really a self, that there are beings, and this view is easily 
abandoned by this exercise." Thus respect for others and 
contempt for self are cultivated. 

" If there is a being, if there are the conformations, the 
uniformity is certain ; for how could there be for a given 
being the quality of being self or other, which involves a 
contradiction ? Again, grant that this conception be without 
foundation : living creatures cherish this from immemorial habit 
of imagination, and habit accomplishes the most difficult things. 
Since in these two cases all depends on habit, why should 
one abandon the respect of others which produces happiness, 
and desire something else for one's happiness ? The causes of 
honour have been declared to be a jewel,^ but there is no pleasure 
to me from honour connected with other people's misfortune in 
this world. Therefore in Hfe let the Bodhisatva do the opposite 
to the conduct of one cruel and envious-minded, full of self- 
love. In such a man the high esteem of self, fostered by 
praise and blame and the like, grows by the power of hell as 
hell-fire grows fostered by the demons. 

[266] " One does not think of the sound, It praises me, because 
it is without thought ; that which troubles my spirit is to think, 
Another is pleased with me. If I am happy in his satisfaction,^ 

1 Klesa, drshti, sattva. ayuh, kalpa : Dh. Sgr. 91. 
2 Tib. read f^crnqfO- Join fiiH M ^. 



244 SELF-PURIFICATION 

that happiness ought to be always and generally existent ; 
if his happiness is indifferent to me, what matters it to me that 
he is pleased ? What care I for another's pleasure, whether 
it be pleasure in me or in some one else ? I have not the smallest 
bodily pleasure when another is pleased with me. Knowing 
that things are so, we must renounce the unfounded illusion ; 
we must recognise that praise, blame, and honour have no effect. 
No virtue, no long life, no health, no strength comes from 
homage and salutations, just as the gesticulations of others do 
not affect him that they mock. Gaining or not gaining are 
not affected according as one is pleased or despondent. There- 
fore let me reject these fruitless agitations and have a mind 
like a rock. 

" By rejecting social relations, purity of mind is quickly 
produced." On this point we have also the following thoughts. 

" We recognize a person because an image has been 
frequently formed in the mind ; from this comes affection, 
from this comes also repulsion. He that feels affection and 
repulsion has not eschewed sin ; then all sorts of calumnies, 
and jealousy with envy, [267] love of gain and so forth, pride, 
such things find a place. Therefore with all diligence the sage 
should put away from him all social relations. Because of the 
resemblance, * that ' although different is regarded as ' the 
same,' for example the water of a river, but it is a mistake ; 
consequently I must take my stand on the truth. That likeness 
is insubstantial and it will produce suffering ; I and that and 
all else will ere long be no more." 



CHAPTER XV 

PURITY IN ENJOYMENT AND RELIGIOUS ACTION 

Next after self-purification comes Purity in use and enjoyment 
due to the absence of hoarding ; here it is explained apart. " How 
purely to enjoy discern, till all thy life is fully pure." i 

As it is said in the holy Ugrapariprcchd : "In this world, 
householder, the house-owning Bodhisatva seeks his enjoyments 
rightly and not wrongly, fairly not unfairly ; he is right-living 
not wrong-Hving." 

And it is said in the holy Ratnamegha : " When the Bodhi- 
satva sees a generous giver, he does not pose. How does he 
not pose ? He does not Uft and set down his feet smoothly 
and daintily, but looks a yoke's length before him, [268] with a 
confident air, without swerving his regard. It is thus he avoids 
playing pretence in action. How does he avoid pretence in 
speech ? The Bodhisatva does not for gain's sake and because 
of gain speak dehcately and softly and pleasantly, does not 
utter compliant speeches. . . . How does he avoid pretence 
in thought ? If a Bodhisatva, when pressed by a giver or a 
benefactor to take a gift, manifests moderation in his speech 
while cherishing in his heart covetousness, this is a fire within, 
young sir : moderation in speech and covetousness in the 
heart. Thus, young sir, the Bodhisatva does not get anything 
by hypocritical speech. . . . The Bodhisatva does not hint 
when he sees a giver or a generous man, 2 as ' I am worried 
about my robe, or my bowl, or medicine ' ; nor does he ask 
anything of that giver or generous man, or utter a word. Thus 

1 Karika 21a. 

' Correct text to ^TT|c|i ^TfT^f^ ^. Probably ^ should be added also 
in 267I*, 2689. 

245 R 



246 PURITY IN ENJOYMENT AND RELIGIOUS ACTION 

the Bodhisatva does not get anything by hints. . , . When the 
Bodhisatva sees a generous giver, he does not say, * Such and 
such a generous man gave me such a thing and I have done him 
such a service ; ' or * he gave me this and that, thinking me to 
be pious, and out of compassion I accepted it, thinking him to 
be learned and without covetousness.' . . . This is a bodily 
wrong, I mean running to and fro for the sake of gain and 
because of gain, and it is evil conduct : a mental wrong is 
asking, [269] and a desire to injure in the presence of virtuous 
receivers of gifts. Thus the Bodhisatva gets nothing by 
improper requests. ... In this world the Bodhisatva does 
not procure gain by false balance or false pretensions or broken 
trust or knavery. Thus the Bodhisatva gets nothing by 
wrong-doing. . . . The gains that belong to a shrine or the Law 
or the Order or those not given or not allowed, he seeks not nor 
makes his own. Thus the Bodhisatva gets nothing that is not 
pure. . . . What he receives he does not call ' mine,' does not 
treasure up nor hoard. From time to time he gives to ascetics 
and brahmins, from time to time he himself shares with 
parents, friends, courtiers, kinsmen, relatives, and as he 
partakes he is not inflamed by desire : not clinging to it, if he 
receives nothing he is not depressed, he is not annoyed, he does 
not allow his calm to cease in the presence of generous givers." 

Then also this the Bodhisatva's Purity in respect of gain, 
hke personal purity, would be for the good of others. 

As it is said in the holy Vimalakvrti-nirdesa : " Again, 
reverend Sariputra, whoever enter this house, as soon as they 
have entered, no passions trouble them : this is the second 
miracle." 

Again in the same place it is said : " Then from that food 
that whole company was satisfied, yet the food did not decrease ; 
and all those Bodhisatvas and disciples, guardian deities of 
Sakra and Brahma, and others who ate that food [270] felt such 
a pleasure in the body as is the pleasure of the Bodhisatvas in 
the world named ' full of all pleasures ' ; from all their hair-holes 
such perfume was wafted, as is the perfume of the trees in the 
world that is scented with all perfumes." 



THE SPIRIT OF GIVING 247 

And it is said again : " The Brethren, reverend Ananda, 
who ate this food, if they have not attained the fixed deter- 
mination,! they shall find it digested when they have attained 
it. With those creatures who had not yet developed the thought 
of enlightenment, when they shall find the thought of enlighten- 
ment developed it will be digested. They who have developed 
the thought of enhghtenment, until they shall find themselves 
not without holy peace it shall not be digested." That is the 
substance of it. 

Purification of religious action comes from behaviour 
pervaded by the Void 2 and by Pity. 

For it is said in the holy Gaganaganja Siltra : " He gives 
that gift, pure of the notion of I, pure of the notion of mine, 
pure of the notion of motive, of heresy, of reason, of kind,^ of 
expecting profit, a gift pure in thought Uke the sky, ... as 
the sky is infinite, so is the thought with which he gives ; as 
the sky is outspread over all, so that gift is appHed unto 
wisdom ; as the sky is immaterial, so that gift is dependent 
upon no matter ; as the sky is without feeling, so that gift is 
detached from all feeling ; so it is without consciousness, not 
composite, with the characteristic of manifesting nothing ; 
as the sky pervades all the Buddha's field, so that gift is per- 
vaded with compassion for all creatures ; . . as the sky is 
always transparent, so his gift is clear of the nature of thought ; 
as the sky illuminates all creatures, so his gift gives life to all 
creatures ; ... as one created by supernatural power gives 
to another, so he is without imagination and without reflexion ; 
without thought, mind, consciousness, not desiring anything ; 
thus by the absence of duality, [271] his gift is clear of the 
natural marks of illusion. When he has this renunciation in 
giving, renunciation of the passions of all creatures by know- 
ledge of wisdom, non-abandonment of all creatures by know- 
ledge of expedients, so, young sir, the Bodhisatva becomes 
self-sacrificing in heart, and his gifts are hke the sky." 

* niydma : when a bhikshu has attained a state of will from which there ^ 
no backsliding : certitude of nirviria (or for a bodhisattva, of bodhi). 

' That is, emptiness of lust, hate, and delusion. 

* That is, it does not matter what the gift is. 



248 PURITY IN ENJOYMENT AND RELIGIOUS ACTION 

And it is said in the holy Akshayamati Sutra : " That is no 
gift that does harm to creatures, . . . that is no gift which is 
lacking in what has been said, . . . that is no gift where is 
contempt for those who deserve offerings amongst all creatures, 
. . . there is no gift with boasting, . . . that is no gift which 
distresses those who crave, that is no gift where is scoffing and 
wheedling, or hostility, there is no gift in what is thrown away, 
no gift without one's own hand, . . . that is no gift that is 
improper, or unseasonable, there is no gift in a pernicious 
charm, or in what does harm to creatures." 

When it is said in the Ugrapariprcchd : " Even strong 
drink he gives, thinking, ' This is the time for the Perfection of 
Giving, the time to give to each one whatever he craves. But 
thus will I do : those to whom I shall give strong drink I will 
cause to receive remembrance and full consciousness," the 
meaning is that one who is disappointed in the hope of obtaining 
strong drink will bear a heavy grudge against the Bodhisatva ; 
hence comes a loss of sympathy ; wherefore in default of other 
means to conciliate their good- will, strong drink should be given. 
As regards the gift of such things as a sword, if the gift be 
made after full consideration of advantage and disadvantage, 
there is no sin, as it appears from the same text ; but in the 
scriptures such a gift is prohibited by a general rule. Thus 
the principle of Purity in gifts has been explained. 

Purity of Conduct is thus described in the holy Gaganagaiija 
Sutra : "Do not abandon the thought of enlightenment, with 
a view to the purification of thought ; be free from the mind 
of disciples or Pratyeka Buddha, with a view to the purity of 
standard." i 

[272] Again, another view of purification of conduct. ** The 
sky is pure, pure is his conduct ; clear is the sky, clear is his 
conduct , calm is the sky, calm is his conduct ; not exalted 2 
is the sky, not exalted his conduct ; peaceful is the sky, peaceful 
his conduct ; . . . indivisible is the sky, indivisible his conduct ; 
and so forth. The sky is without obstruction ; he whose 
thought has no dislike for any creatures has the purity of peace. 

1 prdmmika : quite unknown. ^ jjiig seems to mean proud. 



PURIFICATION OF CONDUCT 249 

The sky is uniform ; he whose thought is one for all beings has 
the purity of peace ; and so forth. Suppose there be a great 
forest of sal trees ; some one might come and cut down a sal 
tree ; those that are left do not think, ' That tree is cut down 
and we are not ; ' they feel neither pleasure nor dishke ; no 
thought, no fancy, no illusion. This peace of the thought of 
enlightenment is the supreme peace like the sky." 

In the holy Ratnacuda Sutra the subject is given at length. 
" This is what is meant by strength. What is that purity ? 
It is the knowledge of the body as 1 being an image of reflexion, 
the knowledge of voice as being something inexpressible, the 
knowledge of the mind as being altogether at rest. Then, 
armed with the resolution of compassion he is estabhshed in 
the resolve of great pitifulness. He enters on meditation 
which takes the mould of the void in all the best aspects. 
What is the void in all its best aspects ? That which is not 
without generosity, . . . not without expedients, not without 
pleasure and delight in deep compassion, not without the 
presence of the knowledge of truth, not without the regard for 
all creatures and the thought of enlightenment, not without 
wish, intention, resolve ; intentional generosity, fair speech, 
doing good for others, 2 done not without that same intention ; 
not without full consciousness and memory ; not without the 
earnest meditations, the right exertions, the constituents of 
magic power, the moral qualities, the forces, the requisites of 
supreme knowledge, the eightfold path, quietude, far-sighted- 
ness . . . peaceful by its nature, [273] not content amid 
sinful acts, regardful of all things, observant of the Buddha's 
righteousness, dull ^ by its own character, bold with respect to 
blessing, not busied with its own tastes, always busied with the 
Buddha's business, tranquil by peace always kindled by the 
ripening of beings ; this is what is meant by the void in all 
its best forms. . . . This, young sir, is the perfect meditation 
and the purification of conduct. 

* Tib. du makes this clear. " See Childers, s.v. sangaho, s.f. 

Tib. bem-po^w^^j. 



250 PURITY IN ENJOYMENT AND RELIGIOUS ACTION 

" By this is to be understood the purification of knowledge ; 
so also in all acts of merit." 

So also it is said in the holy Vimalakirti-nirdeia : " The 
field wherein the wheel of the good law is rolled, wherein the 
great Nirvana is manifested, the field where the virtue of the 
Bodhisatva is not abandoned, this is also the field of the 
Bodhisatva/' 



CHAPTER XVI 

THE INCREASE OF GOOD CONDUCT 

Now we have to describe three kinds of Increase. Hence the 
verse : 

" Many there are to take from thee : 
Little thou hast ; what boots it thee ? 
It gendereth not supreme content ; 
Therefore increase it all thou mayst." ^ 

Supreme content is Buddhahood : the meaning is, that this 
is not produced by just that purity which belongs to the disciple. 

" How to increase my body's weal ? 
Increase thy vigour, scorning sloth." 2 

[274] The Vigour of this verse is described in the holy 
Ratnamegha : ** In the multitude of beings, that being is not 
to be found who should destroy the Bodhisatva's strength by 
strength." 

How comes the increase of this ? As it is said in the holy 
Tathdgatagithya Sutra : " When Ajatasatra was amazed as 
reverend Vajrapani showed his strength, and asked the Blessed 
One, he said : ' There are ten ways, sir, by which a Bodhisatva 
obtains strength like this. And what are they ? In this world, 
sir, the Bodhisatva renounces body and Hf e, but he does not re- 
nounce the Good Law. He bows before all creatures, and does 
not let his pride grow. He is compassionate to weak creatures, 
and does not dislike them. When any are hungry he gives 
them the best food. When any are frightened he gives them 

^ Kar. 22, * Kar. 23a. 

251 



252 THE INCREASE OF GOOD CONDUCT 

protection. When any are ill he exerts himself for their com- 
plete cure. The poor he rejoices with plenty. At a shrine of 
the Tathagata he does repairs with a lump of plaster. He lets 
people hear pleasant speech. He goes share for share with 
those afflicted with poverty. He carries the burdens of the 
weary and exhausted. These are the ten ways, sir.' " 

[275] What is the increase of activity ? The same as 
increase of energy : as it is described in the Sdgaramati Sutra : 
" The Bodhisatva, Sagaramati, must always practise energy by 
sustained effort. Keen of will must he be, and he must not 
drop the yoke. \%en the Bodhisatvas practise energy, 
Sagaramati, it is not hard for them to get perfect and supreme 
enlightenment. Why is this ? Where energy is, Sagaramati, 
there is enUghtenment. But when men are lazy, enlightenment 
is far far away. The lazy cannot be generous, . . . the lazy 
has no understanding, and no benefit for others." 

And in the Candrapradipa Sutra it is said : '* As a lily in 
the midst of the water he grows and grows." 

This in brief is the increase of the body's weal. 

** Enjoyment's increase comes from gifts, 
Offspring of mercy and the Void." 1 ^ 

As it is said in the Vajracchedikd : " When a Bodhisatva 
gives a gift without believing in any thing, 2 it is not easy to set 
a limit to the mass of his merit." 

And in the Mahati Prajndpdramitd it is said : " Moreover, 
Sariputra, when the Bodhisatva, the Great Being, gives even 
a small gift to all creatures, and he desires to make it immeasur- 
able, ineffable, by applying his fertility in resource to wisdom 
in all its forms, he must practise himself in the Perfection of 
wisdom. So one who wishes to fulfil the desires of all beings, 
. . . and by providing them with gold and silver, parks and 
kingdoms, must practise himself in the Perfection of wisdom." 

[276] And without mercy, nothing is accompHshed by the 

1 Kar. 23b. 

2 apratishthito, lit. not abiding : he does not believe in the existence of 
giver or gift. 



PRACTICE AND RESOLVE 253 

Bodhisatvas : so we shall say. This in brief is the increase of 
enjoyment. 

Increase of merit is the root of all increase : this thought is 
called the binding on of the girdle. 

" With effort first, before all place 

Settled resolve and purpose firm ; 
Set mercy too before thy face 
And so for merit's increase strive." ^ 

The verse which begins ** With effort," etc., as before, has 
for its aim to produce firmness, at the beginning of practice, 
by bringing again and again to mind the resolutions, etc., 
which were made when one was purifying the thought. He 
employs the words " at first " in order to prevent slackness : 
one must say, " As with skill and care in the use of weapons 
when time of battle is come, so at the time of practice I will 
make strong my resolution." Then how does he make strong 
his resolution ? 

As the holy Sudhana approaching the holy Maitreya made 
firm his bodily strength by considering how he had wasted 2 a 
world of bodies in the past because they were unable to practise 
virtue, controlHng his thought and intention as he considered 
the many different ways in which his thought attached him to 
outside objects, ineffective towards purity of body and mind in 
the past, [277] he ponders the great importance of present in- 
tentions by considering the useless stream of his actions leading 
to worldly conduct and evil deeds ; he develops this force to 
build the true conception of the conduct of all the Bodhisatvas, 
by considering that in the past his judgment had been affected 
by untrue ideas springing from illusion ; he strengthens the 
force of resolution in a way superior to the conduct of all 
others by considering that his exertion for his own ends in the 
past was bad, by considering that all his past bodily action 
was insipid ; he increases the power of the faculties which 
produce great comfort when used to acquire the quahties of a 

* Kar. 24. Reading njjj i ^ as suggested by Tib. 



254 THE INCREASE OF GOOD CONDUCT 

Buddha, by considering that in the past his inclinations have 
been warped by wrong ideas ; he cleanses the course of his 
feeHngs by undertaking the aspiration of all Buddhas which 
owing to right views is not involved in error in the present ; 
by considering that his past strenuous effort was unsuccessful 
and ineffective even when there was such an effort ; ^ he pro- 
duces exaltation of body and thought by exerting great efforts 
to reahse that the quaUties of the present Buddhas are at hand, 
by considering that in the past he has been possessed of bodies, 
cast into the different evil states of existence, bodies of no use 
to himself or to others, which could not contribute to their 
Hfe ; he increases the impulses of joy and delight by assuming 
a personality capable of producing the quaUties of all Buddhas, 
of serving all the world, of pleasing all good friends ; he realises 
that this body, although it is produced in the womb, full of 
old age, disease and death, and union and separation, is capable 
of being the cause of a body of wisdom consisting in the resolu- 
tion of a Buddha, a body which will be devoted to the practice 
of the rule of a Bodhisatva during ages to come, devoted to 
the ripening of all beings and to obtain the quahties of a 
Buddha, devoted to seeing the Tathagata, [278] to traversing 
of the field of all Buddhas, to service of all who preach the 
law, to learning the doctrine of all Tathagatas, a companion of 
the search for all righteousness, devoted to the accomplishment 
of the advice of all good friends and all the Buddhas' righteous- 
ness ; so he increases the inconceivable power of merit and 
spiritual faculties. 

In the holy Aksayamati-nirdeia, a Mahayana Sutra, it is 
also said : " Lonely is the Bodhisatva, with no second and no 
companion, and he girds up his loins in the perfect and in- 
comparable wisdom. He by a will that has been grasped by 
the strength of resolution gives no opportunity to another, but 
acts by himself. He is imbued with strength of his own 
strength. It is he who firmly resolves : * Whatever ought to 
be gained by all beings, that I will cause them to obtain. 
Whatever all the holy Bodhisatvas, whatever those newly 

^ So Tib. but query ayoga ? 



BODHISATVA NOT HINDERED BY OTHERS' FAULTS 255 

entered upon the Vehicle shall not obtain, that will I cause 
them to obtain. Generosity is not my helper, but I am helper 
of generosity. Morality, patience, resolution, meditation are 
not my helpers, but I am theirs. I am not supported by the 
Perfections, but they are so by me. So I would proceed with 
all those things by which we get our neighbour's good-will ^ 
and all the roots of good, ... so I, alone, without second or 
comrade, standing upon the earth's circle hard as adamant, 
attacking Mara with his armies and his chariots, with know- 
ledge produced by instantaneous insight, must develop the 
incomparable and perfect enlightenment.' " 

In the holy Vajradhvaja Sutra he says : *' Just as the sun, 
offspring of the gods, rising is not stopped [279] by the default 
of those who are born blind, nor by the fault of castles in the 
air, 2 nor by the fault of the earth-dust of the four continents of 
the earth-spheres, nor by the fault of Raha, King of the 
Asuras, nor by fault of quantities of smoke, nor by fault of 
the passions of Jambudvipa, nor by fault of all sorts of shadows, 
nor by fault of interposition of mountains ; so the Bodhisatva 
the Great Being, with wide and deep thought, by remembrance 
and intelHgence, with unimpaired goodness, until he comes to 
the goal of his virtuous and wise action, is not kept by faults of 
malice in other creatures from the developing of the root of 
good, is not diverted by faults of foulness or heresy in other 
beings, he is not repelled by others' agitations, does not ungird 
the armour of enlightenment because of the mass of corruption 
in others, does not relax through the foul quarrels of others his 
resolve to save all the world, . . . [280] nor by association 
with foohsh people, is not despondent through the faults of 
others. And why not ? There is no hindrance in that multi- 
tude of things,^ that is, to thwart the purification of all the 
world. . . . And that mass, the pain of all creatures, and the 
manifold action connected with hindrance, which causes that 
they by that hindering action do not see the Buddhas, do not 
hear the Law, do not know the Order ; all that threefold 

* Dh. S. xix. * i.e. Fata Morgana, a vision of cities in the sky. 

This is ace. in Tib. 



2.56 THE INCREASE OF GOOD CONDUCT 

hindering action in them, accumulated by their own body 
through the mass of pain, do I take away in each several 
rebirth in hell and place of misery and society : may all 
those creatures be born out of those places, all that burden of 
pain I take upon myself, I assume, I endure. I do not avoid 
or run away, I fear not nor am afraid, I tremble not, I turn 
not back, I despair not. And why not ? Certainly the 
burden of all creatures must be borne by me ; that is not my 
own pleasure ; it is my resolution to save all creatures, I 
must set all free, I must save all the world, from the wilderness 
of birth, of old age, of disease, of being born again, of all sins, 
of all misfortunes, of all transmigrations, of all depths of 
heretical doctrine, of destruction of the good Law, of ignorance 
arisen, therefore by me all creatures must be set free from all 
the wildernesses, caught as they are in the net of thirst, 
wrapt in the toils of ignorance, held fast in the desire for 
existence, whose end is destruction, enclosed in the cage of 
pain, attached to their prison ; without knowledge, uncertain 
in promises, full of hesitation, ever in discord, finding unhappi- 
ness, without means of refuge, in the flood of existence, world- 
lings in the foaming gulf. ... I walk so as to establish the 
kingdom of incomparable wisdom for all : I am not one tittle 
concerned with my own dehverance. All creatures I must 
draw out from the perils of transmigration with the lifeboat of 
all-wisdom, I must pull them back from the great precipice, 
I must set them free from all calamities, I must ferry them over 
the stream of transmigration. By my own self all the mass 
of others' pain has been assumed : . . . I have the courage in 
all misfortunes belonging to all worlds, to experience every 
abode of pain. I must not defraud the world of the roots of 
good. [281] I resolve to abide in each single state of mis- 
fortune through numberless future ages : and as in one abode 
of misfortune, so in all such abodes belonging to the worlds, for 
the salvation of all creatures. And why so? Because it is 
better indeed that I alone be in pain, than that all those 
creatures fall into the place of misfortune. There I must 
give myself in bondage, and all the world must be redeemed 



HE ASSUMES THE BURDEN OF OTHERS 257 

from the wilderness of hell, beast-birth, and Yama's world, 
and I for the good of all creatures would experience all the 
mass of pain and unhappiness in this my own body : and on 
account of all creatures I give surety for all creatures, speaking 
truth, trustworthy, not breaking my word. I must not 
forsake others. And why so ? With all creatures for its 
object the mind of all wisdom has been developed in me, that 
is, for the deliverance of all the world. I am established in 
the incomparable all-wisdom not by desire of pleasure, not to 
indulge in the five senses, not to follow the concerns of lust ; 
nor is it to accomplish the multitude of pleasures that are 
included in the sphere of mutual passion that I walk the 
Bodhisatva's path. And why so ? Because all these worldly 
pleasures are no pleasures ; that is the sphere of Mara, I 
mean, to follow lust. That road is beset by fooUshness ; 
dispraised of all Buddhas is that principle, I mean, to follow 
lust. Just so to follow lust means the uprising of all this mass 
of pain, and from this alone comes hell, animal-birth, Yama's 
world ; all quarrelling and strife, all bickering and anger, are 
manifested just from this ; and these creatures, following 
their lusts, are far from the presence of the Blessed Buddhas. 
And these lusts are an obstacle even to rebirth in heaven, 
how much more to the safe possession by all creatures of that 
most royal 1 and incomparable wisdom ! And I beholding 
thus the immeasurable faults of lust, brief and blazing, there- 
fore on that account I will not walk after them. ... So must 
I apply my root of good that all creatures may gain exceeding 
great happiness, unheard-of happiness . , . the happiness of 
all-knowledge : I must be charioteer, I must be guide, I must 
be torch-bearer, guide to safety, [282] one who has obtained 
lucky times, master of resource, knower of good, I must take 
the place of the boat of all-knowledge amid the ocean of 
transmigration, I must be able to apply merit, I must be the 
guide to the other shore. . . . Now in this world with its four 
continents there are not so many suns rising to give hght to 
the world as there are Uving creatures ; but here is only one 

1 Tib. read rgyal-srid, 0^|j<| ^ . the realm of wisdom. 



258 THE INCREASE OF GOOD CONDUCT 

sun that rises to enlighten the whole world for them; and these 
creatures that come into the world have not each Hght by his 
own body, that they may know when it is day, or do their 
business, be it to cook the grain, or day by day in garden or 
town to take pleasure and enjoyment, or look at the heavens, 
or go to and fro in village and town and city or King's capital, 
each on his own business intent. . . . Here now, when the 
divine sun arises, one sun's disc without a second gives Ught 
to all creatures upon the whole earth. Just so, when the 
Bodhisatva the Great Being produces the roots of good and 
appHes the root of good, this is his thought : * These beings 
have not the root of good by which they might save themselves. 
How much the less can they save another ? But I on account 
of all creatures produce roots of good and apply the root of 
good, that is, for the deliverance of all, to enlighten them and 
give them wisdom, to convert them and conciliate them, to 
perfect them, for their peace and delight, to take away their 
doubts, and so I must use these ways of the round sun. I 
must not wait for another ; I must give no opening to another 
by casting away my resolution ; my effort to save all must not 
cease amongst them ; [283] I must not desist from my appU- 
cation of merit towards the destruction of all pain ; small 
roots of good I must not try to get ; 1 I am not to think of being 
satisfied with a mean application of merit." 

And in the holy Kshayamati Sutra he says : " He does not 
court ages in seeking for erdightenment : * So many or so many 
ages I will hold to my resolution.' No ; his resolution is eternal. 
' If one day and night should be equal to all the total of time 
gone by, then with such-like days in one fortnight, in a month 
of thirty days, in a year of twelve months, and so on counting 
years up to an hundred thousand, may I create one thought 
of enlightenment, may I behold one perfect Tathagata. In 
this manner and by this counting, with such thoughts and 
such manifestations of the Tathagata as many as the sands on 
Ganges banks, may I learn the thoughts of each creature. 
In the same manner and by the same counting, by so many 

^ That is, I muot not be satisfied with small ideals. 



A FIRM AND ETERNAL PURPOSE 259 

thoughts and so many manifestations of the Tathagata may 
I produce my own Hne of thought for all creatures : ' so he must 
resolve without desponding. This resolve of the Bodhisatva is 
an indestructible resolve. Such is the system to be followed in 
such things as giving, and in producing the things that belong to 
the supreme enlightenment, 1 and the marks of the Great Man." 

Again, in the holy Ratnamegha it is said : ** If the Bodhisatva 
learns of people's grasping greed and violence, he must not say, 
* Away with these people so grasping and so violent ! ' and on 
that account be depressed and turn his back on the others. 
He makes a vow to have a very pure field in which the very 
name of such persons shall be not heard. And if the Bodhisatva 
turn his face away from the good of all creatures, his field is 
not pure and his work is not accomplished. Then the wise 
Bodhisatva thinks, [284] * Therefore whatever beings of 
animal nature may be insignificant, timid, 2 stupid, deaf, dumb 
by nature, may I meet in my Buddha-field all who in animal 
form are not behaving so as to attain Nirvana, not cured, 
rejected by all Buddhas and Bodhisatvas ; these all I would 
seat in the bo-tree circle, and bring to the knowledge of supreme 
enlightenment.' As thus the Bodhisatva thinks, as his thoughts 
arise one by one, all the realms of Mara do quake, and all the 
Buddhas utter his praises." 

Just so by desire of increasing merit his resolve should be 
firmly fixed ; and now is to be declared why this resolution 
should be made firm. 

Again, it has been explained in the Dharmasangiti Siltra 
to answer the question why this should be made firm. " In 
resolution truly, O Blessed One, is the root of the Buddha's 
quahties. He who has no resolution, from him all the Buddha's 
qualities are far away. But, Blessed One, when he has made 
his resolve, if there are no Buddhas, the voice of the Law 
comes forth from the firmament and the flowering trees. 
When a Bodhisatva has a pure resolve, from his own imagination 
come forth teaching and instruction. Therefore indeed, 
Blessed One, a Bodhisatva ought to make his resolve. As he can 

* For these 37 dharmas see Dh. S. 43. ' See note in text 284*. 



26o THE INCREASE OF GOOD CONDUCT 

go that has feet, so, Blessed One, he has the Buddha's quaUties 
who has resolution. As he lives that has a head, so, Blessed 
One, he that has resolution has the Buddha's enlightenment. 
As he can gain that has life, so, Blessed One, he gains Buddha- 
good that has resolution. As, Blessed One, when there is fuel,i 
the fire bums, when there is none, it does not burn : [285] so 
if there be resolution all the Buddha's quaUties are kindled for 
the Bodhisatva, but if not, they are not kindled. Even as. 
Blessed One, if there be clouds the rain falls, without them it 
falls not ; so. Blessed One, if there be resolution the Buddha's 
qualities appear. As a tree, Blessed One, whose root is decayed, 
is not wont to put forth flowers and fruit, so. Blessed One, he 
whose resolution is decayed is not wont to put forth any good 
quaUties. Therefore, Blessed One, the Bodhisatva who desires 
a Buddha's enUghtenment must make a good resolve, fully kept 
and protected, purified and established." 

Now what is this resolve ? It is declared in the holy 
Akshayamati Sfdra : " Now this resolve is genuine because it is 
not artificially made ; not artificially made because it cannot 
be contrived ; not contrived because well known ; well known 
because without guile ; without guile because pure ; pure 
because sincere ; sincere because not crooked ; not crooked 
because straight ; straight because not uneven ; not uneven 
because strong ; strong because unbreakable ; unbreakable 
because firm ; firm because not wavering ; not wavering 
because not dependent, and so forth. And this is caUed 
resolution just because it arises from the repeated acquisition 
of one virtue after another." 2 

As it is said in the same place : " The resolve to escape 
comes by specific attainment," and so forth. 3 

By resolution is also meant benevolence to all creatures, 
compassion for all creatures ; friendliness to the holy, pity 
for the unholy ; respect for teachers, protection for the 

1 Tib. zhugs ^in mchis na zhugs hbar gyi=sati 'ndhane 'gnir, etc. 

2 An etymological explanation, referring to adhika, adhigama, and adhyd- 
haya. 

' The Pali visesddhigamo, attainment of jhana by meditating on a specific 
object. 



COMPASSION THE GREAT VIRTUE 261 

unprotected, help for the helpless, refuge for those that have no 
refuge, a resort for those that have none, comradeship for those 
without comrade, straightness for the crooked, uprightness for 
the rapacious, 286] honesty for the false, genuineness for the 
overreaching,- gratitude for the imgrateful, regret for the 
mahcious, help for the unhelpful, truth for those who walk 
in error, humility for the proud, 1 absence of fault-finding for 
the fault-finding, silence for others' faults, protection for the 
sinful, no betrayal of faults for all the deeds of artifice, readiness 
to hear for all those worthy of honour, readiness to take all in 
good part for those who admonish,'' etc. 

Thus I make firm resolve and determination, and putting 
compassion in the forefront I strive for briUiant success. 

As it is said in the holy DharmasangUi Sutra : ** Then 
indeed the Bodhisatva Analokitesvara, the Great Being, said 
to the Blessed One : The Bodhisatva, Blessed One, should not 
be taught too many things. One virtue should be fully mastered 
and learnt by him, in which are included all the virtues of the 
Buddha. And what is that ? It is great compassion. In 
great compassion, Blessed One, all the virtues of the Bodhisatvas 
are included. Just so, Blessed One, when the precious wheel 
of a universal monarch runs, all the army goes with it ; so 
Blessed One, when the great compassion of a Bodhisatva goes 
on, all the Buddha's virtues go with it. Just so. Blessed One, 
when the sun is risen all are busy about their various businesses, 
so. Blessed One, when great compassion has arisen then all 
the other virtues that produce wisdom are busy in action. 
[287] Just as. Blessed One, when all the senses are ruled by 
the mind they are abundantly active each in its own sphere, 
so. Blessed One, when great compassion is estabhshed, all the 
other virtues that produce wisdom are active abundantly 
each in its own action. Even as. Blessed One, when sensibility 
is aHve all the other senses act, just so, Blessed One, when 
there is great compassion, the other virtues act that produce 
wisdom," etc. 

Again, it is said in the holy Akshayamati Sutra : " Reverend 

^ Reading stahdheshu. 

S 



262 THE INCREASE OF GOOD CONDUCT 

Saradvatiputra, even as the breathing in and out is the chief 
thing in a man's sensibiHty, so, reverend sir, in a Bodhisatva 
who has entered the Great Vehicle great compassion is the 
chief thing. ... As there might be in a merchant or house- 
holder heartfelt love for an only and virtuous son, so there is 
heartfelt love for all beings in a Bodhisatva who has acquired 
great compassion." 

How is this to be produced ? When he has realised in him- 
self that his own manifold pain or danger experienced before 
or now is extremely unwelcome, one possessed of mercy must 
conceive mercy for those he loves, and for those who suffer 
from present pain and disease, or those who are being dragged 
through the infinite course of transmigration, the infinite 
ocean of great pain. 

As it is said in the holy Dasahhumaka Sutra : " He is 
astonished at this, hke as those fooUsh worldHngs deluded by 
ignorance, of whom innumerable existences have ceased to be, 
are ceasing, or will cease, thus perishing do not conceive 
disgust for the body, nay, they strengthen the trap of pain, 
nor do they cease from the fear of the stream of transmigration, 
[288] nor throw aside attachment for the conformations, nor 
are disgusted with the phantom of the elements, nor are aware 
of those bUnded by the phantom of delight, nor discern the 
empty village of the six senses, nor cast from them the clinging 
and attachment for the notions of I and mine, nor uproot the 
thorn of pride and heresy, nor destroy the net of lust, hate, 
and delusion, nor dispel the darkness of ignorance and delusion, 
nor dry up the flood of thirst, nor seek the Dasabala for their 
leader ; who having gone to the gloom of Mara's abode swim 
in the ocean of migration infested with the monsters of many 
evil imaginations, and without refuge there fall into agitation, 
and experience many pains, that is who come into birth, old 
age, disease, death, grief, sorrow, pain, despair ; in truth I 
alone with no second bear such an accumulation of knowledge 
and of good works for those that are tormented with pain, 
without protection, undefended, unguarded, without resting- 
place, without refuge, bhnd, overgrown with the membrane 



IGNORANCE AND ILLUSION 263 

of the egg of ignorance, plunged in darkness. By such an 
accumulation of knowledge and of good works collected, all 
these beings would obtain complete purification." 

In the same place it is said : " Those beings indeed are 
fallen into the way of the wilderness and forest of transmigration, 
their faces set towards the precipice of hell, animal-birth, and 
Yama's world, [289] caught in the dangerous net of heresy, 
clouded with the darkness of delusion, walking in falsehood 
and Hes, bhnded, without a guide, . . . carried along the 
stream of transmigration, sunk in the river of thirst, caught 
by the great current, unable to see, walking along the precipice 
of desire, destruction, doubt, injury, imagination, caught by 
the water-demon of the heresy of individuality, plunged in 
the whirlpool of the darkness of desire, caught in the midst of 
lust for delight, lost in the desert of self-conceit, without 
resort, not uplifted above the habitation of sense-impressions, 
without the accumulation of good ; these we must uplift by 
the great power of the root of good, and place on the precious 
land of the perfect knowledge of good, without misfortune 
and without darkness. These beings are tied in the bonds of 
great pain, despair, destruction, compliance, repulsion, affection 
and disHke, attended by grief and woe, in the iron chain of 
desire, hidden in the gloom of delusion, guile and ignorance, 
the fetters of the three worlds. These we must establish in the 
full and true knowledge of the three worlds, in the fortress of 
confidence, the assuaging of all pain. Nirvana unbroken." 

Thus by these praiseworthy resolutions and efforts 
strengthening each other, he should cause merit to grow. 
Then indeed 

" Good Conduct's ordinance of praise 
And all besides devoutly keep." 1 

[290] In the holy Ugradattapariprcchd indeed the reading 
of the Triskhandhaka is ordained for one who is pure and 
wears pure garments, to be read thrice in a night and thrice in 
a day. " There are three Accumulations, called Confession of 

* Karika 25a. 



264 THE INCREASE OF GOOD CONDUCT 

Sin, Delight in Merit, Solicitation of Buddha, so called because 
of the accumulation of merit. Here the praise is impUed in 
the declaration of sin. This is according to the authority of 
the Updlipariprcchd, where it is said that confession follows 
after the homage to the Buddha. Prayer is included in 
Solicitation, because they have the same sense. But worship 
is not taken into account because it is impermanent by lack 
of power ; mental or vocal worship is not mentioned because 
they are well known in other Sutras. By mentioning the 
three all that is important is understood. Then the praise is, 
* I reverence all Buddhas.' " 

In the holy Akshamati Sutra is described the Confession of 
one's own and others' sins in the heaping-up of merit ; and 
in four versicles and in hymns of praise as sung ; and in the 
versicles of the holy Bhadracarya and others. 

And the Veneration is explained in the holy Ratnamegha : 
" Here whatever of the nature of flowers or fruit he has, without 
thinking them his own or his possession the Bodhisatva thrice 
each night and thrice each day offers to Buddhas and Bodhi- 
satvas . . . ; those ^ scented or perfumed trees and jewel- trees 
or wishing-trees are not held to be his own or his possession, 
these also he offers thrice each night and thrice each day to 
Buddhas and Bodhisatvas." 

And in the holy Trisamayardja, " the mountains of jewels 
which are on dry land, or in the water, the jewels of land or 
water in the ten regions, without sense of ownership or possession 
are to be given," it is said. " And in this way all drugs, [291] all 
flavours, all circles of water and fair lakes, all the circles of 
gold, all medicinal herbs in the cream of earth, most precious 
in taste or touch, which appears when the worlds are created, 
nectar-plant or wild rice, all that are in the northern continents, 
and the more deUghtful articles of diet that are in the purified 
worlds." 2 



* The Bower MS. has parpaiaka for Oldenlandia Corymbosa, whose bark 
and powder are used in drugs. See Index. 

Read ^ 1 ^*T as in p. 2916. 



THE SOLEMN ASPIRATIONS 265 

As it is said also in the holy Ratnamegha : " And all the 
most excellent things serving the Tathagata's worship that he 
hears of in the Siitrantas, these he applies to Buddhas and 
Bodhisatvas of intent with intense effort of will." 

So : "he meditates on the various things that belong to 
worship." 

The Confession has already been described. But in the holy 
Akshamati Sutra the Confession of one's own and others' sin 
is explained in the accumulation of merit ; the Delight, in the 
Bhadracaryd Gdthd, or in the section of the Candrapradtpa on 
Delight ; Solicitation in the sarnie Bhatracaryd. The complete 
application of merit is to be found in the same holy Bhadracaryd, 
or see the Vajradhvaja-parindmand. 

Or the Solemn Aspirations described in the Dasabhumaka. 
As he says : " That is, to provide for the worship of the Buddhas 
all and every one without exception, he directs the First 
Solemn Aspiration, endowed with all the best qualities, purified 
by lofty aspiration, wide and comprehensive, extending to the 
extremity of space, dwelling on infinite futurity, uninter- 
rupted 1 for all the multitude of ages and all the Buddhas 
who shall appear to provide great worship. [292] The Second 
Solemn Aspiration he directs for maintaining the method of 
the law that has been taught by all the Tathagatas, to keep the 
enlightenment of all Buddhas, for keeping the preaching of 
all Supreme Buddhas, wide and comprehensive, extending to 
the extremity of space, dwelling on infinite futurity, uninter- 
rupted throughout all the multitude of ages and Buddhas 
that shall appear for the reverence of the good law. The 
Third Solemn Aspiration he directs in the extent of all worlds 
without exception to see 2 all the life of the Buddha from the 
dying in Tushita Heaven, through conception, the movements 
of the embryo in the womb, birth, boyhood's play, wedded 
hfe, going forth from the world, austerities, approaching the 
bo-tree throne, victory over Mara, the seeking for supreme 
wisdom, turning the great wheel of the Law, until he attains 
complete NirvSna, beginning with the practice of conciliation 
* Tib. rgyun mi Ijchad pahi. ' So Tib. See note *, p. 295 of text. 



266 THE INCREASE OF GOOD CONDUCT 

and all the precepts of worship, in this always simultaneously 
striving, an aspiration wide and comprehensive, extending to 
the extremity of space, dwelling on infinite futurity, uninter- 
rupted throughout all ages and Buddhas that shall appear, 
until he attains complete Nirvana.^ The Fourth Solemn 
Aspiration he directs, wide and comprehensive, extending to 
the extremity of space, dwelling on infinite futurity, uninter- 
rupted throughout all ages and the Buddhas that shall appear, 
being wrapped in all the perfections, strong, large, without 
measure, without interruption, in order to purify every 
place, to cleanse every limb and sub-limb, for the earnest 
desire of cherishing thought to encourage the giving of teaching 
and instruction for the preparation of the Perfections by showing 
the paths of the world of the Bodhisatvas specific and general, 
in periods of destruction or of change. [293] The Fifth 
Solemn Aspiration he directs to ripen all the animal world 
without exception, all the whole animal world I say, with 
form or without, with consciousness or without consciousness 
or neither, with or without all that are egg-born, caul-born, 
sweat-born,2 self-produced, ^ included in the three worlds, all 
who have come into the six modes of existence, all who have 
come into birth, included under name and form, for the appear- 
ance of all the Buddha's law, for the intelligent discrimination 
of all the modes of birth, to estabUsh supreme wisdom, a 
prayer wide and comprehensive, extending to the extremity 
of space, dwelling on infinite futurity, trusting in the under- 
standing of all aeons and of the animal world. The Sixth 
Solemn Aspiration he directs for the various mistakes in the 
world, a prayer for the inner perception of the whole world 
without exception, wide and compressed, great and immeasur- 
able, small and lofty, confused, topsy-turvy, level, discriminat- 
ing the deceptions that relate to entering and descent, the 
approach to knowledge of the discrimination of the various 
entries in the ten regions ; a prayer wide and comprehensive, 
extending to the extremity of space, dwelling on infinite 

* until . . . Nirvana, not in Tib. * As vermin. 

* As superhuman beings. 



THE SOLEMN ASPIRATIONS 267 

futurity, trusting in the understanding of all aeons and of the 
universe. The Seventh Solemn Aspiration he directs for the 
cleansing of all the Buddhas' fields ; the cleansing of the 
descent into all the fields and each, one and all, his prayer is 
full of the ornaments, the buildings and the splendour of an im- 
measurable Buddha's field, possessed of the path of purification 
in the removing of all sinful passions, full of beings who are 
mines of immeasurable wisdom, aiming at the lofty field of a 
Buddha, in order to teach and to satisfy all creatures according 
to their dispositions ; [294] a prayer wide and comprehensive, 
infinitely extended in space, dwelling on infinite futurity, 
trusting in the understanding of all aeons and of the Buddha's 
field. The Eighth Solemn Aspiration he directs for entry into 
the Great Vehicle : for the formation of a single fixed purpose 
in all Bodhisatvas, for accumulating unrivalled roots of good, 
for equahty of all Bodhisatvas in one single object, for the 
meeting of Buddhas and Bodhisatvas in regular and uninter- 
rupted assemblies, for causing a Buddha to arise as desired, for 
approaching the knowledge of a Buddha's majesty in the 
fostering of one's own thought, for attaining transcendent 
faculty in one who follows the imperishable, for research in all 
worlds, for obtaining a greeting in all circles of society, for 
approaching all rebirth in one's own body, for reaching the 
Great Vehicle transcending thought, for not interrrupting the 
walking in the ways of a Bodhisatva : a prayer wide and 
comprehensive, extending to the extremity of space, dwelHng 
on infinite futurity, trusting in the understanding of all aeons 
and of virtue. The Ninth Solemn Aspiration he directs for 
avoiding useless speech, in order to follow a Bodhisatva's 
conduct mounted upon the unchangeable wheel, to make body, 
voice and mind efiicacious, to understand all the law of the 
Buddha as soon as spoken, to attain knowledge as soon as the 
sounds are uttered, [295] to annihilate passion on the instant 
by becoming tranquil, to gain the precious refuge of the Great 
Physician, to gain a body Hke a gem, to walk in all the conduct 
of a Bodhisatva, a prayer wide and comprehensive, extending 
to the extremity of space, dwelling on infinite futurity, trusting 



268 THE INCREASE OF GOOD CONDUCT 

in the understanding of all aeons and of virtue. The Tenth 
Solemn Aspiration he directs for the earnest desire of the Great 
Vehicle, in order to attain the supreme and perfect enlighten- 
ment in all worlds, to exhibit without departing one hair's 
breadth from the path all the birth and life of foolish and 
worldly persons, retirement from the world, supernatural trans- 
formations, the Bo-tree seat, turning the wheel of the law, 
and the Great Renunciation ; to attain knowledge of majesty in 
all the Buddha's field ; to cause a Buddha to arise as desired 
in all the worlds of beings, producing knowledge moment by 
moment, leading to tranquilHty ; to penetrate all ideas without 
pride by perfect enlightenment alone ; to content the cravings 
of all creatures' thoughts by the mere utterance of speech ; 
to continue uninterrupted the power of virtue by exhibiting 
the Great Renunciation ; to show the sphere of the great 
knowledge by causing all the law to arise ; to penetrate all 
worlds by knowledge of the law and perception of magic and 
delusion : a prayer wide and comprehensive, extending to the 
extremity of space, dwelling on infinite futurity, trusting in 
the understanding of all aeons and of supreme enhghtenment." 
[296] And this phrase, " I apply," Blessed One, is to be 
used everywhere. 

And in the holy Avalokiteivara-vimoksha the same course is 
to be taken. " This root of good I apply to dispel the fear of 
falling for all creatures ; to calm the characteristic fears of all 
creatures ; to put away the danger of illusion for all creatures ; 
to cut away the danger of fettering for all creatures, to hinder 
the danger of the approach of obstacles to the life of all creatures, 
to take away the danger of despondency in helping all creatures, 
to make cease the danger of lack of livelihood for all beings. 
I apply it to do away with the danger of ill repute for all 
beings, to annul the danger connected with mundane existence 
for all beings, to dispel the danger of company-fright for all 
beings, to dispel the fear of death for all beings, to prevent the 
fear of a state of misery for all beings ; I apply it to cause 
illumination so as to make all people turn back from the 
rugged path of bhndness, to dispel the fear as to association with 



APPLICATION OF THE ROOT OF GOOD 269 

the uncongenial, to hinder for all the fear of separation from 
what is dear, to dispel the fear of living with what is not dear, 
to set all creatures free from the fear of bodily torment, to 
liberate all creatures from fear of mental torment, that all 
creatures may get away from pain, hopelessness and despair." 
[297] Again, this incomparable apphcation is briefly put in 
the holy Bhadracaryd Gdthd.^ " As Mafijusri the hero knows, 
and as the Buddha Samantatabhadra knows, following them, I 
apply all that good by that application of merit which was 
praised as chiefest by the Jinas who are in the past, present 
or future, I am appl5dng all this good in this holy Bhadracaryd.'* 

^ Edited and translated by a Japanese scholar in a Strassburg doctor's 
Dissertation about 191 3. 



CHAPTER XVII 

THE PRAISE OF WORSHIP 

The Ordinance of Praise and so forth has been described : 
whence is it known that merit increases thereby ? From the 
holy Avalokana Sutra. Thus it is there said : 

[298] " He renounces the eight unfavourable moments 
which I have indicated, and he chooses that one moment when 
the Buddha arises in his purity. Fair, beautiful, provided 
with the marks, possessed of strength and power, he does not 
fall into sloth. Pre-eminent and wealthy is he, invincible and 
full of merit ; reverencing the light of the world he does 
obeisance again and again. He arises in merchants' famihes 
rich and pre-eminent ; he would be liberal, a hero, of free 
generosity, not envious ; he would be a righteous king, monarch 
and lord of the four continents, he would rule all the earth with 
its circuit of ocean and mountains, of great prosperity, an 
emperor, possessed of the seven jewels, established in rule, he 
does obeisance to the Buddhas again and again. When he leaves 
this world he goes to heaven, rejoicing in the Jina's salvation, 
and becomes Sakra King of the gods, lord on the peak of Mem. 
He cannot tell all the praise of Buddha in countless ages who 
should venerate the shrine of the lord of the world. 

[299] " Verily he is not Wind or lame even in countless ages, 
who cultivating the heart of wisdom venerates the shrine of 
the Teacher. Firm in resolution, firm in strength, a chieftain 
firm in might, he speedily comes to good fortune by venerating 
the shrine. If one should honour thousands of millions of 
Buddhas for a like number of ages, he who in this last age, in 
this horrible time, should worship a shrine has greater merit. 

270 



REWARDS OF WORSHIP 271 

Pre-eminent is Buddha, unequalled, to be venerated ; one who 
has walked in the pre-eminent way and attained excellence ; he 
who does worship to this chief of men becomes in consequence 
best and incomparably beautiful. 

" Departing hence from mankind he goes to the Thirty- three, 
gets a palace there, magnificent, made of jewels. Who himself 
gives an upper chamber, is surrounded by his troop of fairies, 
and he who puts a garland on the shrine is bom among the 
Thirty-three. He would get a divine lake full of the eight 
qualities of water, with golden sand bestrewn with jewels and 
crystals. After enjoying that bliss and fulfilling his time the 
wise man descends from the world of gods and becomes a 
prosperous man. [300] Thousands and millions of births he 
would be honoured, after giving a garland to the shrine. He 
becomes an imperial monarch and Sakra the lord, and Brahma 
in Brahma's world, for giving a garland to the shrine. If one 
gives a gift of leaves to the sainted lord of the world, for him 
all blessings increase both divine and human. He would 
sacrifice things small and poor and he does not come into 
being here the next time. If he makes a booth of festoons for 
the lord of the world's relics, he would become a powerful 
king with uninterrupted pomp. He is dear and cherished, 
honoured and praised of gods and nagas and all the wise men in 
this world. Where that hero is born, illumined by the light of 
merit, those families are respected, those countries and those 
towns. 

[301] * ' He who takes a speck smaller than a grain of mustard 
seed and burns incense on the Blessed One's shrines, hear me 
sing his praises and be your hearts serene, leaving obstinacy 
and sins. He virtuous walks over all regions, altogether full of 
health, firm in mind, vigilant ; he subdues pain, and walks 
in virtue, dear and beloved of the people. If he has a kingdom 
he reverences the Jina, the supreme, great in power, a wise 
emperor, golden coloured, with the various marks, and receives 
precious perfumes in all the world. As soon as bom he receives 
the best clothes, silken garments divine, pre-eminent, well 
made. He is blessed with a beautiful body when he has clothed 



272 THE PRAISE OF WORSHIP 

the shrine of the lord with robes. He who does worship at 
shrines of the incomparable chieftains with robes, his nature 
in this world becomes unequalled, covered with the thirty-two 
marks. 

[302] " On the palms of the hands resplendent pearl necklaces 
appear for many an endless age, Hon-garlands with strings 
bright in colour, if one have en wrapt the Blessed One's shrine 
with robes. By placing a banner on the Blessed One's shrine 
and making the prayer ' May I become a Buddha in the world,' 
he becomes worthy of honour by the people, walking noble in 
the Jina's course. His person becomes golden coloured, he 
receives brilliant robes, well-made cotton coverlets, and fine 
silk fabrics. If he gives a flag to the mighty one without stain, 
he gets great wealth very soon, plentiful treasure is his, he is 
endowed with endless wisdom, his conversation is magnanimous. 
He does not plant a thorn in the thoughts of another, he is 
serene in mind, vigilant ; fire has no power upon him, not 
poison or knife, he is looked up to by the people. [303] From 
now to the destruction of the world the Buddha's field is 
golden ; it is not possible to weaken such a life and glory, if 
one fix but one Hght on the Buddha's shrine. His body is 
faultless in its proportions, he is healthy, iron-armed, un- 
dismayed, he walks in splendour through all the world, who 
sets up a light upon the shrine. Like as if Buddha fields a 
hundred thousand million were full of mustard seeds piled 
into mountains, so one cannot count or weigh or tell what is 
one light given to the Tathagatas. He who gives one sunshade, 
adorned and brilHant to see, to the Blessed One's shrines, his 
person is incomparable in this world and covered with the 32 
marks, by which the person of the Jina is resplendent, like the 
shining form of gold, or fine gold brilliant to see, all flowered 
over with lucky marks. He is endowed with supernatural 
knowledge and mighty glory, walks in best and noblest virtue, 
his enjoyment never diminishes, he is honoured and worshipped 
by gods. 

[304] " He never delights in sensuality, he is heroic, pure in 
morals, good in virtuous conduct ; he takes the vow and 



REWARDS OF WORSHIP 273 

dwells in the air of the forest, devotes himself to meditation 
and attains excellence. No diminution of knowledge is there 
ever for him, he loses not anyhow the thought of enlightenment ; 
he lives in benevolence happy at heart, who has given a sun- 
shade to the Blessed One's shrines. He who does worship to 
the mighty one with a musical instrument, he verily does not 
come into the power of sorrow's pangs ; pleasant-voiced he 
becomes in the world of men, his tones 1 are calm and pure. 
Clear-eyed is he, with full consciousness, clear of hearing and 
lofty in thought, his sense of smell is extremely keen, who has 
played upon an instrument of music at the Blessed One's 
shrines. His tongue is very fine and excellent, full subtle and 
deHcate, in sound fine and pleasant, red and crimson as that 
of the gods, uttering an infinite number of fine distinctions in 
sound. He surely becomes not a serpent or a creature without 
tongue, 2 nor lame and crook-backed, nor again one with bent 
Umbs ; his person is excellent and resplendent who has played 
upon an instrument of music at the Blessed One's shrines. 
No one surely feels displeasure ^ at him, god or naga or serpent- 
demon : full of courage he walks the earth, who has played 
upon an instrument of music at the Blessed One's shrines. 
Thousands of millions of ages he is excellent of body and 
perfect in every Hmb, amiable and covered with lucky marks, 
for cleansing a shrine of the Blessed One who has attained 
Nirvana. [305] A noble palace he obtains, of delightful 
scent, divine, excellent, of bright sandal wood ; he has no 
craving at any time, after cleansing a shrine of the Blessed One 
in Nirvana. At the time of destruction of the noble Conqueror's 
rule, he is never then to be found in Jambudvipa ; he is in 
heaven estabhshed at that time, if he has anointed with 
perfume a shrine of the Conqueror. All the lusts, disgusting, 
unclean, contemptible, he escapes, established in his mass of 
virtue ; he walks along in that walk of holiness, who has 
anointed with prefume a shrine of the Conqueror. When he 
leaves this earth he is lord of the Maruts in heaven ; he counts 

1 * Divisions of sound," Tib. ' Said, for example, of a frog. 

* aprasddam, as is clear by context ; see also M.V. ii. 383**. 



274 THE PRAISE OF WORSHIP 

his wealth in thousands without delay ; he works the good of 
many deities, if he has anointed with perfume a shrine of the 
Conqueror. Excellent in speech he is, delightful in voice, 
dear and beloved, and revered by much people, his happiness 
is alw^ays peaceful, if he has anointed with perfume a shrine 
of the Conqueror. He avoids aU spheres of ruin, he is near to 
the Tathagatas, he always receives favour, happy and lovable, 
if he has anointed with perfume a shrine of the Conqueror. 

** [306] He avoids all unlucky times, for him are the eight 
lucky moments in especial, he does unequalled worship to the 
Buddhas, who has given a covering of net to the Blessed One's 
shrines. He becomes a hero, firm of spirit, vigilant, takes no 
dehght in the enjoyment of pleasure, attains renunciation, is not 
cast down, who gives a covering net to the Blessed One's shrines. 
He does not lose the thought of enlightenment, he is of virtue 
unbroken, well protected, gets righteousness without passion, 
all cleansed, who brings a net for the Blessed One's shrines. 
He avoids harsh speech at all times, always eschews fooKsh- 
ness, wide in wisdom he abides in virtue, who has brought 
a net for the Blessed One's shrines. He receives pure food, 
gets garments excellent and well-coloured, soft, fine to look 
at, who brings a net for the Conqueror's shrines. He that 
throws away from the Conqueror's shrines useless and withered 
garlands with joyful feeling, will avoid lusts, painful, hateful, 
terrible, and will please the caravan-leaders of the Dasabala.i 

[307] " He becomes agreeable, pure of body, to be looked up 
to and revered by many, not even a king is angry with him, 
who takes away from a shrine the withered flowers. All bad 
roads are avoided, and the region of misfortune ; that Bodhi- 
satva is estabhshed in a mass of virtue, who takes down from the 
Conqueror's shrines a flower formerly placed there by other men. 
Griefs and faults he avoids undeluded, aU the many diseases he 
avoids, consolation he has for endless ages, who takes away 
withered flowers from a shrine. He becomes Buddha, notable 
beyond all others, with no like, to be worshipped by men and 
gods, he becomes adorned and pure in body, who takes away 

* The Bodhisatvas. 



REWARDS OF WORSHIP 275 

withered flowers from a shrine. And he that should give a 
beautiful celestial flower, mystic flowers, 1 or a trimipet-flower, 
or who should take away from the shrine one that is defiled, 
for him there would be a reward choice and unequalled. He 
that reverently does obeisance to the Lord's shrine, fixing his 
will on the whole Buddha's world, he becomes in this world 
respected and honoured, agreeable and reverend. All people 
flock to his kingdom in this world, gods and titans, nagas and 
men ; he rules all the thousands of worlds, in full flower, he 
rules the kings in his power also and the lords ; all the beings 
that are in his kingdom, he will establish in the Buddha's pure 
wisdom. The spheres of misfortune are avoided, and he 
works for them the best and choicest good. [308] His con- 
versation 2 is of pleasing report ; full of virtues, to be revered 
for memory and mind, full of confidence he walks in the world, 
he has always as his purpose affection for the best. His 
conversation is with a voice beautiful and clear, he would be 
recognized by his voice so sweet and gentle ; no one has 
lordship over him ; he is one for the people to gaze at. He 
produces in the multitude joy in giving, pleasantness, benefi- 
cence, equality 3 ; being reviled he would not be angry, who 
reverently does obeisance at the Buddha's shrine. He becomes 
the king of the gods when he enters heaven, or as a man he is 
king, there is never any decay in him who does obeisance at 
a shrine in this world. He would never fall into misfortune 
and he would avoid all low desires in the world, he is rich above 
all, with great treasure, who does obeisance at the Buddha's 
shrine. He never uses magical charms, he never is angry out 
of due season in the world of men, people are pleased and de- 
lighted with him, who utters one word to the Man of Virtue. * 
[309] Who takes a handful of flowers, and glad with jubilant 
heart sprinkles them over the lord of the world, he becomes 
meritorious in the world of men, and abiding in safety reveres 

1 mdnddrava : Erythrina fulgens. 

Correct text to x^fxTTd U- ^ 302*. 

* See Childers, sarngaho s.f., for the four samgahavatthus. Dh. S. xix. 

* Buddha. 



276 THE PRAISE OF WORSHIP 

the Conqueror. Griefs and faults and the stain of obduracy 
are not his ; with unequalled austerities, his limbs well composed, 
revered by the multitude, he will avoid desires terrifying, 
hateful, horrible." 

Again, it is said in the holy Mahdkaruna-pundanka Siltra : 
" Let alone the man, Ananda, who should reverence me face 
to face ; let alone worship of my body with things no bigger 
than a leaf of mustard ; let alone the dedication to me of 
builded shrines ; whosoever, Ananda, thinking of the Buddha, 
shall cast but into the air only one flower the ripening of their 
mass of merit is that these people,^ as long as the transmigration 
which has no beginning, the former end of which is not known, 
who pass through so many ages, gain the place of Indra, of 
Brahma, of universal empire the limit of this merit cannot 
be reached. Let alone thought of the Buddha, even the 
throwing of just one single flower into the air, if even persons 
only in sleep throw into the air but one flower thinking of the 
Buddha, that I declare to be a root of good, which issues in 
Nirvana." 

And it is said in the holy Brhat-sdgara-ndgardja-pariprcchd : 
" Bodhisatvas endowed with eight qualities always Bhuja- 
gadhipati, attain without interruption association with the 
Buddhas. And what are these eight ? By instigating people 
to look on the image of Buddha ; by doing service to the 
Tathagata ; by constantly speaking the Tathagata's praises ; 
by making a Ukeness of the Tathagata ; by instigating all to 
look on the Tathagata ; and in whatever Buddha's field they 
hear word of the Tathagata, there they set their longings ; 
they are never depressed ; always in exaltation they crave the 
Buddha's wisdom." 

How much more does he who asks increase of merit have 
his aim accompHshed by association with the Buddha ! the 
goal of which virtue none could attain but he who is all-knowing. 

[310] As it is said in the holy Gandavyuha : 

'* Hard it is to hear of a Buddha even in hundreds of ages ; 
how much more the sight of him, resolving all doubts, supreme 1 

1 Omitting saced. 



ASSOCIATION WITH THE BUDDHA 277 

This illuminator of the world, having arrived at the under- 
standing of all things,! when well seen, is a gate of merit for 
the three worlds, cleansing all creatures ; a field full of great 
merit, a gladsome circle of wisdom, illuminating the infinite 2 
world, increasing the mass of merit, breaking the net of pain, 
cleansing the mass of knowledge ; they have no fear of unhappi- 
ness by whom the Conqueror is pleased. Wide is the thought 
of those who behold the chief of men ; a force of wisdom arises 
incalculable and bright." 

Again, in the same place he says : " For the good of all 
beings arise the Tathagatas, great in compassion, mighty, 
turning the wheel of the Law. How can the Buddhas, devoted 
as they are to the good of all, be requited by aU flesh even in 
countless ages ? Better to roast in three states of suffering, 
most cruel, for a million ages, than not to see the Teacher, who 
put an end to all existence. ^ As many as the various states of 
unhappiness in all the world, better to abide long in them than 
not to hear the Buddhas. Why is dwelling even a long time 
in hell recommended ? Because the sight of the royal Con- 
queror increases knowledge. [311] All pains are annulled 
when one sees the Conqueror, monarch of the world, and there 
is an entrance into wisdom, the field of the Supreme Buddha. 
One destroys all hindrances by seeing the Buddha, noblest of 
men ; he increases infinite merit by whom enhghtenment is 
attained." 

So this is the opportunity for increasing merit by asso- 
ciating with the Buddha. Now even to see the Hkeness of 
the Tathagatas has infinite fruit ; how much more, by his 
very self ? 

For it is said in the holy Sraddhdhalddhdndvatdramudrd 
Sutra : "If any young man or woman, Maiiju^ri, should give 
day by day food of a hundred flavours to the Pratyeka Buddhas, 
as many as the dust of all the universe, and bright vestments, 
and thus giving should give for as many ages as the sands of 
Ganges ; and if another young man or woman, Mafiju^ri, 

1 So Tib. quite clearly. Reading ^fi t (il 

* Obscure : perhaps refers to samsara. 

T 



278 THE PRAISE OF WORSHIP 

should see the Buddha, whether in a painting or in a manu- 
script ^ ; this produces merit infinitely greater than that ; 
how much more then, if any hold out reverent hands, or give 
a flower, or give incense, perfume, lamp ? This produces merit 
infinitely greater than that." 

Again, in the holy Bodhisatva-pitaka is described a way to 
increase merit. " He that cleans a shrine of the Tathagata, 
he attains four purities of aspiration in perfection. And what 
are these ? Perfect purity of aspiration in form,^ in steadfast 
undertaking, in seeing the Tathagata, in the multitude of lucky 
marks." 

Again, in the same place it is said : " One who lays a flower 
on the Shrines of the Tathagatas, or anoints them, attains eight 
things without deficiency : and what are these ? No de- 
ficiency in form, no deficiency in enjoyment, [312] no deficiency 
in his surroundings, no deficiency in virtue, no deficiency in 
tranquillity, no deficiency in knowledge, in wisdom, in aspira- 
tion." 

It is said also in the holy RatnardH Sutra : " Those beings 
that belong to the three states of existence, ^ let them all make 
shrines for each of the Tathagatas, of such an height, as is 
Sumeru King of Mountains, and let them pay worship to each 
of these through as many ages as the sands of the Ganges are : 
and let a Bodhisatva, with a mind of untrammelled omniscience, 
put but one flower there, he would produce greater merit than 
all that merit aforesaid." 

In the same place it is said : *' Be all those who are in the 
infinite multitude of worlds estabUshed in the Great Vehicle ; 
be they all possessed of imperial rule, and let each imperial 
ruler make a lamp as large as the great ocean, and kindle a 
light as tall as Sumeru, and offer such a light at each of the 
shrines of the Tathagatas : yet if a Bodhisatva who has left 
the householder's life put a wick in some oil and light it and set 
it on a Tathagata's shrine, that former offering of lights is not 

1 Tib. has " idol " for this. 

* I do not understand this. No help in Tib. 

' See Childers, s.v. bhavo. 



COMPARATIVE VALUE OF GIFTS 279 

worth one-hundredth part of this oil- wick . . . there's no com- 
parison between them. ... If again those who are imperial rulers 
should honour the order of Brethren, Buddha at their head, 
with soft cushions, and if a Bodhisatva who has left the house- 
hold life and goes on alms-pilgrimage should share with the 
rest what is in his bowl, giving them to eat of it ; this is greater 
and more precious than that. And if those imperial rulers 
should pile up a heap of robes as high as Sumeru and give to 
the Order of Brethren, of whom Buddha is the head, and if a 
Bodhisatva who has left the household Hfe should give every- 
thing except his three robes to the Order of Brethren, whose 
head is the Buddha, established in the Great Vehicle, or to a 
Tathagata's shrine : this Brother's gift of robes surpasses that 
aforesaid heap of robes. And if those kings singly should 
bestrew all Jambudvipa with flowers, giving them to a Tatha- 
gata's shrine, and if a Bodhisatva who has left the household 
life should place even one flower on a Tathagata's shrine ; 
that aforesaid gift is not one-hundredth part of this, . . . there's 
no comparison between them." 

[313] It is declared also in the holy Anupurvasamudgata- 
parivarta : " Looking at these four excellent advantages, the 
Bodhisatva is zealous in the worship of the Tathagata. Which 
four ? I shall have worshipped the best recipient, and others 
seeing me will learn to do so ; by worshipping the Tathagata, 
the thought of enlightenment will become firm ; by seeing the 
two and thirty marks of the Great Man, a root of good will be 
accumulated : these are the four." 

Thus to provide worship for the Tathagata is a thing with- 
out superior; as it is explained in the holy Sdgaramati-pariprcchd 
Sutra : ** These three ways of worshipping the Tathagata are 
unrivalled, Sagaramati. What three ? When one develops 
the thought of enlightenment, when one comprehends the Law, 
when one develops the thought of great compassion towards 
all." 

It is shown also in the holy Ratnamegha : " Bodhisatvas, 
young sir, are born untouched with the impurity of the womb, 
who have ten things : and what are these ten ? These : 



28o THE PRAISE OF WORSHIP 

Making a Tathagata's likeness ; building up an old shrine ; 
giving perfume and ointment to Tathagata-shrines ; washing 
the Tathagata's hkeness with scented water ; sweeping and 
anointing the Tathagata-shrines ; body-attendance on parents 
and teachers, and on readers ; body-attendance on holy men ; 
and that too with heart not greedy but free from greed ; and 
this good they thus apply, saying, ' By that root of good let 
all beings be born untouched with the impurity of the womb/ 
And they think with keen aspiration, i These are the ten things, 
young sir/' 

The advantages of rejoicing are described in the holy 
Prajndparamitd : "He that rejoices over the production of 
these thoughts 2 in the great Beings, the Bodhisatvas, who are 
just established in the Great Vehicle ; he that rejoices in the 
production of these thoughts in those Bodhisatvas who are 
practising that way of Ufe; he who rejoices in success of those 
Great Beings, the Bodhisatvas, who return no more to hfe ; 
[314] how much greater a heap of merit. Blessed One, does that 
young man or woman produce ? ' This said, the Blessed One 
replied to Sakra, King of the gods. . . . ' Let it be possible, 
Kau^ika, to conceive measure of the infinite multitude of worlds 
as compared with a tip of straw ; yet it is not possible to 
conceive the measure of merit in these thoughts, full of rejoicing, 
in the Bodhisatva, the Great Being.' This said, Sakra King 
of the gods said to the Blessed One : ' Delivered over to Mara 
those beings must be judged, who hear not and know not, and 
do not feel this joy, that infinite is the merit of this rejoicing in 
the Bodhisatvas, the Great Beings, from the first resolution 
to become Buddha down to the moment when they have 
attained supreme wisdom. On Mara's side they will be. 
Blessed One.' The Blessed One said : . . . ' Those men or 
women, Kau^ika, who rejoice at these thoughts, whether they 
be in the Bodhisatvas' Vehicle, or the Pratyeka Buddhas' 
Vehicle, or the Disciples' Vehicle, they will quickly please the 
holy Tathagatas, the perfectly wise.' The Blessed One said : 

1 =the resolve to become a Buddha. 

* Correct text sis*** to avinivartaniyandm api. 



MERIT OF REJOICING 281 

' Thus by those roots of good in thought, full of rejoicing, 
wherever these shall arise they shall be honoured, revered, 
respected, worshipped, praised, and reverenced ; they shall not 
see disagreeable shapes or hear disagreeable sounds, nor shall 
they have disagreeable smells, tastes, or touchings ; for them 
there need be no fear of birth in states of misfortune, but they 
may look for birth in heaven. And why so ? Because they 
have rejoiced in all the bringing of happiness to all beings and 
roots of good for infinite beings, . , . and they having attained 
supreme enlightenment shall wholly emancipate countless and 
infinite beings/ " 

Again in the same place he says : "All beings, Subhiiti, in 
all the infinite worlds, as the sands of Ganges for multitude, 
could attain the supreme and incomparable wisdom, and having 
attained it [315] could enjoy the Four Esctasies through ages 
as many as the sands of the Ganges are : yet if a Great Being, 
a Bodhisatva possessed by this transcendental wisdom and 
skilfulness in using the means of salvation, shall rejoice over 
the mass of virtue, tranquillity, wisdom, emancipation, know- 
ledge of emancipation, of the Buddhas past, present and future ; 
putting together all the mass of virtue, tranquilhty, wisdom, 
emancipation, and knowledge of emancipation of the student 
Pratyeka Buddhas also, in a lump, and weighing it, should 
rejoice over it all, with a jubilation perfect, best and most 
good, choice, fine, pleasant, excellent, unrivalled, supreme, 
unequalled, incomparable, with no like, if then having thus 
rejoiced, one should apply to supreme enlightenment the merit, 
that results from the rejoicing, then, Subhiiti, that former 
mass of merit, containing the Four Ecstasies, belonging to the 
Bodhisatvas who have consciousness of their religious acts, is 
not worth a hundredth 1 part of the merit that results from 
rejoicing, . . . there is no comparison between them." 

This same method is described as concerning the application 
of the merit. Or from the fact that this merit has been applied 
to a supreme end towards the quality of Buddha, there would 
be Buddhahood due to good actions and aspirations. Then 

* For the rest of the enumeration, see Vajracch. p. 35. 



282 THE PRAISE OF WORSHIP 

how could there be a better growth of merit ? For this merit 
which is realised through the freeing of all creatures, is impreg- 
nated with knowledge, and admits of no doubt. 

The praise of asking for instruction is given in the holy 
Ugra-pariprcchd, in order to comprehend the Law for guarding 
one's Hfe in numberless and infinite fields of the Buddha. 



CHAPTERiXVIII 

RECOLLECTION OF THE THREE JEWELS 

[316] In the Sixteenth Chapter was discussed the growth of 
merit ; in this the chief subject is, What is the continual 
practice of faith and the other virtues. 

As it is said in the holy Tathdgata-guhya Sutra : " These, 
O King, are the four quaUties of those estabHshed in the Great 
Vehicle, useful for specific attainment ^ without falling away. 
What four ? Faith, O King, leads to specific attainment and 
hinders loss ; and what faith ? The faith by which one 
approaches the saints, and does not what one ought not to do. 
Reverence, O King, leads to specific attainment ; by which 
reverence one hears a thing well said, and desires to hear it, 
and hears the law without closing the ears. Humihty, O King, 
leads to specific attainment, by which one shows respect and 
honour to the saints, and so will do. Courage, O King, leads 
to specific attainment, and hinders loss ; by which courage one 
gets readiness of body and mind, and safely performs all that 
has to be done. These, O King, are the four.'* 

These, faith and the rest, must always be practised ; so of 
others, which he speaks of in the holy Kshayamati Sutra, these 
five powers. " What five ? The power of faith, fortitude, of 
remembrance, of concentration, of wisdom. Here what is 
faith ? That faith by which one believes in four things. And 
what four ? He believes in right worldly insight in the matter 
of transmigration in the world : he becomes confident in the 
ripening of action, and knows, that whatever deed he shall do 
he shall have the fruit of it ; not even for Ufe's sake does he sin. 

* See Childers, 584 b : ecstasy induced by dwelling on a specific thought. 

283 



284 RECOLLECTION OF THE THREE JEWELS 

He believes in the virtue of a Bodhisatva, and having entered 
on this hfe [317] he does not wish for any other Vehicle. 
Hearing all the doctrines consisting in the chain of causation, 
real, clear and profound, consisting in behaviour according to 
selflessness, not-being, not-living, not-personality, consisting 
in void, absence of attribute, sinlessness,i he has faith in them. 
He follows none of the heretical sects, he has faith in all the 
Buddha's qualities, confidence 2 in his strength and the rest ; 
and having beUeved, his doubts gone, he attains those qualities 
of a Buddha. This is what is meant by the power of faith. 
And what is the power of fortitude ? The quahties which he 
beheves in by faith, he attains by the power of fortitude : this 
is what is meant by the power of fortitude. And what is the 
power of remembrance ? The qualities which he attains by 
his fortitude he keeps from destruction by remembrance : 
this is what is meant by the power of remembrance. And what 
is meant by the power of concentration ? The qualities that 
he keeps from destruction by remembrance, on these he fixes 
his thought by concentration : this is what is meant by the 
power of concentration. And what is meant by the power of 
wisdom ? The qualities which he fixes his mind on by con- 
centration, these by the power of wisdom he investigates and 
learns to understand, and this individual wisdom not dependent 
on another is called the power of wisdom. Thus these five 
powers, conjoined and developed, complete all the Buddha's 
quahties, and confirm that stage where he receives the prophecy 
that he will become a Buddha." 3 

The powers of faith and the rest must always be practised ; 
as it is said in the holy Ratnacuda Siltra : '* In this place what, 
young sir, is the purification of the Bodhisatva's exercise of 
his powers ? that by these same powers he becomes supported 
and not to be crushed by all the Maras : not to be captivated 

1 Dh. S. 73 ; Cp. Mrs. Rhys Davids, " Compendium of Philosophy," 
Aniniddha, p. 67, 

* There are four vaisaradyani : abhisambodhi", sarvasatvaksayajfiana'*, 
antarayikadharmananyathatvaniscitavyakararia, nairvai;iikamargavatarai;ia''. 

See IVIahavyutpatti 8, Dh. S. 77, Childers, s.v. vesarajja. 



THE FIVE POWERS 285 

by the Vehicles of Disciple and Pratyekabuddha : not to be 
diverted from the Great Vehicle : unconquerable by all 
passions : firm in his promises once made : content in heart : 
strong in body : guarded by his powers : unconquerable by 
the leaders of sects," and so forth. 

So much for the constant practice of faith and the other 
virtues with a view to increase of merit. 

What is compassion ? As he says in the Candrapradtpa 
Sutra : [318] " All the worship of many kinds, immeasur- 
able, which is found in countless millions of fields, if one 
perform all that worship always towards the noblest man, 
yet he of compassionate heart is out of all comparison by 
counting." 1 

What is it to remember the Buddhas and so forth ? 

It is described in the Rdshtrapdla Sutra : " I praise thee, 
like the colour of gold, with choice marks, with face Hke the 
bright moon ; I praise thee full of unequalled wisdom ; there 
is none Hke thee in the world stainless. Thy hair and nails are 
gentle, pleasant, friendly, bright, thy head-excrescence 2 is Hke 
the King of mountains. It is not possible to look on thy head- 
excrescence ; the circle of hair shines between thine eyebrows, 
O Sage. Like the drops on a jasmine, a shell, the bright snow, 
like the blue lotus thy dear and beautiful eyes. With the same 
tenderness with which thou lookest upon this earth, I praise 
thee, clear-eyed Conqueror. A tongue long and thin and red, 
and thy mouth with which thou concealest it, and speaking 
the Law dost teach the world : I praise thee and thy sweet and 
lovely speech. Teeth clean, firm Hke the thunderbolt, thirty 
and ten moreover, set close together ; smiHng thou teachest 
the world ; I praise thee with thy sweet and truthful speech. 
In form thou art unequalled, a Conqueror, with thy glory 
thou dost illuminate a hundred fields. Brahma, Indra, the 
lords of the earth are obscured, O Blessed One, by thy glory. 
[319] O Blessed One, legged finer than a deer, with the gait of 
elephant, peacock, or lion, you walk looking just a yoke's 

* i.e. compassion is better. 

* A small lump represented on the Buddha's head. Dh.S. Ixxxiii. 23. 



286 RECOLLECTION OF THE THREE JEWELS 

length before you, O Blessed One, wandering over the moun- 
tain slopes of the earth. A body, Blessed One, covered with 
lucky marks, skin soft and Uke gold in colour. The world has 
never enough of looking at thy lovely form, O thou of form 
I incomparable. Thou hast fulfilled vows and austerities through 
/ ages past, thou art devoted to all unselfishness, self-control, 
generosity; thy mind has mercy and compassion for all 
creatures : I praise thee, the most compassionate. Thou 
deUghtest always in generosity and in virtue, thou delightest 
in tranquiUity and fortitude, firm-set, thou hast meditation, 
wisdom, glory : I praise thee, possessor of wisdom unequalled. 
Thou art great in eloquence, subjugator of the wicked, thou 
roarest hke a Hon in the assembly, thou art the chief physician, 
the death of the three uncleannesses : I praise thee, chief 
inspirer of love. O Sage, pure in voice, body, and mind, in the 
three worlds Hke an undefiled water-lily ; O thou that hast the 
voice of Brahma, thy voice is Hke the cuckoo : 1 praise thee, 
who hast passed beyond the three worlds. This world is all 
illusion, thou knowest it to be like a stage play, or a dream : 
no self, no being, no Hfe, aU things are Hke a mirage or the 
moon reflected in water ; the world, knowing not the truth of 
emptiness and peace, rolls through the transmigrations : thou 
through thy pitifulness dost deHver them by hundreds of 
devices leading to their salvation. [320] Having seen the 
world perplexed always by many hundreds of passions, thou 
walkest like a physician incomparable, O auspicious one, 
freeing hundreds of creatures. Having seen the world destroyed 
by birth, old age, death, and sorrow, always diseased by count- 
less lamentations for separation from what is dear, O Sage, 
thou walkest freeing it by thy pity. Like a cart-wheel all the 
world roUs round, in animals, in the hell of ghosts, in bHss, 
fooHsh, unguided, helpless ; thou showest it the best way. 
This is the same holy path in the olden time told by those 
who were formerly Conquerors, righteous lords and doers of 
good in the world, this that thou showest, O mighty one un- 
equalled, a road charming, smooth, pleasant, choice, excellent 
in hoHness, causing supreme deHght ; this song thou singest 



PRAISES OF THE BUDDHA 287 

surpassing Gandharvas, the best Kinnaras, and Apsarasas, a 
voice purified by ways of salvation consisting in truth and 
rectitude incorruptible, with endless merits ; hearing which 
myriads of beings cherish tranquillity through the three Vehicles. 
By thy worship they get bhss of various kinds, divine ; thus 
amongst men one becomes rich, wealthy, powerful, a king 
doing good to the world, an emperor, lord of a continent, 
covering the world with the ten blessings ; 1 he gets the seven 
jewels, most auspicious by confidence in thee, unparalleled. 
[321] Brahma also and Sakra he becomes, lord of the world, 
a happy lord of the gods, appointed also lord of Yamas, and by 
thy worship he becomes Conqueror. Thus thy worship is 
unfailing, the sight and hearing of thee is unequalled, and thy 
footstep excellent and pure touches the world full of all kinds 
of pain. O Blessed One, knowing the road and skilled in it, 
thou keepest this world from the wrong path ; thou dost 
estabHsh the world, O Blessed One, in a holy path, safe, 
auspicious, clean. Imperishable for ever is the meritorious 
conduct of thee, rich in merit, a treasury of merit ; in countless 
aeons it fails not until it attain the chiefest wisdom. He 
attains a purified field, delightful, the pleasing glory of the 
highest heaven : 2 people become pure in body, voice, and 
mind, in that wonderful field. So thus the man receives 
choice virtues of all kinds as a result of praising the Conqueror ; 
at the end of paradise he receives bliss amongst men, and he is 
a treasury of merit in all the world. The auspicious Conquerors 
ever proclaim thy praise and glory, far and wide in all regions, 
over hundreds of fields, thy renown in the assembhes, their 
afflictions gone, deliverers in the world, with their pleasant 
doctrine, compassionate beyond all, their senses calmed, devoted 
to tranquillity. O Blessed One, I praise thee, chiefest and best 
of men. [322] When I have received the five transcendent 
faculties, poised in the sky, O Conqueror, having heard thy 
voice, I shall be a hero like the Auspicious One, I shall dispense 
pure doctrine to the world, praising and blessing the Auspicious 
One who transcends all virtues, honoured by men, gods, and 

* See Ghilders, s.v. Knsalam. Childers, 336(1. 



288 RECOLLECTION OF THE THREE JEWELS 

nagas. May the world also receive this wide merit that is 
acquired, and the Buddha's footstep." ^ 

Or as it is told in the holy DharmasangUi Sutra : " More- 
over, the Blessed Buddhas are possessed of great merit and 
wisdom, they are full of great mercy and great compassion, 
they protect a mighty host of creatures, they remove thorns with 
their potent remedies, they have a quiet mind and tranquiUity 
for all creatures. By Nirvana they set free from trans- 
migration, . . . Uke mother and father, 's\ith hearts like a 
friend's . . . unconquered by all the world, the glory of all 
the world, possessed of mighty powers, magnanimous, followed 
by multitudes, with excellent followers, courteous in giving 
sight or hearing without hindrance, regardless of their own 
happiness, loving to quench others' pain, loving the Law, 
bringing the Law, fetching the Law, healing by the Law, lords 
of the Law, masters of the Law, generous givers of the Law, 
ever devoted to unselfishness, ever vigilant, ever bent on 
discrimination, ever ready to open the way to instruction, like 
a royal road, . . . lovely in look are the Blessed Buddhas. 
Thus he calls them to mind ; and thus having called them to 
mind he fixes the memory in order to develop their virtues. 
This is meant by calling the Buddhas to mind." 

In the same place he describes remembering the Law. 
" Here this thought comes to the Bodhisatva : * These Blessed 
Buddhas who are possessed of virtues endless and unlimited, are 
born from the Law, have the Law as their abode, created by 
the Law, have the Law as their principle, as their light, as their 
field of activity, their resource, are accomplished by the Law, 
. . . and all the blessings that are in this world and beyond 
it, [323] they also are bom of the Law, produced by the Law. 
Therefore must I be desirous of enlightenment, valuing the Law, 
reverencing the Law, taking refuge in the Law, finding support 
in the Law, getting vigour from the Law, going according to 
the Law, entered into the Law.' This is what is meant by the 
Bodhisatva's remembering of the Law. Again, this thought 
comes to the Bodhisatva : * Equal is the Law, equal for all 

* Correct 322 ^ first word to ^"TgfT. t^^ ^a-'i ^orm : it is a misprint in the text. 



PRAISE OF THE LAW 289 

creatures ; the Law has no respect unto low, middle, or dis- 
tinguished. As the Law is, so must I keep my thought. The 
Law has nothing to do with regard for the pleasant ; impartial 
is the Law ; as the Law is, so must 1 keep my thought. The 
Law does not depend upon time, for above time is the Law, 
self-evident, to be experienced by each for himself ; as the 
Law is, so must I keep my thought. The Law is not in the 
lofty, without being also in the low, the Law is without bending 
up or bending down ; as the Law is, so must I keep my thought. 
The Law is not in things pure without being also in things 
damaged, it is remote from superiority and inferiority ; as the 
Law is, so must I keep my thought. The Law is not in saints 
without being also in worldlings, it has no respect to fields ; 
as is the Law, so must 1 keep my thought. The Law is not in 
the day without being also in the night, or in the night but not 
in the day, the Law is established always ; as the Law is, so 
must I keep my thought. The Law does not let sUp the season 
of conversion ; there is nowhere procrastination in the Law ; 
as the Law is, so must 1 keep my thought. In the Law is 
neither emptiness nor fullness, for the Law is immeasurable 
and Umitless, like the air it wastes not away and grows not ; 
as the Law is, so must I keep my thought. The Law is not 
defended by any creature, it defends all creatures ; as the Law 
is, so must I keep my thought. The Law seeks no refuge, the 
Law is the refuge of all the world ; as the Law is, so must I 
keep my thought. There is no resisting the Law, for the Law 
is irresistible ; [324] as the Law is, so must I keep my thought. 
The Law implies no incHnation, for it is without incUnation ; as 
the Law is, so must I keep my thought. The Law fears not 
the danger of transmigration, nor is it pleased with Nirvana, 
for the Law is without affection always ; as the Law is, so must 
I keep my thought.* Thus the Bodhisatva remembers the 
Law, Uke the Law. This is the meaning of remembering the 
Law." 

In the same place he says : " For the Order speaks the Law 
and does the Law, has the Law in the heart, it is the field of 
the Law, it supports the Law, takes refuge in the Law, worships 



290 RECOLLECTION OF THE THREE JEWELS 

the Law, does the duties of the Law, behaves according to the 
Law ; is upright in nature and pure in nature, compassionate, 
merciful according to the Law, always behaves with discretion, 
always has support in the Law, acts clearly always, and so 
forth. Then as the Bodhisatva remembers the Order, this 
thought comes to him : ' The qualities that belong to the 
Order, those must also be brought about for myself and all 
creatures.' " 

As the Bodhisatva's qualities are described in the holy 
Vimalaklrti-nirde^a, so must we keep the Order in remembrance. 

" All the aspects of all creatures, whatever be their voice 
or their words, the Bodhisatvas are so clever as to display 
them in one instant. They become old and diseased and show 
death in themselves, for the ripening of living creatures dis- 
playing illusory appearances. They show the secular con- 
flagration, burning up the world ; to mortals who think that 
things are permanent they show their impermanency. Invited 
by a hundred thousand beings in one kingdom, they eat in 
the houses of all and incUne all to wisdom. If there be any 
skill in charms or in manual arts of all sorts, in all these they 
everywhere attain perfection and bring happiness to all beings. 
[325] If there be any sectaries 1 in the world, they become 
members of these ; thus they bring to ripening all creatures 
by following after divers heretical ways. They become the 
moon or the sun, Sakra and Brahma lords of all creatures, 
they become Water and light, earth and gods. In the inter- 
mediate ages of disease, they become medicine, those supreme 
ones, by which those beings are set free, and become happy 
and healthy. In the intermediate ages of famine, they become 
food and drink ; dispelUng hunger and thirst they preach the 
Law to all that have breath. In the intermediate ages of war- 
fare they are intent upon compassion ; they persuade hundreds 
of myriads of beings not to do harm. In the midst of great 
conflict they are impartial ; they approve union and reconcile- 
ment, these mighty Bodhisatvas. Whatever hells there are 
in the infinite fields of the Buddhas, of set purpose they go 

^ Tib. ya mt'san, " miracle men." 



PRAISE OF THE ORDER 291 

thither for the good of all beings. In all the states of existence 
as animals that are known, everywhere they preach the Law, 
therefore are they called Guides. 

*' They practise enjoyment among the sensual, they show 
meditation amongst those who meditate ; they destroy Mara 
and give no opening to him. As a lotus in the fire exists not,i 
even so they show that desires and meditation exist not. 
[326] Of set purpose they become a courtezan to draw men, 
and alluring them by the hook of lust, estabHsh them in the 
Buddha's wisdom. They become villagers at any time, or 
merchants, or chaplains, courtiers great or small, for the good 
of the world. For the poor they become treasures inexhaustible, 
and giving them gifts, produce the thought of enlightenment. 
Amidst those who are stiff in pride they become mighty 
athletes ; they seek the supreme wisdom that destroys all pride. 
When any are tormented with fear they stand ever before them, 
they give them security, and ripen them for wisdom. Becoming 
the five kinds of transcendent knowledge, virtuous sages, they 
school all beings in virtue in the effort of mercy and tenderness. 
They look on the reverend who need service in this world, they 
become clever servants or slaves and render obedience. They 
do everything clever in every kind of service to make one be- 
come a lover of the Law. [327] Whenever there is need of 
endless training and endless practice, they have endless know- 
ledge and release endless creatures. Not in myriads of ages, 
nay hundreds of myriads, even when the Buddhas speak, 
would there be an end to the sweet tale of their virtues." 

As in the holy Ratnolkadhdrani the qualities of Bodhisatvas 
are told, so must they be cultivated. " Emitting fight, with 
quantities of garlands, garland- crests, garland-masses, all sorts 
of garlands scattered everywhere, the great-souled do the 
worship of the Conqueror. Emitting fight, heaps of aromatic 
powder, lumps of powder, masses of powder, all sorts of powder 
scattered everywhere, the great-souled worship the Conqueror. 
Emitting fight, garlands of lotus, masses of lotus, quantities of 
lotus, all sorts of lotus scattered everywhere, the great-souled 

^ Tib. read n in 19. 



292 RECOLLECTION OF THE THREE JEWELS 

worship the Conqueror. Emitting pearls, masses of pearls, 
heaps of pearls, all sorts of pearls scattered everywhere, the 
great-souled worship the Conqueror. Emitting light, banner- 
tops in array, the banners yellow, red and tawny, some blue, 
variegated flags. The Conqueror's fields are adorned with 
banners, these are arrayed with nets of jewels, pennons and 
flags hanging down like strings, nets of bells resounding the 
Conqueror. They hold up sunshades over the Tathagata's 
head, as they do for the One Conqueror, and so with the palm 
of the hand they do infinite worship to all the remaining 
Conquerors. 

" This is the miraculous tranquillity of the sages ; these the 
miracles of the popularity and knowledge of the Conquerors, 
devoted to supreme tranquillity, homage and service are 
accompUshed by them. [328] Some instruct all creatures in 
a thousand expedients by means of the Tathagata's worship, 
by means of infinite gifts and generosity, by means of the 
practice of all asceticism, some by means of patience indestruc- 
tible and imperturbable, by means of the heroism of austerity 
and vows, by means of meditation and calm in the hermitage, 
by means of the knowledge of discriminating what is good, by 
means of thousands of expedients, by means of transcendent 
good- will, by means of well-wishing, the elements of popularity, 
by means of knowledge of accumulation of merit ; some by 
means of truth, of dependent origination, and deliverance, 
by means of powers and senses, by means of release by the 
Disciples' Vehicle, by means of purification by the Vehicle of 
the causes,! by means of the miracles of the supreme Vehicle, 
some by means of impermanence and suffering, some by means 
of not-individuality and not-life, by means of detachment 
following on the idea of loathsomeness ; 2 as many as are the 
ways of conduct in the world, in so many ways of Law they 
enter in ^ ; as many as are the means of universal deliverance, 
they convert all creatures according to their dispositions in 
the world ; but these who by means of universal dehverance 

1 ^pratUyasamutpdda. * See Childers, s.v. asubha. 

* Read oirfVfT. 



VIRTUES OF THE SAGES 293 

instruct all creatures according to their dispositions in the 
world, it is impossible to recognize ; this is the miracle pro- 
duced by meditation. These show the excellent meditation of 
the palace of pleasure, 1 suitable for ripening all the world ; 
they show all pleasure, joy and dehght on purpose, and thus 
they convert all. When in time of famine all the goods that 
bring happiness to the world are hard to get, then by accom- 
pUshing the wishes of all they give gifts, and work the good of 
the world by the best of choice food, drink and flavours, by a 
variety of jewels to fasten their clothes, by renouncing kingdoms, 
wealth and what is pleasant to themselves, [329] and convert 
all those who are devoted to Uberality. Their hmbs are 
distinguished by choice marks, with most beautiful ornaments, 
choice heroes, adorned with wreaths and anointed with per- 
fumes. Shomng beauty of form, they convert all creatures 
who are dehght ed in pleasantness and joy ; choice of form, 
beautiful, wise, showing the perfection of beauty, they convert 
the people who dehght in beauty ; with sparrow-chirpings like 
honey, with the note of cuckoo, wild swan, and Himalayan 
pheasant, with voice of drum, kinnara, and brahma preach 
the law amongst all that dehght in these things. The four and 
eighty thousand, through whom the Conquerors accomplish the 
good of the world, these everywhere with voices that disclose 
doctrine convert all creatures in the world according to their 
disposition. They give help in weal or in woe, they are helpers 
in good or in evil fortune, helping in all needs they convert all 
creatures with the voice of help. They support the incon- 
veniences made by pain and calamity with the object of helping, 
their help overcoming pain for the good and happiness of all 
the world ; and where there is no going forth as ascetics, no 
law known, no dehverance in the forest, there, helpers in 
royalty and prosperity, their minds peaceful in their going 
forth houseless, [330] to release all the world from the bondage 
and thirst of the household hfe, themselves free from abiding 
in sensual pleasures of all sorts, they preach dehverance by 
going forth from the household hfe ; they following the ten 

1 Tib. read ^ xfriO- 

U 



294 RECOLLECTION OF THE THREE JEWELS 

kinds of good conduct, walk in the law of the great men ; 
following all the behaviour of the sages without exception, 
they work the good of the world ; where Hving creatures are 
of immeasurable age, filled with felicity, and of few faults, there 
burdened with age, laden with disease, they show the power of 
death, themselves free ; showing the world ablaze with passion, 
ablaze with sin, ablaze with the great fire of delusion, aflame 
with old age, disease, and death, they instruct all creatures, 
with the ten powers, the four kinds of confidence, ^ and the 
eighteen excellences in Law, pointing out the Buddha's 
greatness of soul, by the Buddha's virtues they work the good 
of the world. By miracles manifesting the supernatural 
power of the Tathagata, by their power over form on all sides, 
they convert all beings by transformation that comes from their 
supernatural power. They walk the earth working the world's 
good by all kinds of ways and means ; like a lotus unsoiled in 
the water 2 they go doing pleasant and gracious things ; they 
are poets and kings of poets, they are actors and dancers, 
musicians and wrestlers, fakeers, cleaners, dancers, robbers, 
jugglers, showing these many shapes, [331] they become 
villagers, guides, and charioteers, they become traders, mer- 
chants, householders, kings, courtiers, chaplains, messengers, 
learned physicians, men versed in the scriptures ; they become 
great trees in the forest, herbs, treasures of immortal jewels, 
the wishing-gem, trees that give all desires, guides to those that 
go astray. May those who know not all these arts and crafts 
speedily see these in the world. They teach in the world how 
to be husbandmen or tradesmen, and artisans of all sorts, who 
not harming or hurting any are the bringers of all bliss and 
praised for wisdom ; all kinds of learning in science and potent 
herbs are produced by those sages, who become masters in the 
rules of the sages to which this world and the gods are devoted, 
who are strict of will, foremost in austerity, all this is produced 
by these wise men ; 3 they become sectaries, Caraka or Pari- 
vrajaka, or observers of the ascetic Gotama's vow of silence, 

1 See Childers, s.v. vesdrajja. * Tib. read padmam. 

3 See J.R.A.S., 1901, p. 124. 



THEIR GOOD DEEDS 295 

or the devotees of the naked unclothed Gum : they become 
leaders of the sects. [332] Or they may belong to such as 
observe the Ajivika system, whether those who have or those 
who have not the higher aim, those that have long coils of hair, 
those who took the vow as youths, amongst these also they 
become leaders. Among the ascetics who endure the five 
fires, turning to the sun, those who have the dog-vows and 
cattle- vows, those who act as beasts of the chase, followers of 
some of the observances of the thirty sects, amongst these too 
they become leaders. For such as delight in initiation into the 
knowledge of the deity, for those who travel from place to 
place exhibiting the sects, they live on roots, fruits, and water 
and also become masters in these endless systems. For those 
who remain squatting upon their heels, or who wander 
alone, whose bed is on thorns, ashes, or grass, who rest on 
a pestle-pole and so live, amongst these too they become 
leaders. 

*'If there be worldly sectaries who are outside the pale, 
amongst these observing the faith, by sharp, dangerous, and 
cruel penances they instruct the sectaries how to get rid of 
unhappiness. [323] Knowing that people are troubled with 
heresies, sectaries plunged in all heretical doctrine, they teach 
them by subtle verses with which all creatures are enlightened ; 
to some by charms of Dramida,i they preach the truth by 
secret verses ; some by words straight and clear, and to some 
also by words that are mysterious, to some by words in separated 
syllables and to some by thunderbolt verses with determination 
of sense, to some by words of wisdom that crush the adversary, 
to some by words setting free from unrighteous books, to 
some by words of human charms, by words in all manner of 
languages, to some by words in the language of gods, by words 
in the language of Naga or Yaksha, by words in the language 
of Rakshasa or Gandharva, of demons, goblins, or great serpents, 
words of Kinnara, Apsara, or Garuda, they bring truth, en- 
lightenment, and deliverance. They also, knowing the rules 
of interpretation according to truth, they who are of the 

* That is, the Dravidian country. 



296 RECOLLECTION OF THE THREE JEWELS 

Conqueror's fashion wholly, knowing the path of speech to 
knowledge beyond thought, preach the miracles of tranquillity. 

" They, because of the world's welfare, earnestly desiring 
tranquillity for all the world, emitting glory beyond thought, 
shedding rays of glory, convert all creatures ; to those creatures 
who see the glory there comes a beautiful and fruitful and 
transcendent source of wisdom. They show the Buddha, they 
show the Law, they show the Order, they show the road to 
men ; they show the images of the Conqueror in the shrines, 
so that they emit the ray of beauty in perfection. [334] They 
emit the ray called Splendour-making, which makes the curved 
splendour of the Maruts, and dispelUng all mist and darkness, 
this blazes in splendour for those that are dear to the world. 
Incited by that ray, all beings keep alight the lamp of worship 
for the Conqueror. They also keeping the lamp of worship for 
the Conqueror, become conquerors who make lamps for the 
world, giving oil-lamps, ghee-lamps, lights of wood, grass, reeds, 
bamboos, lamps of perfumed and precious plants, when they have 
received the splendour-making ray amongst the Conquerors. 
They emit the ray called Ferrying-over. Incited with this 
brilUancy people 1 . . . ferrying in a ship on the paths of the river. 
Things material are despised, tranquilHty is praised ; so that the 
Ferrying ray is brought to fulfilment. 

'' The ray named Thirst-dispelling : with this brightness 
people being incited cast off the thirst for sensual objects and 
desire the choice flavour of righteousness and deHverance, 
the}'' become Buddhas, they rain the water of immortahty, 
dispelHng thirst and craving for all the world, they make rivers, 
pools, tanks full of lotus, springs welHng forth, the causes of 
wisdom ; desire is blamed, meditation is praised ; thus the 
DispelHng of Thirst is accomphshed. When they emit the ray 
Causing Dehght, by this brightness people being incited, 
spreading delight, produce thought causing spontaneous 
dehght, [335] the body of these beneficent beings resting upon 
a lotus adorned with lucky marks, proclaiming always the 
Buddha's virtues ; thus the ray Causing Dehght is accompHshed. 

* The Tib. shows that several lines have dropped out. 



THEIR MIRACULOUS RAYS 297 

" They send forth a ray named Pleasure-causing : people 
awakened by this brightness are always pleased with the 
Buddha, the Law, and the Order, they are always pleased with 
those three saints among the righteous company who consort 
with the Buddha, all those many beings who attain resignation 
to the idea of not being reborn, ^ and so they are incited and 
reminded, saints among the righteous company who remember 
the Buddha, having developed and displayed the virtues of 
enlightened thought. Thus the Pleasure-causing ray is finished. 

" They emit the ray Accumulating Merit. People incited by 
this brightness give all manner of gifts, craving supreme en- 
lightenment, to fulfil the wish of suitors ; their sacrifice is 
unhindered as they perform it ; having given gifts according 
to every wish, the ray of Accumulating Merit is accompUshed. 
They emit the ray which is Full of Wisdom : people are stirred 
by this brightness. This discloses in a moment the fact that 
Righteousness is one, though it is approached in many ways. 
[336] This ray gives to creatures who are seduced by the variety 
of things a share of knowledge in the discrimination of objects, 
making an illumination of the meaning of rehgious texts ; 
thus this hght of wisdom is finished. They emit the ray of 
BrilHant Wisdom. People incited by this brightness have 
recourse to the void, they see that things are without substance, 
unborn and undjdng, without being or property, Hke mirage 
and illusion, hke the moon in the water, hke sleep, or reflections 
in a mirror, void, without owner, indifferent : the ray of 
Brilliant Wisdom is finished. They emit the Ray of Holy 
Miracles ; by this ray incited, people having received the 
indestructible treasure of the charm, they receive the treasures 
of all the Tathagatas, they do reverence to all the supporters of 
the Law, they make a pious support of the sages, they protect 
the Law of the world : the Ray of Miracles is finished. They 
emit the Ray of Renunciation. Those greedy ones who are 
incited by this learn that enjoyments are unlasting and imper- 
manent, and become devoted to renunciation. Persons greedy, 
hard to tame, unsubdued, knowing that wealth is the stuff 

* Anutpattikakshanti, Dh. S. cvii. 



298 RECOLLECTION OF THE THREE JEWELS 

of sleep or clouds, are pleased in mind with the growth of 
renunciation : the Ray of Renunciation is finished. They 
emit the Ray Incombustible. By this vicious persons incited 
become established in purity of manners, and they conceive 
the thought, ' May I become Buddha.' [337] In the good and 
virtuous path of action, they undertake virtues by solemn vow, 
which awakens the minds of many persons by their vow : 
thus the Ray Incombustible is accomphshed. They emit the 
Ray of Patience made Manifest. By this unrestrained persons 
are affected. Leaving all anger and undue self-conceit they 
become always devoted to patience. Patience in misery, 
unshaken mind in those who are unfortunate for the sake of 
enlightenment ; the virtues of patience are always praised. 
Thus the Ray of Patience made Manifest is finished. They 
emit the Scorching Ray by which apathetic persons are in- 
cited. They do the right and proper worship to the Three 
Treasures, not weary in well-doing ; thus doing right and 
proper worship to the Three Treasures, not weary in well- 
doing, they pass by the four ways of Mara and soon touch 
the supreme enhghtenment. Because one has made many 
beings take on heroism ; having done worship to the three 
Treasures, he has upheld doctrine at the time of destruc- 
tion : thus the Scorching Ray is attained. They emit the 
Tranquillizing Ray, by which restless persons are affected. 
Amongst them is neither passion nor wrath nor delusion, 
they become enlightened, their thoughts steadfast, thus 
shaking themselves free from association with sin, bad friends, 
and wickedness in their conduct they praise meditation, 
tranquil in the forest : thus the Tranquillizing Ray is accom- 
plished. They emit the Ray of Wisdom made Manifest, by 
which unwise persons are affected ; in this way, the Truth, 
dependent origination, deHverance, they attain the moral 
qualities and perception. 1 [338] Having attained the faculty 
of perception 2 . . . ha^ng attained the Sun-illumination 
trance, they become Conquerors, kindhng the brightness of 

* Reading yf^F^TJ as in next verse. See Childers, s.v. indriyam. 
2 A line is omitted. 



THEIR MIRACULOUS RAYS 299 

wisdom, by renouncing kingdom, wealth, and what is dear to 
themselves, respecting the Law which is sought as the cause 
of enhghtenment, they manifest that Law. Thus the Ray of 
Wisdom made Manifest is finished. They emit the Ray of 
Buddhas, by which brightness people are incited. Many 
thousands of Buddhas, thousands beyond thought, they behold, 
seated on forests of lotuses, they declare the Buddha-release of 
the great-souled Buddha, the Buddha's innumerable miraculous 
transformations, disclosing the increase of the Buddha's power : 
thus the Buddha-Ray is accomplished. They emit the Safety- 
giving Ray, by which touched, beings, tormented by fear,^ 
hurt, stricken, held in bonds by evil spirits, are set free from all 
misfortunes. Those to whom safety is offered are kept from 
killing living creatures ; saved are the terrified because they 
have found a refuge : thus the Safety-giving Ray is accom- 
pUshed. They emit the Ray that gives All Blessings, by 
which the sick and suffering are affected. Wholly delivered 
from disease and pain, they receive the blessings of the trance 
of meditation ; they drive away sickness, giving roots and 
fruits, healing herbs, precious flavours, sweet ointments, 
fruits, sap, honey, ghee, oil, for eating and drinking. 

[339] " They emit the Ray of the Vision of Buddhas ; beings 
touched by this ray at the end of the waning of life remember 
Buddha, they see Buddha, being reborn they go into a Buddha's 
field. They die, and remembering the Buddhas, see apparitions 
of Buddhas, which cause joy ; as at death they cry ' refuge in 
Buddha,* they attain the Ray of the Vision of Buddhas. They 
emit the ray called the Exposition of the Law, by which bright- 
ness people are affected. They recite the Law, hear it, write it, 
they become always devoted to the Law. When the Law is 
scarce, they declare the Law ; the hope of those who search 
for the Law is fulfilled ; do they but say. Produce aspiration 
and apply yourselves to the Law, they obtain the Ray called 
the Exposition of the Law. They emit the Sounding Ray to 
stir up the sons of Buddha ; and whatever be the volume of 
sound in the three worlds, all hear the voice of the Tathagata : 

Reading TPf >nfTffff- 



300 RECOLLECTION OF THE THREE JEWELS 

thy praise the great sages with a loud noise, by the offering of 
kites and mighty bells, they make a din to sound the noise of 
the Conqueror throughout all the world : the Sounding Ray is 
accompUshed. They emit the Ray that gives Immortality, by 
which illumination the people are moved ; by renouncing the 
practice of distraction, i they attain possession of all virtues ; 
they declare that things composite are full of much pain and 
calamitj^ and always unstable, but the joy of peace and pain- 
lessness is always stable ; by this declaration the Ray that gives 
ImmortaUty is accomplished. They emit the Most Excellent 
Ray, by which brightness people are moved. They hear the 
excellent virtue, the excellent meditation, the excellent wisdom 
of the Conquerors : [340] chief in virtue, chief in meditation, 
chief in wisdom is the great royal sage, who is praised and lauded 
as the cause of enUghtenment ; thus the Most Excellent 
brightness is accomplished. 

" They emit the Ray of Manifestation of the Treasures, by 
which brightness people are moved. Having received the 
deposit of the imperishable treasure they worship the great 
sages with choice treasures, lavishing treasures upon the 
Conqueror and the Conqueror's shrine they attract all people 
by the treasures, bestowing treasures on the Conquerors : the 
Ray of Manifestation of the Treasures is accomplished. They 
emit the Ray of Splendid Perfumes, by which brightness people 
are moved. From the odour of superhuman and delightful 
perfumes there arise Buddha-virtues innumerable ; because 
they have done worship to the lords of men with perfumes and 
ointments human and divine, the Conqueror's shrines are all 
perfumes : the Ray of Splendid Perfumes is accompHshed. 
They emit the Ray of Manifestation of Many Colours, the 
many-coloured banners and flags of Indra, with resounding of 
music and wafts of perfume, brilliant and divine flowers scattered 
abroad, they approach the worship of the Conquerors with 
music, flowers and ointments, incense and powders, spreading 
of parasols, flags and banners : thus the Ray of Many Colours 
is accomplished. They emit the Ray of Delighting. The 

1 Tib. implies something like IHTT^^, ot f^. 



THEIR MIRACULOUS RAYS 301 

earth stands as smooth as the pahn of the hand as they cleanse 
the hermitage-shrines of the sages, ^ and thus the Ray of 
Delighting is accompUshed. 

"They emit the Cloud-like Ray; there are the clouds 
showering perfumes ; they sprinkle the path about the shrine 
with cinnamon and scented water : the Cloud-Uke Ray is ac- 
complished. 

"They emit the Decoration-manifesting Ray; the naked 
become clothed 2 and ornamented. They give various clothes, 
girdles, necklaces: the Decoration Ray is accomplished. 
[341] They emit the Ray of Choice Flavours; the hungry 
receive food of choice flavours, they give all manner of food 
and drink of choice flavours : the Ray of Choice Flavours is 
accomplished. The Ray that shows Wealth they emit ; the 
poor receive gifts of treasures : by giving plenty of the three 
imperishable treasures the Ray of Wealth is accomplished. 
They emit the Eye-cleansing Ray; then the blind see all 
manner of shapes : by giving of lamps to the Conqueror and 
the Conqueror's shrine the Eye-cleansing Ray is accompHshed. 
They emit the Ear-cleansing Ray, and those without hearing 
hear many sounds : by giving music to the Conqueror and the 
Conqueror's shrine the Ear-cleansing Ray is accomplished. 
They emit the Smell-cleansing Ray, and they that smelt not 
before smell sweet perfumes : by giving perfumes to the 
Conqueror and the Conqueror's shrine, the Smell-cleansing Ray 
is accomplished. They emit the Tongue-cleansing Ray, and 
they praise the Buddhas with dear and lovely words ; evil 
speech is prevented, gentle words are said, and this Ray is 
accomplished. They emit the Body-cleansing Ray, and those 
without senses receive good senses : by bowing the body to 
the Conqueror and the Conqueror's shrine the Body-cleansing 
Ray is accomplished. They emit the Thought-cleansing Ray, 
and all the insensate receive the power of thought : by bringing 
the thoughts within the power of meditation the Thought- 
cleansing Ray is accomplished. They emit the Form-cleansing 
Ray ; and one sees the bodies of the lords of men transcending 

* By scented water : marginal note. * So Tib. 



302 RECOLLECTION OF THE THREE JEWELS 

thought ; this is obtained by making shrines and various 
coloured pictures of the Buddha's bodies. They emit the 
Sound-cleansing Ray ; and one understands that sound is 
not sound and void : this ray is obtained by teaching that 
sound is produced from causes and Hke an echo. They emit 
the Scent-cleansing Ray, and all evil smells become sweet 
smells ; this ray is obtained by bathing the shrines of the 
Conqueror and the Bo-tree with waters i perfumed with the 
choicest perfumes. [342] They emit the Taste-cleansing Ray ; 
poisonous tastes lose their poison and become excellent ; that 
ray comes by giving all fine flavours to Buddha and disciples 
and to the spirits of one's ancestors. 

" They emit the Touch-purifying Ray ; hard becomes soft 
and pleasant to the touch ; showers of spears and tridents, 
lances and swords become soft garlands of lotus flowers, they 
walk on a road overspread with soft tapestries pleasant to the 
touch ; that Hght is the giving to the Conquerors of garments 
soft with flowers and perfumes and good store of garlands. 
They emit the Concept-cleansing Ray from every pore ; they 
think of the objects when they hear it emanating from those 
benefactors of the world, pleasing the intentions of the Con- 
querors ; things born from a cause are not born, the real body 
of things is a body not born; the true nature of things is 
everlasting, like as the sky : the Concept-cleansing Ray is 
accompHshed.2 

"They produce the Ray called Joy-first ; from the opening 
of each pore of the sages these rays issue forth as many as 
the sands of the Ganges, and each achieves a special purpose ; 
just as they issue forth from the orifice of each pore, as many 
as the sands of the Ganges, so from all the pores of the sages ^ 
without exception on all sides (such is the miraculous working 
of meditation) he emits each ray towards those who have 
previously been companions in the quality which causes each 
ray to be emitted ; such is the miraculous display due to the 

1 Reading if^O. 

2 Compare for the doctrines alluded to Vajracchedika, p. 43. 

3 Read T^m^. 



NOT ALL CAN SEE THE RAYS 303 

knowledge of the sages. Those who have been previously 
companions in their merit, who have rejoiced in this merit and 
prayed for it, who having seen it have accumulated good 
deeds, those men perceive this ray. Those who have accumu- 
lated good deeds and done meritorious actions, who have again 
and again worshipped the Buddhas, desiring a Buddha's quali- 
ties and greedy for them, these men the ray succeeds in 
stirring up. 

[343] " As one born blind sees not the sun, yet does the sun 
not cease, yet he rises upon the world, but he that hath eyes 
sees its rising and prepares for all his business ; even so is the 
Ray of the Great Ones ; there it is, but the vulgar see it not, 
even when they have left the world, ^ because they are plunged 
in falsehood, without aspiration. Even for the high-minded 
these rays are hard to obtain. Ornaments, precious stones, 
palaces, jewels, elixirs, ointments, perfumes, these belong to 
the great and high-minded, they are very hard to obtain for 
those in poverty : even so is the Ray of the Great Ones, there 
it is, and the vulgar see it not, being plunged in falsehood, 
without aspiration. Hard to obtain are these things, even for 
the high-minded. Whosoever having heard the analysis of 
these Rays has faith, aspiration, and contentment, for him 
there must be no more doubt, no more anxiety, nor indeed 
will he fear any more, saying, * I shall never be a great banner 
of virtues ' ; they practising the Meditation called the Creation 
of an Army, show to all the ten quarters incomparable sons of 
Buddha as their surrounding. Those masses of Rays create 
a beautiful lotus as large as the universe of three thousand 
worlds ; they appear seated upon this blossoming lotus ; such 
is the magical display of this Meditation. They raise up other 
lotuses as many as the atoms of dust in ten fields of Buddha, 
together with a surrounding company ; for they are surrounded 
with the sons of the Buddhas, some in a state of meditation 
and some not. Beings who have been ripened by these sages, 
and perfected by them in a Buddha's virtues, surround the 

* Tib. adds the equivalent of pravrajiiapi. It goes on ; " But the high- 
minded see them." 



304 RECOLLECTION OF THE THREE JEWELS 

great lotus, and stand in the celestial regions with outstretched 
hands. 

[344] "They enter into meditation with a child's body 
as the object of their contemplation, and they arise when it 
has become a vigorous youthful body. Concentrating their 
thought upon a vigorous youthful body, they arise when the 
body has grown old. Concentrated upon a body grown old as 
their object, they arise from the bodies of faithful female 
disciples ; concentrated in thought upon these, they arise from 
the bodies of Sisters ; concentrated upon these, they arise 
from the bodies of famous Brethren ; concentrated upon these, 
they arise from the bodies of Brahman pupils and not pupils ; 
concentrated upon these, they arise from the bodies of Pratyeka 
Buddhas ; concentrated upon these, they arise from the bodies 
of pre-eminent Buddhas ; concentrated upon these, they 
arise from the bodies of divinities ; concentrated upon these, 
they arise from the bodies of great naga sages ; concentrated 
upon these, they arise from the bodies of all sorts of beings ; 
concentrated upon these, they arise from one single pore ; 
concentrated upon one pore, they arise from every pore ; 
concentrated upon every pore, they arise from one hair-hole ; 
concentrated upon one hair-hole, they arise from all hair- 
holes ; concentrated upon all hair-holes, they arise from one 
atom of dust ; concentrated upon one atom of dust, they arise 
from all dust-atoms without exception ; concentrated upon all 
atoms of dust, they arise from the surface of the sea- water ; 
[345] concentrated upon the surface of the sea-water, they 
arise from the fruits of the jewel-tree ; concentrated upon the 
fruits of the jewel-tree, they arise from the Rays of the Con- 
queror ; concentrated upon the Conquerors' Rays, they arise 
from the rivers and sea-water ; concentrated upon the water, 
they arise from the glorious path as Mahatma ; concentrated 
upon the paths of fire, they arise from the path of the mind 
intent on remembrance ; concentrated upon the path of the 
mind, they arise from the surface of the earth as Mahatmas ; 
concentrated upon the surface of the earth, they arise from every 
divine mansion ; concentrated upon all divine mansions, they 



MYSTICAL MEDITATION 305 

arise from the sky 1 intent on remembrance. The spiritual 
exaltation 2 is infinite for those who have accumulated virtues 
infinite ; even if explained by the Conquerors for infinite ages 
it cannot be exhausted. The ripening of the world's action is 
infinite. The miraculous display of nagas, the miraculous 
display of Buddhas, the miraculous display of meditation in 
one who uses it, is infinite, though explained by all the Jinas. 
Placed in the power of the Eighth Deliverance, from being of 
one body they become of many bodies, and being many they 
become one again, and meditate amidst the blazing sky ; and 
though without great compassion, not desirous of wisdom, 
indifferent to the world, yet they show infinite transformations 
of the body ; then what cannot he show who desires the welfare 
of the world ? Sun and moon moving in the sky show their 
reflection in spring, lake, pool, well, or tank, in vessel, jewel, 
ocean, or river, of all parts. [346] In the same way, these 
heroes show their bodies infinite in all the ten regions, knowing 
all ways of meditation and deliverance, where the Tathagata is 
visible in his own essence. The deity of the ocean named 
Rutavati charms by her voice all beings sprung from the sea, 
that understand music. And this Rutavat, full of passion 
and sin, in all sound knowing the rules of counter-notes, having 
got in her power the mighty law of incantations, whom did 
she not deUght of men and gods both ? as making illusion 
with accompUshed skill she showed various endless forms, at 
any one moment in night or day showing whole months, or a 
hundred years, bright with light. Then making illusion, full 
of passion and sin, as she delighted the world, transforming by 
illusion, well taught in meditation and transcendent knowledge 
and deliverance, whom did she not delight with her knowledge 
of the rules of conduct ? As she made by miracle many forms 
at will, having put a thunderbolt on his foot as a phylactery, 
she showed a stature reaching from sea to sky, and her head 
equal with the top of Sumeru. And as full of passion and sin 
and delusion, he showed mighty powers equal with RShu, 

1 Reading ipRTJ. 

The Eight Spiritual Exercises : Childers, s.v. Vimokkho ; see below. 



3o6 RECOLLECTION OF THE THREE JEWELS 

crushing Mara, enlightening the world, to whom did not he 
show his endless power ? In the infinite transformations of 
Sakra in the battle of Gods, Asuras and Indra ; as many as the 
bilhons of Asuras, so many bodies of himself did Sakra make. 
[347] Each of all the chiefs of the Asuras thinks that Sakra 
himself is before him ; all fall into confusion or terror, thinking, 
Here is one is caught by him who wields the thunderbolt. Be- 
holding Sakra, who shows a thousand frightful eyes, emitting 
flames, holding the thunderbolt, his body clothed in armour, 
the power invincible, the chiefs of the Asuras flee away. Thus 
Sakra shows miraculous transformations in his desire for the 
victory of the gods, although the strength of his merit is weak ; 
how should there not be a miraculous display in the case of a 
being of merit inexhaustible, who works for the protection of 
the whole world ? Clouds born of the wind give rain ; again, 
clouds are dispelled by the wind ; by the wind the corn grows 
in the world, wind brings blessing to all creatures in the world. 
And this wind is^unpractised in the highest perfections, un- 
practised in the Buddha's virtues. Why should not they who 
show infinite ripening for the world, who have obtained the 
best, show miraculous transformations ? " 



CHAPTER XIX 

INCREASE OF HOLINESS 

[348] Another cause of the increase of merit is to be practised : 
that is the weal of all at all times. 1 

As it is said in the holy Ratnamegha : "He giving at a 
Tathagata's shrine or Tathagata's image a flower or incense 
or perfume, applies this so as to annul the wickedness of 
unsavouriness or dirt of all beings, and to get the Tathagata's 
quality. By accompHshing the act of cleansing and anointing 
he dispels ungracious ways of deportment, and causes the 
acquiring of gracious ways of deportment for all beings. By 
upHfting a flowery shelter, he accomplishes for all beings the 
dispelling of all passion and sorrow. As he enters the monastery 
he conceives this thought : May I make all beings enter the 
city of Nirvana. As he goes forth, he conceives this thought : 
May I make all beings go forth from the road of transmigration. 
When he opens the door of the house 2 he conceives this thought : 
May I open to all beings the door of the good way to Nirvana 
by transcendental knowledge. When he closes it, he conceives 
this thought : May I close all the doors of sin for all beings. 
When he sits down he conceives this thought : May I make 
all beings sit in the seat of \visdom. As he Ues on the right side 
he conceives this thought : May I bring all beings to Nirvana. 
As he arises thence he conceives this thought : May I make all 
beings to arise from going about to sin. As he goes to attend 
to his bodily needs he conceives this thought : May all beings 
go as the Great Being goes. As he sits there he conceives this 
thought : May all beings find as easy a purging of all lust and 

1 Karika 26^. * Read ^||{0' Tib. gnas khan. 

307 



3o8 INCREASE OF HOLINESS 

wickedness and delusion. As he makes all clean he conceives 
this thought : May 1 purify all beings from the dirt of sin. 
As he cleanses his hands he conceives this thought : May I take 
from all beings [349] the desire for all sins. As he cleanses his 
feet he conceives this thought : May I take away from all 
beings the dirt of sin in its many kinds. As he cleanses his 
face he conceives this thought : May I make clean for all 
beings all the ways of access to righteousness. As he rubs his 
teeth he conceives this thought : May I take away from all 
beings the various kinds of sin's defilements. He uses every 
position of the body for the good and blessing of all beings. As 
he greets the Tathagata's shrine he conceives this thought : 
Be all beings greeted in heaven and in earth." 

Or as it is in the holy Prajndpdraf^iitd. " Again, Sariputra, 
when the Bodhisatva, the Great Being, is in the midst of a 
forest of wild beasts, he must not fear, he must not be afraid, 
he must not fall into terror. And why not ? Because he has 
renounced all for the sake of all beings. Therefore he must thus 
think : If ravening beasts should eat me, let that be my gift even 
to them ; and my perfection of charity will thus be fulfilled, 
and the supreme and perfect enlightenment will be attained ; 1 
and thus I shall bring it about, that when I have been enlightened 
with the supreme enlightenment, in that Buddha's field there 
shall be and shall be known no beings whatsoever to have entered 
into the bodies of animals. When Sariputra, the Bodhisatva, the 
Great Being, is in the midst of a forest of robbers, he must not 
fear, he must not be afraid, he must not fall into terror. And 
why not ? Because all these Bodhisatvas, Great Beings, are 
ready to renounce all that is theirs, and a Bodhisatva must 
abandon even his body, must renounce even the means and 
necessaries of life. Thus he must think : If these take from 
me the means and necessaries of life, let that be my gift even 
to them. If any persons should uproot me out of life, then I 
must not feel hatred or anger ; I must not offend even against 
them with body, voice or mind ; thus by me at that moment 
will be fulfilled the perfection of charity, the perfection of virtue 

1 Inserted from lines 18-19 below. 



FRUITS OF PERFECT WISDOM 309 

the perfection of compassion ; and the supreme and perfect 
enlightenment will be attained. So will I do and so will I 
behave, that when I have attained the supreme and perfect 
enlightenment in that Buddha's district those and other faults 
shall not at all or in any place be found or seen. And, Sariputra, 
when the Bodhisatva the Great Being is in a waterless forest, 
[350] he must not fear, he must not be afraid, he must not fall 
into terror. And why not ? Because the Bodhisatvas are of will 
unterrified. And thus must he think : I must teach all beings 
how to destroy all thirst. A Bodhisatva, a Great Being, must 
not fall into fear. If I shall perish by thirst, yet nevertheless 
before all the world I shall conceive the thought of great 
compassion ; alas, these beings have small merit that in 
their world such waterless forests are known ; but I will so do, 
and so will I behave, that when I have attained the supreme 
and perfect wisdom, in that Buddha's field waterless forests 
shall no more ever be known anywhere. So will I endow all 
beings with merit, that they shall have most excellent water. 1 
So will I lay hold of firm courage on behalf of all beings, that 
the perfection of courage shall then and there be fulfilled. 
Again, Sariputra, when the Bodhisatva the Great Being is in 
the midst of a foodless forest, he must not fear, he must not be 
afraid, he must not fall into terror. Thus must he resolve: 
So will I lay hold of firm courage, so will I cleanse my own 
Buddha's field, that when I have attained the supreme and 
perfect wisdom, there shall no more be or be known in this 
Buddha's field any such foodless forests an5rsvhere. Those 
beings shall be happy and provided with all requisites, filled 
with all happiness ; and so will I do that whatsoever shall be 
the wish of those beings, whatsoever they shall desire in their 
mind, that shall come to pass ; just as all is brought to pass by 
the mind of the Thirty-three gods, so by their mind it will 
arise. So will 1 lay hold of firm courage for the sake of all 
beings, that the perfection of energy shall obtain full develop- 
ment at such a time. And there shall be no lack of the neces- 
saries of life for all beings everywhere and at every time." 

^ The phrase ashidngopeta occurs in Divyavadana, 127^'. 

X 



310 INCREASE OF HOLINESS 

So this, " all beings' weal in every circumstance," ^ is the 
cause of the growth of merit ; and it is to be seen in detail in 
the holy Gocara-parisuddhi Sutra. 

Moreover, " the pious and unworldly gift " Ms a means for 
the growth of merit. 

[351] As it is said in the holy Adhydsaya-samcodana Sutra : 
" When Maitreya gives the gift of righteousness, desiring no 
profit or honour, there are twenty advantages for his dis- 
interested gift. What are these twenty ? To wit : He is 
thoughtful, mindful, wise, intelhgent, steadfast, prudent ; he 
fully understands the transcendental wisdom ; he has httle 
passion, little hatred, little delusion ; Mara has no opening 
against him ; he is held in regard by the mighty Buddhas, and 
the supernatural beings protect him ; the gods place power in 
his body ; his enemies have no opening against him ; his friends 
are faithful to him ; his word is to be trusted ; he gains the 
four kinds of confidence ; 2 he is rich in spiritual joy, praised 
by the learned ; that gift of his is one to be remembered. 
These, Maitreya, are the twenty advantages." 

And in the holy Prajndpdramitd he says : "If, Ananda, 
you should preach the Law in the Disciples' stage to men of the 
Disciples' Vehicle, and if at that preaching all the beings in a 
Trisahasramahasahasra ^ world should attain to sainthood in 
your sight, yet the disciple's duty would not be done by you, 
my disciple. But if, Ananda, you should preach and reveal 
even one verse connected with the supreme perfection of 
wisdom to a Bodhisatva, a Great Being, thus I should be 
content with you, my disciple ; and if all the beings in that 
aforesaid world should by that former preaching attain to 
sainthood, then all that meritorious action of those saints, in 
gifts, in morahty, in meditation, would be a great body of 
merit. 4 What think you, Ananda, is this a great store of merit ? 
He said : Yes, great, Blessed One, great, Blessed One. The 
Blessed One said : But, Ananda, that man of the Disciples' 
Vehicle who preaches somewhat connected with the perfection 

1 Karika 26, i. ^ See Childers, s.v. vesdrajja, 

3 Name of a Buddhist world. * Vajracchedika, p. 39. 



MERIT OF PREACHING 311 

of wisdom to the Bodhisatvas, the Great Beings, gains greater 
store of merit than he ; and greater still than this, Ananda, 
gains a Bodhisatva, a Great Being, who preaches to another 
Bodhisatva somewhat connected with the perfection of wisdom, 
even one day. [352] Not to say one day, Ananda, even one 
forenoon. Not to say one forenoon, Ananda, even one half- 
hour, even one instant of time, etc. . . . this gift of the Law, 
Ananda, to a Bodhisatva, a great Being, becomes a root of 
good for all those of the Disciples' Vehicle and of the Pratyeka 
Buddlia's Vehicle. Thus the Bodhisatva, a Great Being, 
obtains a root of good. Possessed of such a root of good, it is 
impossible and out of the question that the Bodhisatva, the 
Great Being, should turn away from the supreme and perfect 
enlightenment. That is not possible." 

How is the gift of the Law to be given ? As it is set forth 
in the holy Saddharma-pundanka.^ 

" The sage, having meditated for a time, within his house 
with the door closed, after surveying all the Law in profound 
thought, should arise and preach with courageous heart. He 
is always in a proper position, conspicuous and well seated, 
when he preaches the Law, having prepared a lofty seat suited 
for him in a clean and pleasant place. He is clothed in a clean 
robe, well dyed with pleasant colours, covered with a black 
dust-cloak and robed in a full cassock. [353] He sits on a 
seat provided with a footstool, strewn with various drapery ; 
his feet well washen he mounts thereupon, his head and face 
anointed. Seated there on the pulpit of the Law, seeing all 
beings assembled and attentive before him, let him utter 
various discourse to the Brethren and Sisters. He should put 
laziness far from him, and he knows not the name of weariness ; 
the sage should put away all displeasure, and implant the 
power of Compassion in the assembly. The sage should 
speak of the excellent Law both night and day, with the aid 
of countless myriads of examples ; he should delight and also 
please the company and never ask anything at all there. 
Food and nourishment, meat and drink, clothes, beds and seats, 
* Chap, xiii., stanzas 24, 26-29, 32-35. 



312 INCREASE OF HOLINESS 

vestments, physic for disease should not trouble his thoughts, 
and he should not say anything about them besides in the 
assembly. [354] Only he should always be thinking in his 
enlightened mind : May I become Buddha, and these beings 
also ! This is for me the means to attain all happiness, that 
I declare the Law for the good of the world." 

In the same book he says : '* To no one even through love 
of the Law does he show any especial favour." 

In the holy Candra-pradipa Sutra he says again : "If they 
should suppUcate thee to obtain the gift of the Law, first say 
unto them, I am not taught in the greater scripture. Thus 
speak thou : You are wise in knowledge ; how can I speak 
before those of great soul ? Speak not hastily to them, but 
examining the recipient, if you discern a fit recipient then 
preach even uninvited. If you should see wicked persons 
many standing in the assembly, do not preach austerity, but 
praise the virtues of giving gifts. If there should be persons 
of moderate desires, pure, estabUshed in virtue, you should 
win their friendship ^ and [355] preach austerity. If there be 
a few that desire sin and many virtuous there, take your side 
and praise the quahty of virtue." 

It is said also in the holy Sdgaramati Sutra, to wit : 2 
" Peace, tranquiUity, conquered foe, plant, mirror, Mara's 
defeat, terror, meditation river, candid purity, washing away 
of dirt, the harmless, ejecting the harmful, swallowing, face 
averted, face turned to, aU attacks and all bonds nullified, all 
false teachers held fast, Mara's snares unbound, the seals of 
Buddha estabUshed, all Maras destroyed ; all deeds of Mara 
disappear by purification of the immovable stage. These, 
Sagaramati, are the charms duly performed by a preacher of 
the Law, by a preacher in the pulpit, by a preacher seated who 
diffuses through the whole assembly compassion which has 
attained the state of enlightenment. One should Hken oneself 
to the physician and the Law to medicine, and the hearers of 

1 So Tib. 

* These words are incoherent and sometimes nonsense, giving sound 
jingles as usual. They are simply transliterated in Tib. 



DISCRIMINATION IN PREACHING 313 

the Law to patients, and the Tathagata to the Good Being, 
convinced that the eye of the Law will last long, then bring- 
ing these magic charms to bear, one should preach the Law. 
Around him for a hundred leagues no Mara, no deity of Mara's 
retinue, will come nigh to cause bUndness, and whatsoever do 
approach cannot hinder him." 

In the same place he says : "A preacher of the Law should 
be clean, of pure behaviour, well bathed, cleanly housed." 

The giving of the Law is after this fashion : 

[356] " The mind of true enlightenment, 
this increase gives to hohness." * 

As it is said in the holy Ratna-karandaka Sutra : " For 
example, Mafijusri, as trees grow with various odours when 
they are nourished by the four elements ; even so, Maiiju^ri, 
is the Bodhisatva's root of good, accumulated by his various 
tasks ; it grows when nourished by the thought of enlighten- 
ment, directed towards omniscience." 

This kind of Bodhisatva-instruction has been always taught 
to beginners, to keep them in mind ; and in detail it is 
a matter for the very Buddha ; then of this instruction as 
described, 

Perfection lies in self-denial ; 

by never leaving watchfulness 

it comes by understanding full, 

by mindfulness and deepest thought. 2 

Here, when wicked and evil things have not arisen, he 
forms a resolution that they shall not arise, he strives, he 
puts forth strength, he controls and fixes his mind ; by this 
comes protection. 

When they have arisen, he forms a resolution that they 
shall be destroyed ; by this comes purification. And when 
good things have not arisen he forms a resolution that they 
shall arise, . . . and when they have arisen he forms a resolution 
that they shall abide and increase, and so forth. By this comes 
growth. And all these things are to be always surrounded by 

1 Karika 26b. * Karika 27. 



314 INCREASE OF HOLINESS 

vigilance, because the quality of being the root of all merit 
belongs to vigilance. 

As it is said in the holy Candra-pradipa Sutra : " All 
things that are praised as good, virtue and sacred knowledge, 
self-sacrifice and also patience, in all these the root is vigilance, 
that gains the treasure pointed out by the Blessed One." 

And what is this vigilance ? To be attentive to prevent 
destniction of what is wished or the approach of what is not 
wished : that is to say, as the attention of a servant who has 
taken a jar full of oil over a slippery place for a king ill- 
tempered and difficult to appease.^ 

[357] For it is said in the holy Tathdgata-gnhya Sutra : 
" Here what is this \4gilance ? A restraint of the senses. 
Seeing forms with the eye, one is not emotionally affected 2 by 
the primary or secondary marks. Thus while distinguishing 
objects with his mind he is not thus affected by their marks, 
he sees exactly as they are enjoyment and distress, and escape 
from transmigration. That is what is meant by vigilance. 
Again, vigilance is the mastery of one's own thought, consider- 
ation for other's thought, development of love of the Law by 
not ministering to the love of sin, all that is called vigilance. 
He that has faith and vigilance, Guhyakadhipati, must use 
courage accordingly, by which he perfects those things that 
cause vigilance and faith. He that has faith and vigilance and 
courage, Guhyakadhipati, must endeavour to attain full con- 
sciousness of what he is and does, so that he does not lose any 
of the things that belong to wisdom. He that has faith, 
vigilance, courage, Guhyakadhipati, with full knowledge of 
what he is and what he does, must earnestly make endeavour 
after a right state of mind ; ^ for, Guhyakadhipati, the Bodhi- 
satva that has the right state of mind recognizes what is as 
that which is, and what is not as that which is not . . . ; the 
eye exists from the standpoint of experience." * 

1 See jataka, i. 393, Kathasaritsagara, vi. 27 (trans, p. 239), Lalita Vistara, 
297-9, and Bodhicaryavatara, vii. 70. 

* In Pali, nimittam ganhdti is used of falling in love : Jat. ii. 344, 6 etc. 

' Dharma-samgraha, 108. 

^ i.e. it is empirical, conventional. 



FAITH AND VIGILANCE 315 

In the same place, he says : *' Always vigilance is the root 
of immortality, and the thought of enlightenment the root 
of what belongs to all creatures' good, and the mind wholly 
detached and separated is the root of all happiness." 

He said also : " One must exercise oneself in making no 
difference between others and self, if the thought of becoming 
a Buddha is to become strong. Self and not-self exist only 
relatively, just as the hither and further banks of a river, and 
therefore this is false. [358] That bank is not of itself the 
other bank ; then in relation to what could this bank ^ exist ? 
Self -hood is not of itself reaUsed, then in relation to what should 
there be another ? 

" If you say. No hurt comes to me by another's pain, and 
do not protect him ; why do you protect yourself so as not to 
be hurt by pain in a future body ? 

* ' To say : * The same I will be then also, ' is a false calculation, 
because he that is dead is one, he that is bom is another. 

' ' If another is born there, what is the use of merit ? What is 
the use of a young body's piling up riches for an old one } 
When that which is in the womb is dead another is born, the 
child ; when childhood is dead, boyhood ; for the destruction 
of this comes the youth, by destruction of this the old man ; 
how is it one body that is dead ? Thus each moment the body 
is different, like the hair and nails and so forth. Then by the 
leaving of childhood the child becomes the boy. The body is 
to be called self-existing only if it has stabiUty. If the body is 
something that has a shape, there is no body either in the 
embryo or in the cremated ashes ; if you maintain that it 
does exist in a subtle form without gross existence, then it is 
not to be seen by itself, and it cannot be called a body. I 
am not concerned with such a thing at all ; but the visible 
body is liable to destruction and it is only relatively true that 
there is a bond between the various stages. [359] If its 2 

1 Read O^rTTWr- 

^ Tad seems to be "a permanent substance." Some sayings in the 
scripture seem to imply such a substance ; but others deny it, and so does 
reasoning ; for the pradhana, the permanent substance as the Samkhya school 



3i6 INCREASE OF HOLINESS 

existence is established by the scripture, it is nevertheless 
denied both by reasoning and by scripture because the primary 
nature does not exist independently of the qualities ; nor are 
there three essential elements, and the qualities, if they exist, ^ 
are also each of three parts, and the rest of the world is nine- 
fold. 2 Without consciousness are such things as clothes; how 
can they consist of pleasure and so on ? Cloth does not come 
from such things as happiness, but happiness, etc., comes from 
such things as clothes : as they are not the cause of clothes, 
they exist not, and how can they be happiness ? Therefore by 
scripture and reasoning all that is composite is impermanent. 
Therefore the connection of cause and effect is not destroyed by 
evidence ; ^ it is seen in the particular series of each being ; 
how could it exist with permanent things ? The atom is not 
a unity without parts,'* because in such a unity there are no 
special divisions. Lamp-oil is used up and it is not seen being 
used up ; so things are not seen being used up every moment. 
To liken the series of moments of consciousness and its aggre- 
gation to a group or an army is a mistake ; nevertheless there 
is a notion of ' I ' in reference to this series and aggregation 
because of our habit of considering them as 'I.' Why, then, 
could not such a notion be produced with regard to other 
beings ? ^ [360] Therefore the world must be thus understood 
as an aggregation of spheres. The suffering of oneself and 
one's neighbour is to be prevented even if it be not really felt. 
Although not justified, if that suffering takes place in oneself 
and not in another, what is not justified must be eschewed 

understands it, has no existence. P. is the equilibrium of the three gunas ; 
it has no existence independent of these three ; it ought to be " three," and 
you deny it. Further, each of the three ought to be threefold, as it is mixed 
up with the two other gu9as. And the " rest of the world," that is the 
expanded or manifested universe, which according to the Samkhya is made of 
the three gunas, would be ninefold. 
1 Tib. suggests ^pjf^. 

* Tib. hgro-ba chog-ma mams dgur hgyur, i.e. "^f^f^^. 

* Read ^i mrf with Tib. mi gnod. 

* TT H' ^ITT M is a misprint for OlfpUT, which the MS. has. 

* That isf we may schoal ourselves to consider our neighbours as ourselves. 



THE NOTION OF "I" 317 

whether in oneself or in other, with all one's strength. If 
much pain comes by pity, why should we make effort to produce 
this suffering ? We answer : When we contemplate the pain 
of the world, how comes there much pain from pity ? Thus 
when the mind has become accustomed to regard pain and 
pleasure as aUke in another, ^ at the very going down into hell 
they are as wild geese going into a lotus plantation. When they 
are plunged in an ocean of joy at the deUverance of creatures, 
their satisfaction is complete ; even deliverance is nothing to 
them if it be without flavour. 2 Even after this acting for others' 
good there is no exhilaration and no dismay. There is not even 
desire for the ripening of merit because of the thirst for others' 
good alone. The happiness of all creatures in the world is really 
his own, there is no doubt of that. There is no room even for 
jealousy for others' blessings, since he considers them as his own.s 
[361] "The pointing out of sin is the same in others or in 
self ; and so a delight in merit is a vehicle to take one to en- 
hghtenment. Thus comes about the application of all merit 
without exception ; therefore merit is produced, infinite as 
animate nature. This is the last road, the beginning of the 
infinite joy of peace, bringing joy to the great multitude of the 
company of Bodhisatvas. And being always protected by 
the servants of Buddha with Vajrapani as their supreme chief, 
causing fear to Mara's cohorts, the royal sons of the Buddhas, 
in the chariot of enhghtenment, ride by that road, their praises 
sung by gods and others. Therefore identif3dng oneself with 
other creatures through constant practice for the sake of 
quenching others' pain one should renounce self and all such 
things. When one is in the grasp of desire, his pain is not 
quenched, because by preventing the appHcation of merit he 
causes pain ; and when the world is biurnt in the fire of pain, 
what dehght can there be in one's own * happiness ? When 

1 Tib. zhi dgah='^o, "having thus cultivated their soul by taking 
pleasure in appeasing the woes of others." 

* i.e. Nirvana is nothing without this beneficence. 

Tib. bdag-la phra-dog go skabs med, suggesting tHW^^N^^ 5f% II. 

* The MS. has ^fm. 



3i8 INCREASE OF HOLINESS 

one is burning all over, what happiness is there if one nail is 
not burned ? Desire for selfhood is the chief root of all pains. 
Therefore I destroy just this for all creatures, by abandoning 
my own good. 

[362] "Therefore desire, ^ knovvn for the arch-procuress, 
must be conquered with every effort, by remembering the 
truth about self, by the thought how the chain of causation is 
produced. If 2 for fear I do not abandon this self there is danger 
in not giving it,^ because each moment my body and thought 
are passing away. If wisdom can be received by the body, 
imperishable by perishable, pure by impure, then it is received 
by me. Thus having abandoned self let him follow the good 
of all creatures, hke an image of Bhaisajyaguru,^ not thinking 
of worldly things. Let him apply his own knowledge to the 
service of all creatures ; having duly guarded his wealth,^ let 
him use it for all creatures. One must produce the suffering 
which expels much suffering in oneself or another, and also 
that which produces much happiness.^ But passions, since 
they hinder the enjoyment of creatures, are to be swept away 
with all earnestness as the corpses of snakes are swept from a 
holy place which is to be enjoyed by the good. That holy 
place cleansed bears rich and abundant crops of blessing, it 
will rejoice the world tormented by a dearth of happiness. ^ 
Are not gain and honour and self renounced by me ? What is 
the good to-day of anger or falsehood ? That is what I ask. 
If there is hatred against those who destroy my things, how 
shall there be compassion ? For even the cruel man is not angry 
if another's good is destroyed. [363] It is true that the sugar- 
cane and musk are contemptible, which when improperly 
treated by their owner are uneatable. They do not think of 
requital thro' desire of the good of the owner, they do not incline 
him to give, they do not approach him for, enjoyment. 

Tib. ses khe ^dod. 

* yad=yadi. 
3 vSo Tib. 

* The god of medicine. 
^ So Tib. nor. 

The substance of a verse which has dropped out after 1 1 . 
' So Tib. 



REMEMBER THE TRUTH ABOUT SELF 319 

Following and approaching 1 then, the miraculous sons of the 
Conqueror, great remedies of all organs and diseased humours, 
address and instruct the angry evildoers, and without abandon- 
ing their essential sweetness, they make happy even the un- 
happy. There are five elements called earth, water, fire, "s^ind, 
voice ; so long as beings exist, they do good to all, and even 
by the wickedness of these there is no 2 cessation from the 
doing good ; thus I do no hurt to all these elements, even six.^ 
So long as the world shall remain poised in the air, so long shall 
I continue doing good to the world, progressing onwards 
towards enUghtenment. Myself my teacher, always instructing 
myself, hke a good pupil, without myself asking myself, with 
all my force. [364] Who would be unhappy by my unhappiness, 
fearful from my fear, or know my faults and evil propensities, 
as the self can do when it is the preceptor of self ? How could a 
pupil be equally indefatigable and unwandering as oneself, or a 
subject for pity, and always ready ? Bemused by trouble in this 
world, blind with perplexity, on a path full of pitfalls, stumbhng 
at every step, both another and myself are deplorable always.* 

" Men have the same failings as oneself ; therefore to search 
for errors is not proper ; nay, it is rather fit to admire virtues 
when we meet them. It is impossible for me alone to remove 
this great ocean of my faults ; for that I have need of others. 
Then what leisure have I for others' faults ? ^ 

" I accept respectfully the voice of those clever at instructing 
others, who assist with unsohcited instruction ; I am the pupil 
of all. I have to fight alone against many passions, my enemies ; 
then while I am engaged in battle with one, others strike me 
easily. Then he who tells me a danger, in the rear or in some 
other quarter, whether he hate me or love me, he is a friend that 
gives me life.^ 

1 Tib. rjes hbrans iier son ; read ^'^^i^ in both words, 

* Tib. mi Idog : the negation is necessary. 
' The sixth is vijndnadhdtii. 

* Read o^pqr^ for o^pfun^ in line 15, p. 363. 

* Read $ ^^: 

* Read ^ h. 



320 INCREASE OF HOLINESS 

[365] '' With the dark blue colour of a swarm of bees, 
wearing an ascetic's dress, carrying a chaplet of various sweet 
and blooming flowers, traversing a multitude of Buddha's 
fields in all directions at the same time, mighty, invincible, ^ 
taking away every obstacle, emitting the water of quenching 
for the fires of ghostly existence and hell, pursuing the good of 
beings who may be converted, standing in the abysses of trans- 
migration, wearing the ornament of strength for causing the 
opening of the world's eyes, wise, strong in body, causing 
people to feel confidence. With all my being, glory again and 
again to that concentrated salvation which has for name 
Manjusri, a great lake of joy for those tormented with different 
pains, a mighty cloud for satisfying the hells of thirst in the 
three worlds, a wishing-tree filling the ten regions with 
blooming flowers that the world desires, venerated by the 
lotus-eyes of the world, rejoiced by reaching their desires, 
praised by hundreds of Bodhisatvas their hair shivering with 
admiration. I revere Mafijusri with ever-increasing saluta- 
tions. Honour to thee, Mafijusri, sorrow's physician, giver of 
the feast of happiness, by whom in every way we five. 

[366] ''Thus, having written of the Hfe of the long line of 
Conquerors, most wonderful everywhere, good has been acquired 
by me ; let there be happiness without end for embodied 
creatures thereby until the sovereignty of the Sugata extends 
over the infinite boundaries of heaven." 

End of the Growth of Merit. 

Here endeth the Siksasamuccaya set forth in a number of 
chapters for the discipline of Bodhisatvas. 

1 That is, wf^y^, Wirfwo. 



PRINTED BY WILLIAU CI^OWES AND SONS, bIMIXED, LONDON AND BECCLES, BNGLANO. 



INDEX I 

Titles of Works quoted. 

Akshayamati-sutra, 12, 24, 36, 37, 115, 118 (on quietude of mind) ; 156, 163 
(on the state called joy) ; 185 (80 forms of hearing) ; 204, 219, 221 
(on contemplation) ; 248, 254 (on vigorous self-reliance in resolve) ; 
260 (similar topic) ; 261, 264, 283 (on faith and four other virtues), 

Arigulimalika [sutra], 131. 

Adhyasayasamcodana-sutra, 17, 100 (on the vow); 105-114 (avoidance of 
evil) ; 310 (on gifts). 

Anantamukhanirhara-dharani, 20. 

Anupurvasamudgata-parivarta, 2 79 . 

Apararajavavadaka-sutra, 9 (value of thought of enlightenment by itself). 

Avalokana-sutra, 92, 271 (on the merit of adorning stupas, etc.). 

Avalokitesvaravimoksha, 268 (application of merit). 

Akasagarbha-sutra, 11, 61-70 {locus classicus on sin and confession). 

Aryasatyaka-parivarta, 162. 

Ugrapariprccha or Ugradattap, 11,21 (on self-abnegation) ; 39, 83 (duty to 
a wife) ; 119 (on mindfulness) ; 130 (on the dole) ; 133 (on clothing) ; 
141, 144, 149 (Ugrad) ; 176 (the preparation of the mind ; indifference 
to worldly conditions) ; 187, 188, 190, 191 (life in the forest) ; 194, 
245, 248 (on purity in giving) ; 263, 282. 

Udayana-vatsaraja-pariprccha, 85 (description of fleshly passion). 

Upayakausalya-sutra), 70, 161, 163 (on sins through evil influence) ; 164, 165. 

Upali-pariprccha 161 (on confession) ; 165 (formulas for confession) ; 173 
(superiority of Mahay ana-system as to release from sin) ; 264. 

Karmavaranavisuddhi-sutra, 92 (on hindrances to hoUness) ; 168. 
Kamapavadaka-sutra, 81. 
Kasyapa-parivarta, 52, n. i. 

Kshitigarbha-sutra, 14, 72 (on sin and penance) ; 90, 102, 171 (on abstention 
from taking Ufe and theft). 

Gaganaganja-sutra, 36, 46 (on avoiding evil) ; 49 and 51 (on Mara) ; 115 (on 
iJie void) ; 126, 247 (on purity in giving) ; 271 (on purity in conduct). 

Gandavyuha, 2 (on untoward moments) ; 5 (on thought of enlightenment) ; 
8 (on supreme illummation) ; 37 (on the true friend) ; 38, 103, 122 (on 
mind) ; 148, 153, 176, 276 (sight of Buddha). 

Gocaraparisuddhi-sutra, 310. 

Caturdharmaka-sutra, 43, 158. 

Candrapradipa-sutra, 19, 20, 54, 102, 114, 120, 135, 155, 162, 172, 175, 178, 
184, 188, 225 (on void) ; 252, 265, 285, 312 (on the gift of the law) ; 

314 
Candrottara-darika-pariprccha, 83 (on passion). 

Cunda-dharani, 169. 

Jnanavati-parivarta [of Candra-pradipa, q.v.]^ 131. 
Jnanavaipulya-sutra, 187 (what writings are to be avoided). 

X* 



322 INDEX I 

Tathagatakosha-sutra (-garbha-s), i68 (on the great sins). 

Tathagataguhya-sutra, 8 (on thought of enhghtenment) ; 125 (on kindly 
speech) ; 157 (on purity of person) ; 225, 251 (ten ways of showing 
vigour) ; 283 (the four great virtues) ; 314 (expositions of the subject 
of K3,r. 27). 

Tathagatabimba-parivarta, 169 (merit of offering an image). 

Trisamayaraja, 136 (charms) ; 168, 264. 
Triskandhaka, 263. 

Dasadharraa-sutra, 5 (on faith) ; (dharmaka-s), 8 (on thought of enhghten- 
ment, its 4 occasions, its 2 kinds) ; 114. 

Dasabhumika(maka)-sutra, 11, 12, 125, 215,262 (on compassion towards all); 
265 (on the solemn aspirations). 

Divyavadana (tales from) : see Sangharakshita, Sukarika. 

Dharmasamgiti-sutra, 12, 115 (action only for others) ; 119 (on mindfulness 
and meditation) ; 121 (on mind) ; 123, 124, 126 (on care in speech) ; 
140, 144, 145 (on disinterested giving) ; 152, 175, 216 (on intent 
contemplation) ; 219, 241 (on void) ; 284 (on good resolution) ; 259, 
288 (on mindfulness of the " three gems "). 

Narayanapariprccha, 23 (on self-denial) ; 145 (motive for virtue) ; 184, 
Niyataniyatavataramudra-sutra, 6 (parable as to the thought of enlighten- 
ment) ; 89. J 
Nirvana [?-sutra ?], 131. 

Pitakas : see Bodhisatva-p** ; Vidyadhara-p'. 

Pitr-(Pita-)putrasamagama, 177, 226. 

Purvavadana, 11. 

Pushpakutadharani, 169 and 236-257 (on the dharmas and on fruit of action) ; 

236-240 (several extracts, as to the void). 
Prajnaparamita (i) " mahati," 252. 

(2) Ashtasahasrika, 40, 280. 

(3) Other recensions, 48 (on Mara) ; 120 (on conscious action) ; 280 

(care for universal salvation) ; 308, 310 (on showing forth the 
law) : see also Bhagavati. 
Pramudita, 11 (cf. supra Dasabhumaka). 
Pravrajyantaraya-sutra, 73. 
Prasantaviniscayapratiharya-sutra, 17 (on instruction) ; 87 and 89 (on help 

to the faithful) ; 89 (on honour to bodhisatvas) ; 145. 
Pratimoksha, 125. 

Brhat-sagaranagaraja-pariprccha, 276 (eight means to gain association with 

Buddha). 
Bodhisatvapitaka, 187, 278 (honour to shrines). 
Bodhisatva-pratimoksha, 12, 19, 21, 22 (on self-denial) ; 37, 39, 56, 125, 142 

(on liberality) ; 183. 
Brahmapariprccha, 125. 
Bhagavati, 183 (on resolutions for patience) ; 196, 202 (on meditation on the 

" impurities ") ; 226, 241. 
Bhadrakalpika-sutra, 9 (on thought of enlightenment). 
Bhadracaripra^idhanaraja, here called Bhadracaryagatha, 264, 265, 269. 
Bhikshuprakirnaka, 153. 
Bhaishajyaguruvaiduryaprabha-sutra, 14, 170 (on the virtue of sacred names 

and of fasting). 

Maiijusri-buddhakshetragunavyuhalamkara-sutra, 14 (on producing the 

thought of enlightenment) ; 15* (on taking vows) ; 54, 171. 
Manjusrivikridita-sutra, 148. 

Mahakaruna-[pundarika]-sutra, 95 (parable of fisherman) ; 276. 
Mahamegha, 180 [cf. 131]. 



INDEX I 323 

Mahavastu : see Avalokana-sutra. 
Marici (a charm), 142. 
Malasimhanada : see Srlmala. 

Maitreyavimoksha, 9 (on value of the thought of enlightenment without good 
conduct) ; 173 (purification from sin through bodhicitia). 

Ratnakaran^aka-sutra, 6, 313. 

Ratnakuta, 53, 54, 55, 144, 147, 190, 235 (on citta-smrti). 

Ratnacuda-sutra, 115 (sutra described as fully discussing void) ; 120, 217 (on 

intent contemplation of the body) ; 219 (on contemplation of feeling) ; 

220 (of thought) ; 222 (of the elements) ; 249 (on purity in action) ; 

284. 
Ratnamegha, 7 (on mystical exercises) ; 17, 36, 51, 52 (on avoidance of bad 

friends) ; 54 (avoidance of despair) ; 114, 121 (on mind) ; 124 (Karika 12) ; 

127, 132 (on food and medicine) ; 133, 134, 148, 149 (against greed and 

pride) ; 156, 164, 176, 202 (on impurity) ; 245 (on purity of enjoyment) ; 

'-5ij 259 (benevolence even to the thankless) ; 264, 265, 279, 307 

(votive offerings to be made for the salvation of all). 
Ratnarasi-sutra, 56, 127 and 129 (on almsgiving) ; 134, 135, 194 (on forest 

seclusion) ; 278 (honour to shrines). 
Ratnolkadharani, 3 (on faith) ; 152 (cultivation of the mind in 10 ways) ; 

291 (on the virtues of bodhisatvas). 
Rajavadaka-sutra, 10 {see also Apara-rajavadaka-s), 199 (on objects of fear 

to the recluse). 
Rashtrapala-sutra (-'*pariprccha), "1 55, 152, 190, 197, 285 (on remembering 
Rashtrapalokta-gatha, ' / the Buddha). 

Lankavatara-sutra, 130, 131-132 (on food) ; 135. 
Lalitavistara, 5, 222 (on the elements and void). 
Lokanathavyakarana, 224 (on void). 
Lokottaraparivarta, 151 (on Marakarma9i ; on pride). 

Vajracchedika, 167, 252 

Vairadhvaia narinamana also rallprl ( ^4 and 29 (on self-denial) ; 204 (on 

Va]radhva]L^utra!^^^^ J benevolence); 255 (on earnest effort) ; 

Vacanopasikavimoksha (in Gandavyuha), 38. 

Vidyadharapitaka, 140 (charm). 

Vinayaviniscaya : see Upalipariprccha. 

Vimalakirtinirdesa, 6, 144, 152, 242, 246 (on purity of enjoyment) ; 251, 290. 

Viradattapariprccha, 37, 217. 

Sahstambasutra, 209 (on causation). 

Sikshasamuccaya, 16. 

Surangamasutra, 9, 93 (on the thought of enlightenment not developed). 

Sraddhabaladhanavataramudra-sutra, 88, 89, 152, 277 (merit of seeing 

Buddha even in pictures), 
^ravakavinaya, 132, 164. 
Srimalasimhanadasutra, 44. 

Sangharakshitavadana [Divyavadana], 58. 

Saddharmapundarika, 48 (on avoidance of frivolity) ; 94, 311 (how to make a 

gift of the law). 
Saddharmasmrtyupasthana, 12, 74-81 (on the future punishment of the ten 

sins) ; 124. 
Saptamaithunasamyukta-sutra, 81 (avoidance of lust). 
Samadhiraja : see Candrapradipa. 

Sarvadharmavaipulyasamgraha-sutra, 96 (sin of opposing religion) ; 96. 
Sarvadharmapravrttinirdesa, 6, 93 (on hindrances to spiritual growth) ; loi 

(on solemn resolve). 
Sarvavajradharamantra, 140. 
" Sarvastivadins," 147 (conversation on roots of good). 



324 INDEX I 

Sagaranagaraja-p : see Brhat-sa. 

Sagaramati[pariprccha]-sutra, 12 (on the solemnity of the feast) ; 43 and 44 
(on study,' through preachers) ; 49 (on Mara) ; 125, 126, 143, 148, 
180 (patience, three-fold) ; 252 (on energy) ; 279, 312. 

Simhapariprccha, 5, 53. 

Suvarnaprabhasottama-sutra, 159 (confession of sin) ; 207 (on benevolence 
and mercy). 

Sukarikavadana [in Divyavadana], 172. 

Hastikakshya [siitra], 131. 



INDEX II 



Accumulations, three, 263 

Achinnadhara, a god, 229 

Action (Karma), 55 ; hindrance 

derived from, loi ; what stops 

its effects, 168 
Activities, useless, 113 
Activity, increase of, 252 
Aggregations, the, 222 
Ajatasatru, 251 ; the ape of, 217 
Akasagarbha, a Bodhisatva, 68, 71 
Akshobhya's vow, 15 ; (a Tathagata) 
Alms, how to be sought, 127 
Amitabha, a Tathagata, 171 
Ananda, 5, 49, 154, 162, 164, 170, 

247, 276, 310 
Anantaprabha, 9 
Anantayasas, story of King, 236 
Antidotes to sin, 204 
Arcishmant, 9 

Armour of Righteousness, 127 
Aruna (the sun), prayer to, 68 
Aspiration, intense, middle, and 

weak, 8 ; the solemn, 265 
Avalokitesvara, a Bodhisatva, 261 
Avici hell, 75, 85 
Avoidance of certain classes of men, 

48 

Backsliders, consorting with, 50 

Bad friends, temptation by, 50 ; his 
marks, 52 ; also 159, 164 

Benevolence threefold, 204 

Bhaishajyaguru, 318 

Bhaishajyaguruvaiduryaprabharaja, 
a Tathagata, 170, 171 

Bhaishajyaraja, a Buddha, 34, 115 

Bhujagadhipati, 276 

Births, conditions of various, 4 ; 
memory of former, 54 

Bodhisatva's discipline, 19 ; prac- 
tices, 124 ; quahties, 290 

Body, contemplation of, 218; sacri- 
fice of, for others, 24, 26 

Buddha, the sight of, 276 ; described 
and praised, 285, 288 ; his fields, 
7, 15 ; how to recognise his words, 

17 
Buddha-body, how developed, 226 
Buddhahood, causes of, 9 



Candrottara, a girl adept, 83 

Care of oneself, 126, 127 

Cattle-cart parable, 6 

Cemetery, living in a, 132 

Chain of Causation, 209 

Charms, directions for, 136 

Cleansing of thought, 243 

Clothes, 133 

Compassion, 115 

Conciliations, the, 96 

Conduct, ten causes of good, 14 

Confession, 159 ; formula of, 165 

Contemplation, intent, 196, 216 ; 
of the body, 216 ; of feehng, 219 ; 
of impurities, 202 ; of thought, 
220 ; of the elements of existence, 

221 

Continuities, Five, 20 

Death, 199 

Despondency, evils of, 19, 54 
Devotion, lack of, 55 
Dharmodgata, a Bodhisvata, 40, 41 
Discipline of the Bodhisatva, 19 ; 

of the Order, 57 
Dra vidian charms, 295 
Drdhavikrama, 9 
Druma, King of the fairies, 240 
Duspradarsa, 9 

Eating, proper method of, 127, 129 

Effort, 254 

Elements of existence, 223 ; con- 
templation of the, 222 

Emancipation, 5 

Enjoyment, purity of, 245 ; re- 
nunciation of, 29 ; use of, 142 

Evil, to avoid, 46, 100; ten paths 
of, 168 

Evil communications, 52 

Existence, five (or six) states of, 93 

Expiation, 171 

Faith, 3, 282 

Favourable conjunctures, 2 
Feehng, contemplation of, 219 
Fertihty in Resource, 161 
Field of a Buddha, 143 ; how 
produced, 152 



326 



INDEX II 



Fisherman, parable of, 95 

Flesh not to be eaten, 130 

Food miracle, 246 

Forest seclusion, praise of, 188 ; how 

to choose a place, 190 ; reasons, 

191 
Fortitude, 284 
Frivolity to be avoided, 48 

Gajraprameha, a god, 229 
Ghoshadatta, a Bodhisatva, 9 
Girl, the magical, 158 
Giving, advantage of, 21 ; effect of 

acceptable gifts, 31 ; purity in, 

247, 248 
Good friend, 2, 37 ; his value, 38 ; 

never to he given up, 43, 44, 62, 

72, 91 
Good man, what he is like, 103-5 
Greed of gain and honour, 107, 148 
Guhyakadhipati, 314 
Guna, 5 

Hearing the word, eighty ways of, 

185 
Heaven, the fifth, 237 
Hell, 74-81 
Hindrances to spiritual growth, 92, 

143 
Hints to be avoided, 130, 246 
Husband and wife, 83 
Hypocrites, 98 

I, NOTION of, 316 

Inceptor Bodhisatva, his temptations, 

62 
Increase of vigour, 251 ; of activit5% 

252 
Indifference, how caused, 49 
Instruction ill-timed, 55 
Intoxication to be shunned, 1x9 
isadhara, a god, 229 

Jayamati, a Bodhisatva, 6 
Jinaputra, 150, 152 
Judge not, 94, 101-3 
Jyotis, a student, 163 

Kdsi, King of, who gave his body to 

save a dove, 99 
Kasyapa, 53, 56, 58, 59, 94, 129, 130, 

134, 135, 144, 168, 190 

Latter years, five hundred, when 
the Good Law is being destroyed, 
106 

Law, love and reverence due to, 39, 
40 ; to be accepted, 44 ; to be 
held, 46 ; not to be divided, 97 ; 
reviling it a root-sin, 61 

Law-Body of Buddha, 157, 158 

Liberality, 143 



Lokayatas, a sect, 52 
Lusts, 198 ; denounced, 81 ; de- 
scribed, 85 

Mahanaman, 73 

Maitreya, 99, loi, 103-116, 158, 

253. 310 
Makkotaka hill, 75 
Man, how composed, 226 ; rebirth, 

234 

Manjusri, 6, 7, 17, 18, 19, 87, 88, 89, 
92, 96, 98, 144, 168, 242, 269, 277, 
313. 320 

Mara thwarts a good effort, 40, 42 ; 
how to thwart him, 44 ; specially 
attacks the novice, 49 ; and the 
man on the eve of attainment, 49 ; 
causes dissension, 49 ; his hooks, 
50 ; how to avoid him, 52 ; 
powerless when passion has ceased, 
184 ; his deeds, 150, 178, 312 ; 
his demons, 177, 180 ; various 
Maras, 192 ; self-consciousness his 
province, 232 ; other references, 
106, 107, 120, 226, 256, 259, 262, 
280, 284, 291, 306, 310, 317 

Mativikrama, a Bodhisatva, 121 

Mayadevi, 122 

Medicines, 127 

Meditation and study, 112 ; de- 
scribed, 304 

Megha the Dravidian, 96 

Merit : comparison of merits, 18 ; 
renunciation of, 29, 146 ; how 
destroyed, 61 ; hindrance to roots 
of merit, 87 ; of various acts 
compared, 89-91, 112, 276; meri- 
torious acts, 94 ; protection of, 
145, 156; increase of, 253, 265, 
276, 306 ; by praise, 270 ; three 
accumulations, 263 ; gained by 
sight of Buddha, 277 ; by doing 
good to all creatures, 307 ; by 
rejoicing, 281 ; ray of merit, 297 ; 
merit and rebirth, 315 ; applica- 
tion of merit gained to effect a 
purpose, 28, 32, 167, 205, 268, 281 

Mind, the City of the, 122 ; cultiva- 
tion of the mind in ten ways, 152 

Mindfulness to avoid fruitless waste, 
117 

Nakshatraraja, a Tathagata, 9 
Nirarambha, a Bodhisatva, 241 

CEcuMENiCAL order, 57 
Offence to be avoided, 125 
Offerings of the Faithful, when 

permitted, 135 
Old age, 199 
Order, local and oecumenical, 57 ; 

discipline and finance, 58 



INDEX II 



327 



Ownership, idea of, to be renounced, 
21. 57 

Paduma Hell, 80 
Palas, torture of the five, 18 
Parables : cattle-cart, 6 ; fisher- 
man, 95 ; lamp, 173 ; quicksilver, 

173 

Patience, 175 

Peace, inward, 118 

Perfections, the (of Patience, Strength, 
and Wisdom), 182 ; (contempla- 
tion), 196 ; (wisdom), 202 

Posing, 245 

Pot, miraculous, 5 

Potentialities, the, 209 

Pramudita stage, 1 1 

Prayer for all beings, 33 

Preach, how to, 311 

Preacher, study through the, 43, 44 

Pretas, offerings to, 124 

Princes, degraded, 66 

Priyamkara, a Bodhisatva, 164 ; a 
King, 336 

Priyadarsana, a Bodhisatva, 123 

Promises to benefit, 13 

Punishments that fit the crime, 13, 
59, 75-81, 87 

Purification, 157 

Purity of enjoyment, 245; of 
religious action, 247. 

Purpose, how to keep steadfast, 54 

Raha, 255 

Ratnanetri, a deity, 122 

Raurava hell, 130 

Rays emitted by the Bodhisatva^ 

296 
Rebirth, 315 
Rejoicing, merit of, 281 
Relics of the Buddhas, 95, 147 
Religious actions, purity of, 247 
Remembrance, 284 
Renunciation, 23, 25, 144 ; of past 

or future good, 36 
Resolution towards enlightenment, 9 
Respect, signs of, 125 
Righteousness, how gained, 186 
Ritual charms and practices, 69 
Root Sins, Five, 11, 61 ; Eight, 62 
Roots of good, 32 
Rules, when to be observed, 12 
Rutavati, a deity, 305 

Sacrifice, human, 40 

Sacrificial feast offered by a King, 13 

Sadaprarudita, a Bodhisatva, offers 

his body for sale, 40 
Sagaramati, 13, 252, 312 ^ 

Sahampati Brahma, 238 
^akra (Indra), 40, 280 
Samantasatvaparitranyojas, 148 



Santamati, 158, 225 

Saradhvaja, 39 

^aradvatiputra, 156, 262 

Sariputra, 12, 15, 21, 23, 37, 142, 

143, 165, 167, 226, 252 
Sarthavatra, a Bodhisatva, 144 
Sarvadharmanimadacchatramandala- 

nirghosha, a King, 153 
Scriptures to be studied, 43 ; to be 

accepted, 44 
Self, preservation of, how attained, 

37 

Self and other, notions of, 192 

Self-aggrandisement, 64 ; advertise- 
ment, 65 

Self-reproach, 159 

Senses, the, 227 

Servant and the jar of oil, 314 

Service, the Brother's, his duties and 
faults, 56, 58 

Simha, son of Ajatasatru, 5 

Simhakridita, 169 

Sin, how overcome, 158 ; in high 
places, 69 ; marks of, 16 ; sins 
compared, 87-88; permitted for a 
good end, 164 

Sin and confession, 61-73 

Sins that bring immediate retribu- 
tion, 164 ; unpardonable, 165 ; 
antidote for, 168 ; expiation, 171 

Sloth, no 

Sramana-varna-pratirupaka hell, 134 

Sridakshinottara in love with a 
Bodhisatva, 164 

Srisambhava, 37 

Stages, the, 11 

Sthulabinduka, a god, 229 

Stupa, offerings to, 57, 271, 277 ; 
thefts from, 61 ; worship of, 94, 

95 
Strength, increase of, 253 ; perfection 

of, 184 
Subhuti, 145, 167, 196, 202, 281 
Sudhama, 39, 122 ; a novice, 96 ; 

teacher of Maitraya, 103 
Sunwise turns, 39 
Svabhra precipice, 75 

Talk, improper, 108 
Teacher, reverence due to, 40 
Text emended or criticised : see foot- 
notes passim 
Thirty-three, the, 271 
Thought, contemplation of, 220 
Thought of enlightenment, 4, 5 ; 
how it arises, 6 ; in whom it is, 8 ; 
two stages, 9 ; without good 
conduct, 9 ; its value, 11, 137 ; 
produced by the sight of Buddha, 
II ; the method to produce it, 
14 ; uninterrupted, 45 ; the seed 
of good, 51 ; how obscured, how 



328 



INDEX II 



encouraged, 53, 54, 93 ; cleanses 
sin, 173 ; persecuted, 181 ; not to 
be abandoned, 248 ; other refer- 
ences, 247, 313 

Three Gems, the, 288 

Torture, 18, 177 

Transcendent virtues, six, 165 

Truth, 13 

Untoward conjunctures, eight, 2, 5 
Upah, a Bodihsatva, 148, 161, 173 
Upaya, 41 
Uttara, a sage, 184 

Vajrapani, 251 
Vehicles, the, 63, 64 
Vidyutpadipa, 9 
Vigilance, 314 
Vimolatejas, 184 



Void, doctrine of the, 6, 7, 115, 197, 

228 
Vow of discipline, in whose presence 

to be taken, 12 
Vow taken with a view to the thought 

of enlightenment, 15 

Washing of robes, 154 

Wisdom, 284 

Works, devotion to, iii 

Worldhng may be a Bodhisatva, 6 

Worlds, how they come into being, 

228 
Women the root of ruin, 77, 86 
Writings to be avoided, 187 



Yama, 77, 93, 107, 113, 

181, 200, 207, 257, 263 
Yasas, 9 



129, 166, 



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